Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 2606-002
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julianne Wazny on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2606-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. King in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 453 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Jules Wazny Dr. King Test on 1/5/16 Social Psychology Study Guide Exam 1: Book Professor King’s ways of studying: 1. Read summary of chapter 1, 2, and 3 2. Make flashcards of bold words (https://quizlet.com/_1yo0hh) 3. Study the flash cards for 15-30 mins 4. Read Chapters Here is a link to the lecture terms: https://quizlet.com/_1ycrty * Be sure to look at this later will be updating it a bit Chapter 1 Social Psychology: the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by other people Task of scientific social psychology are divided into two general categories: description and explanation Theories: scientific explanation that connects and organizes existing observations and suggests fruitful paths for future research Quick Quiz #1 (page 6) 1. Social psychology is the scientific study of: b. How people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people 2. Which of the following best describes scientific theories? d. Theories are scientific explanations that connect and organize existing observations 3. To say that social psychology is the ultimate bridge discipline means that the field: d. Connects multiple perspectives on social behavior, from biology, anthropology, economics, and other disciplines Four major theoretical perspectives: o Sociocultural perspective: the view that a person’s prejudices, preferences, and political persuasions are affected by factors that work at the level of the group, factors such as nationality, social class, and current historical trends o Evolutionary perspective: adopting views that human social behaviors are rooted in physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce o Social learning perspective: social behavior as driven by each individual’s past learning experiences with reward and punishment o Social cognitive perspective: the processes involved in people’s choice of which social events to pay attention to, which interpretations to make of these events, and how tot store these experiences in memory Quick quiz #2 (page13) 1. A (n) _______ theorist would be relatively more interested in similarities between people in different societies, whereas a _______ theorist would likely focus more on difference across societies. c. Evolutionary, sociocultural 2. Which of the following definitions is correct? e. All of the above Basic principles of Social Behavior: o Social behavior is goal oriented. People interact with one another to achieve some goal or satisfy some inner motivation o Social behavior represents a continual interaction between the person and the situation Goal oriented: To establish social ties, To understand ourselves and others, To gain and maintain status, To defend ourselves and those we value, To attract and retain mates Quick Quiz #3 (page 17) 1. According to the text, what is the connection between everyday goals (such as making an impression on the boss or getting a date) and fundamental motives (such as gaining status or establishing social ties)? d. Fundamental goals link our everyday goals to their ultimate functions 2. Which example demonstrates a person-situation interaction? c. Men are more likely to help in emergencies that require heroic action, where as women are more likely to help when emotional support is needed How Psychologists Study Social Behavior Hypotheses Descriptive method Experimental method Naturalistic observation: Recording everyday behaviors as they unfold in their natural settings Observer bias: Error introduced into measurement when an observer overemphasizes behaviors he or she expects to find and fails to notice behaviors he or she does not expect Case study Generalizability Archival method Survey method: a technique in which the researcher asks people to report on their beliefs, feelings, or behaviors Social desirability bias: the tendency for people to say what they believe is appropriate or acceptable Representative sample: a group of respondents having characteristics that match those of the larger population the researcher wants to describe Psychological test Reliability Validity Correlation Correlation Coefficient Experiment Independent variable Dependent variable Random Assignment Internal Validity External Validity Demand Characteristics Field experimentation Quick Quiz #4 (page 29) 1. Which of the following are types of experimental methods? d. Field experiment 2. Which of these methods undercover correlations but do not establish causes? e. All of the above 3. Which of these factors is limitation of an experiment? b. Low external validity 4. Which of the following are examples of correlation without necessary causation? d. All of the above 5. Which of the following is not an ethical risk in social psychological research? c. Debriefing Quick Quiz #5 (page 32) 1. Which of the following is true? d. Social psychologists are increasingly using the tools of neuroscience to study the links between social behaviors and changes happening inside the brain and body 2. The study of virtuous behaviors and optimal group performance directly links social psychology with: d. Positive psychology Chapter 2 The Person Motivation is what drives us Knowledge is the second key component o Exemplar: knowledge of a specific episode, event, or individual o Schema: a mental representation capturing the general characteristic of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals o Priming: the process of activating knowledge or goals, of making them ready for use o Chronically accessible: the state of being easily activated, or primed, for use Assessing feelings: o Self-report measures o Physiological measures People from many different societies express and experience emotions in surprisingly similar ways If there is a strong genetic component to certain feelings, they should be experienced and expressed even in individuals who haven’t had the opportunity to learn how and when to experience and express them Culture and learning play a huge role in feelings The pen holding experiment (McCanne & Anderson 1987) o Hypothesis: students holding the pen with their teeth should rate the cartoon the funniest, whereas students holding the pen with their lips should find the cartoon less funny o The contraction and relaxation of certain facial muscles can influence the emotions people experience Counterfactual thinking: the process of imaging alternative, “might have been” versions of actual events Self-concept: a mental representation capturing our views and beliefs about ourselves Self-esteem: our attitude toward ourselves Social comparison: the process through which people come to know themselves by comparing their abilities, attitudes, and beliefs with those of others Reflected appraisal process: the process through which people come to know themselves by observing or imaging how other view them Self-perception process: the process though which people observe their own behavior to infer internal characteristics such as traits, abilities, and attitudes Self-regulation: the process through which people select, monitor, and adjust their strategies in an attempt to reach their goals Self-presentation: the process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us Quick quiz #1 (page 50) 1. Knowledge of a specific episode, event, or individual is a (n) _______, whereas a (n) ______ is knowledge of the general characteristics of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals. c. Exemplar, schema 2. _______ are long lasting feelings that are diffuse and not directed toward particular targets; ___________ are relatively intense feelings that involve physiological arousal and complex cognitions; favorable or unfavorable evaluations of particular people, objects, events, or ideas are known as _____. b. Moods, emotions, attitudes 3. Which of the following are sources of self-knowledge? d. All of the above 4. Which of the following is an example of self-regulation? c. Sticking to your diet by not ordering dessert at a restaurant Andrew Baum and Glenn Davis o Found that merely changing the way a dorm floor was arranged they could increase the number of friendships among the students that lived there Affordance: an opportunity or threat provided by a situation Descriptive norm: A norm that defines what is commonly done in a situation Pluralistic ignorance: the phenomenon in which people in a group misperceive the belief of others because everyone acts inconsistently with their beliefs Rules: Injunctive norms and Scripted situations o Injunctive norm: a norm that describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation o Scripted situation: a situation in which certain events are expected to occur in a particular sequence Culture o Individualistic culture: a culture that socializes its members to think of themselves as individuals and to give priority to their personal goals o Collectivistic culture: a culture that socializes its members to think of themselves in terms of their relationships and as members of the larger social group, and to prioritize the concerns of their relationship partners and groups before them Quick Quiz #2 (page 60) 1. People can act as situations in which of the following ways: d. All of the above 2. A (n) _______ norm describes what is commonly done in a situation, whereas a (n) ______ norm describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation. b. Descriptive, Injunctive 3. Which of the following represents a “strong” situation? a. A funeral 4. _____ culture socialize members to view themselves as individuals and prioritize personal goals, whereas _____ culture socialize members to view themselves as members of the larger social group and prioritize the group’s concern. c. Individualistic, collectivistic Bruce Bartholow, Marc Sestir, Edward Davis o Students with relatively little experience playing violent video games blasted their opponents more aggressively after playing a violent game than after playing a nonviolent video game. In contrast, participants with greater experience playing violent video games aggressively blasted their opponents regardless Person- situation fit: the extent to which a person and a situation are compatible Socialization: the process whereby a culture teaches its members about its beliefs, customs, habits, and language Quick Quiz #3 (page 66) 1. Which of these is an example of a situation choosing person? b. A law school applicant gets rejected from his first-choice college 2. Which of these is an example of how different situations prime different parts of the person? d. All of the above 3. Which of these is an example of a situation changing the person? a. A person who grew up in New York City moves to a rural area and learns to be strongly connected to a small-town community Chapter 3 Quick Quiz #1 1. Which of the following best describes judgment (one of the main social-cognitive processes)? d. The process of using information to form impressions or make decision 2. Which of the following best describes what it means for people to act as “motivated tacticians”? c. People’s flexibility adopt different styles of thought to achieve different goals Quick Quiz #2 (page 83) 1. Which of the following are consequences of holding expectations? d. All of the above 2. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the correspondence bias? b. It is similar to what is called the fundamental attribution error 3. Which of the following best defines the representativeness heuristic? b. A mental shortcut used to classify something belonging to a certain category based on how similar it is to a typical case from that category 4. Which of the following examples highlight features of the person that increase the tendency to use cognitive simplication? c. A manger who typically feels most energized at night had to conduct an interview early in the morning; consequently, he didn’t feel awake enough to ask the candidate deep questions that would have helped make the best hiring decision Quick Quiz #3 (page 92) 1. Which of the following is not a reason that people desire positive self-regard? a. High positive self-regard, to the point of narcissism, was once evolutionarily adaptive; thus, people in modern societies retained this desire 2. Which of these are strategies people use to enhance and protect their self-image? b. Downward social comparison 3. Which of the following is NOT true regarding people with high esteem? b. They are less likely to use downward social comparison strategies 4. People in collectivist cultures: d. Enhance on group-valued traits such as cooperation rather than traits such as self-reliance Quick Quiz #4 (page 99) 1. Which of the following strategies severe the goal of accurate understanding? d. All of the above 2. The _______ principle states that if an event occurs despite the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to the event’s possible causes, whereas the ______ principle states that as the number of possible causes increases, we become less sure that any particular cause is the true one. c. Augmenting, Discounting 3. According to Kelley’s covariation model, people are more likely to make a person attribution when which of the following criteria are met? d. Distinctiveness is high 4. Which factor increases the desire to make accurate judgments? e. Both b and c 5. People require ______ to move beyond their tendency to simplify. a. Attentional resources Lecture free bees: Greatest source of suffering according to Freud: Other people Psychology is the study of college sophomores Essay: deception, display rules MC 1: D 2: B, because the broncos made the super bowl
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