CBIO exam 1 study guide
CBIO exam 1 study guide CBIO2210
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Weidner on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CBIO2210 at University of Georgia taught by Rob Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Anatomy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
CBIO2210 Test 1 Study Guide Sections covered by test: Physiology Prep-book sections: 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1 Blood: Composition, Erythrocytes-book sections: 18.1 - 18.3 Blood: Leukocytes, Platelets-book section: 18.4 Blood: Coagulation -book section: 18.5 Physiology Prep 1. Many aspects of the human body that we monitor to determine someone’s health have an exact set point that it needs to be at constantly. (True/False) a. False. Most aspects such as blood pH or temperature have “healthy ranges” that fluctuate depending on the environment 2. What is the point of homeostasis? a. to keep body within ranges that are healthy to keep the organism alive 3. Definition of homeostasis: maintaining relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous external changes 4. Homeostasis depends on the body’s ability to do what? (3 steps) a. Detect change, determine if the change is acceptable, and activate some mechanism to reverse the change if it is not acceptable 5. Homeostasis requires monitoring and regulation continuously. What are the body’s two major regulatory systems? a. Nervous and endocrine systems 6. What are the three Homeostatic Control Mechanisms and what are their functions? a. Receptor: responds to an environmental change and alerts control center b. Control Center: determines if the detected change is ok c. Effector: the response mechanism, makes change or “feedback” 7. What is the purpose of feedback? a. Aids in controlling homeostasis and keeping the body at stable ranges 8. Name the two types of feedback and how they differ. (give example of each) a. Positive feedback: response enhances the stimulus and it needs outside control to stop. (less common) 1 i. Example: only found in 3 cases: oxytocin during labor, blood clotting, and protein digestion b. Negative feedback: the mechanism causes a response that reduces (or negates) the original stimulus (most mechanisms use this) i. Self-controlling mechanisms (turn themselves off) ii. Example: blood pressure, if it gets too high body makes heart beat less to return to proper range 9. What is a homeostatic imbalance? What does it cause? a. A disturbance in any homeostatic mechanism b. Results in risk of disease, incidence of injury, aging and death Basic Chemistry Review 10. What are the 3 parts of an atom? a. Electrons (negative), protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral) 11. What are the two kinds of bonds? a. Ionic and covalent 12. What occurs in ionic bonding? Is it a strong or weak bond? a. There is an exchange in electrons which results in ions. b. Weak 13. What occurs in covalent bonding? Is it strong or weak? a. The atoms share electrons creating molecules b. Strong 14. What are the two kinds of covalent bond? What makes them different? a. Nonpolar-roughly equal sharing of the electrons (Ex: carbon bonded to carbon) b. Polar-unequal sharing of the electrons (Ex: oxygen bonded to hydrogen: oxygen has more protons so pull for electrons is stronger) 15. When does a hydrogen bond occur? Is it a strong or weak bond? a. Results from the polar covalent bonds between H and O or N b. It is strong but slightly weaker than covalent 16. What are electrolytes? a. Ions dissolved in a solvent (typically water in the body) 2 17. Name the “big 6” ions a. Na+, K+, Ca^2+, Mg^2+, Cl-, PO4^2- 18. What are the two components of a solution? Describe them. a. Solute : whatever is dissolved in a solvent b. Solvent: whatever there is most of (dissolves solute) i. Example: oxygen is a solute in nitrogen which is the solvent of the atmosphere 19. What are some of the characteristics of an enzyme? a. Catalysts that are all protein: b. Can be denatured by extremes in temp or PH c. Reduce activation energy of a reaction d. Do not add energy e. Are not used up by the reaction’ 20. What is the process through which ATP energizes a reaction called? a. Phosphorylation 21. Gradients flow from low concentration to high concentration. (T/F) a. False, they flow from high to low 22. What does tonicity measure? a. The solute “strength” of two solutions 23. What is the difference between a hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic solution? a. Hypertonic (stronger concentration than other area) b. Hypotonic (weaker concentration than other area) c. Isotonic (equal concentration of solute) 24. What is the diffusion of water called? a. Osmosis Cardiovascular System: Blood (Chapter 18) 25. Name 3 of the functions of blood. a. The medium through which materials are transported to and from cells b. Helps to stabilize pH and body temp c. Serves multiple immune functions 3 d. It is one of two extracellular fluid systems (lymphatic system is other) 26. Know these properties of blood!! o Volume-depends on body weight 4-5 L for females 5-6 L for males 80-85 mL/kg in general Different for men and women mostly because of size Higher for males because they have greater mileage of blood vessel o Temperature 38 degrees C (100.4 F) o pH 7.35-7.45 o Salinity 0.9% NaCl o Normal Hematocrit values 37%-48% for females 45%-52% for males Higher for males but we don’t know why o RBC counts (red blood cells) Female: 4.2-5.4 Million/microliter Male: 4.6-6.2 million/microliter o Platelet count 130,000-360,000 per microliter o WBC count (white blood cells) 5,000-10,000 per microliter 27. What is blood? a. A fluid connective tissue 28. What makes up the composition of blood? a. Plasma and formed elements which include: i. Erythrocytes (RBCs) (not true cells) ii. Leukocytes (WBCs) 4 iii. Thrombocytes (platelets) 29. What does it mean when you say blood is a suspension? a. it will settle out if you let it sit 30. What is the white layer of blood called and what is it composed of? a. “buffy coat” b. It is made up of platelets and leukocytes 31. What is Hematocrit and how is it found? a. The % of whole blood that is erythrocytes b. Found by centrifuging blood 32. What is plasma composed of? o 92% water o Other 8% includes Proteins (mostly produced by liver) 60% albumin (primary contributor to colloid osmotic pressure; contributes to thickness or osmolarity of blood) 36% globulins (transport proteins, antibodies) 4% fibrinogen Electrolytes (mostly Na^+, contributes to osmolarity) Metabolic wastes (lactic acid, urea, creatinine) Nutrients( glucose, amino acids) Respiratory gases (CO2 and O2) Hormones Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) 33. What shape do RBCs have and why? a. Biconcave shape (as shown by picture) i. gives them high surface area to volume ratio, ii. can enhance diffusion of gases 34. Erythrocytes have a nucleus (T/F) 5 a. False, they are anucleate in order to make room for contents (water and hemoglobin) (this makes it hard for them to be replaced because they have no codes for new proteins) 35. Erythrocytes have few organelles (T/F) a. True 36. Do Erythrocytes have mitochondria, why or why not? a. No, Mitochondria use oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration so it would use the oxygen it was trying to transport 37. What is spectrin? a. protein that provides flexibility but helps maintain shape (found mostly in blood cells) 38. Why are the structural features of erythrocytes so important? a. They give them stability and flexibility that allow RBCs to be the single most important contributor to viscosity 39. What is hemoglobin (Hb)? a. A protein in blood that transports O2 40. What is Hb made up of? a. 4 polypeptide units made up of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains i. Within each subunit there is a heme group that contains iron 41. What color is blood? Why? a. Always red, just the veins are blue b. It absorbs all wavelengths except red, so the red color reflects and that color appears 42. What is the difference between oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and carbaminohemoglobin? a. Oxyhemoglobin is when hemoglobin is bound to oxygen (it is brighter red) b. Deoxyhemoglobin is when no O2 bound to hemoglobin (it is darker red ) c. Carbaminohemoglobin is when hemoglobin is bound to CO2 (20% of CO2 in blood) i. CO binds irreversibly with iron in Hb 43. What is hematopoiesis? a. It’s the formation of formed elements in red bone marrow of axial skeleton and proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur (in spongy bone and diploë) (becomes anemic if this is too low) 44. Where are red blood cells produced? a. In the bone marrow 45. What is erythropoiesis? a. Formation of RBCs from stem cells in marrow 46. What is the life span of an erythrocyte? a. 100-120 days 47. What happens at the end of the lifespan of RBCs? 6 a. Becomes fragile, Hb degenerates, spectrin disintegrates (loses flexibility) i. These proteins can’t be repaired or replaced in adult RBCs because they have no nucleus to code for new proteins ii. Get trapped or break because they are brittle and cannot bend around corners iii. May be swallowed by a macrophage(often in spleen) which splits it into water and hemoglobin 48. What is the protein part of hemoglobin called? a. Globin 49. What is the “non-protein” component of hemoglobin? a. Heme 50. *Look at the process of blood image* Regulation of Erythropoiesis 51. What happens when you have two few RBCs? a. A disorder called anemia b. Symptoms: fatigue, headache, shaky 52. 3 types of anemia: a. Insufficient RBC count (usually more common) i. Hemorrhagic (acute or chronic) 1. Acute: Have gone through a lot of bleeding 2. Chronic: usually happens after surgery(slow or hidden bleed) ii. Hemolytic 1. Due to RBC rupturing 2. Side effect of bacterial infections (like strep) iii. Aplastic 1. No new cells being formed because bone marrow not going through mitosis fast enough to keep up with demand 2. Usually a result of us giving chemo b. Low Hb content of RBCs (two most common) i. Fe-deficiency(most common) 1. Caused by excess iron loss or not enough produced 2. More common in females and during pregnancy and menstruation ii. Pernicious (intrinsic factor) 1. Common in elderly due to B12 deficiency 2. As we age our stomach cells produce intrinsic factor which helps absorb iron from food into blood along with B12 c. Abnormal Hb i. Thalassemia 1. Mostly in Italian and Greek people ii. Sickle-cell anemia 1. Blood cells change shape and they get stuck together 2. Cells lose their flexibility 7 3. Usually caused during a low oxygen incident (could be exercise) 4. Common in Sub Sahara areas 53. What is it called when you have too many RBCs? a. Polycythemia 54. Name and describe the 2 types of polycythemia a. Polycythemia vera (true kind): i. Caused by bone marrow tumor ii. Can cause a little jaundice b. Secondary polycythemia (temporary)(secondary means “as a result of something else”) Caused by: i. Low atmospheric O2 or low atmospheric pressures (high altitudes) 1. Being in Colorado for a few weeks will increase RBC count and then if return to normal atmosphere have natural polycythemia but it goes away ii. Abnormal increase in EPO iii. blood doping 1. athletes take own blood and put it in blood bank and then day before the race they run it back through their body 55. Why is it bad if you have too many erythrocytes? a. They contribute to the viscosity/thickness of the blood, too many can mean blood gets too thick and the heart has to work much harder to circulate the blood 56. What are the dietary requirements for erythropoiesis? a. Amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates (required for all cells) b. Iron (where can it be found) i. 65% of iron in Hb (also in liver, spleen and bone marrow) ii. In cells the iron is bound to ferritin and/or hemosiderin iii. In plasma bound to transferrin iv. Average daily Fe losses: (don’t need to memorize numbers, just know how little you lose because it is recycled so much by the body) 1. 1.7 mg for females 2. 0.9 mg for males c. B12 and folic acid- needed for DNA synthesis, cell division, and iron absorption (by the small intestine) 8
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