Biology II Study Guide Test 1
Biology II Study Guide Test 1 BIO 1144
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 249 views.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Test 1 Study Guide Thomas Holder Taxonomy and Systematics Ch. 26 Study of classifying and grouping organisms Classified by hierarchical group levels, Taxon ➢ Cornelius Linnaeus, proposed the Binomial System of Nomenclature Ex. Homo Sapiens = “Wise Humans” +5 Kingdom Concept Developed + Prokaryotic Organism +Eukaryotic Organism Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia +Taxon Hierarchy → Grey Wolf Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Canidae Geuanis (noun) Wolf Spcupus (adjective) Grey +Systematics Study of biodiversity in evolution relationships +Phylogenetic Trees The closer a branch or arm is the higher % of genetic similarity Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Diversity Ch.27 +Kingdom Monera 2 Domains → A rchaea and Bacteria ➔ Prokaryotic Cells, thought to be ancestors to Eukaryotes ❖ Archaea Contained “almost” nucleus, organelles similar to cytoplasma Specialized Membranes Harsh extreme environments ★ Bacteria Proteobacteria “true bacteria” Cyanobacteria “blue green” ● ALL Monera is difficult to determine in evolutionary relationships +Kingdom Protista Ch.28 Earliest Eukaryotes Wet Environment +DNA wise “Catch All Kingdom” ❏ Algae (Plantlike) Autotrophs via photosynthesis+Heterotrophs Unicellular+Multicellular ➢ Protozoans (AnimalLike) Heterotrophic Unicellular+Multicellular ❏ Fungal Like Protists (FungiLike) Saprotrophic = absorb feeding Multicellular Kingdom Fungi Ch. 31 Found in soil, or other material Reproductive Spores located on Mushroom head Recyclers, Decomposers +Types of Feeding Heterotrophic/Parasitic/Saprotrophic Body of organism is called Mycelium, composed of mass of filaments calledHyphae Rhizomorphs : filaments for water transport Cell wall composed of hitin Kingdom Plantae Ch. 29+30 Multicellular + Eukaryotic+Autotrophic Developed Roots to find water +Composition Starch Food storage compounds (glucose) Cellulose: internal support of cell (carbohydrates) ★ 10 major groups Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) Phylum Bryophyta (mosses) (first 3 groups most genetically related) ➔ Lumped into “Bryophytes” (mosses + allies) Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes) Phylum Pteridophyta (fern+allies) ➔ Lumped into “Pteridophytes” (ferns + relatives) Phylum cycadophyta (cycads) Phylum ginkgophyta (ginkgo) Phylum gnetophyta (gnetophytes) Phylum coniferophyta (cone bearing trees) ➔ Gymnosperms “naked seeds” Phylum anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants) ➔ Angiosperms “enclosed seeds” ❏ Bryophytes Reproduce via spores Nonvascular Require water for reproduction ❏ Pteridophytes Reproduce via spores +Contain Vascular tissue: Xylem conduct water plus minerals Phloem conduct food “TRUE” roots, stems, leaves Require water for reproduction ❏ Gymnosperms Vascular tissues “Naked seeds” Does not require water for reproduction + Advanced character within seed: Embryo Stored food Protective covering (integument) ❏ Angiosperms Vascular tissue + Enclosed seeds within fruit/vessel: Embryo Stored food 2 protective covering (integuments) Only group to produce flowers Does not require water for reproduction +Kingdom Animalia Majority insects One single ancestors: Flagellated Protists Share more similarity within animal genomes than other kingdoms +35 Animal Phylum + Characteristics: Multicellular Lack cell wall Sexual reproduction mobile small sperm+larger egg +Hox genes: Nervous tissues Cell junctions Protein binding cells +Classification Of Body Plans 1. Body Symmetry 2. Number to Tissue Layers 3. Presence/Absence of a “True” Body Cavity 4. Patterns of Embryonic Development 1. Body Symmetry Relative proportions of the Body hylum Porifera (sponges) lack symmetry Radial Symmetry: one plane passing through the central axis produce same image Bilateral Symmetry distinct head and tail end 2.Tissue Layers Number of germ/tissue layers present Metazoa +Eumetazoa +Parazoa (1 or more tissue types/organs) ( hylum Porifera) 2 Types of of tissue layers: No organs or tissues ❖ Radial Symmetric Animals Sponges + Diploblastic (2 layers) Endoderm and Ectoderm ❖ Bilateral Symmetric Animals + Triploblastic (3 layers) Endoderm/Ectoderm/Mesoderm(middle) 3 Body cavity Bilateral ANIMALS ONLY Non existent inPhylum Porifera ❏ Coelom : fluid filled body cavity in animals + Advanced animals have a “true coelom”body cavity completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue a. Acoelomate; “without coelom” No cavity Not surrounded by mesoderm tissue ex. Flatworms ( hylum platyhelminthes) ★ True cavity MUST be completely lined with mesoderm b Pseudocoelomate; “false coelom” Body cavity present Not completely lined with mesoderm ex. Roundworm ( phylum nematoda ) cEucoelomate , “true coelom” Advanced Metazoa Mesoderm derived tissue for suspension of organs ex. Earthworm (phylum annelida) 4.Embryonic Development Fertilized egg>Zygote>Cleavage>Blastula >Gastrula>Embryo ❏ 2 Mechanisms Protostomes Deuterostomes Mouth develops from 1st blastopore Anus develops from 1st blastopore Phylum: Phylum: Mollusca Echinodermata Annelida Chordata Arthropoda ● Other Classification Methods +Skeletons Exoskeleton Endoskeleton +Notochord Only phylum Chordata +Metamerism Segmentation(repetition of body parts) +Cephalization Distinct appearance of a head on body Invertebrates Ch. 3233 Lack vertebral column 95% of animal species ➢ Phylum porifera (Sponges) Lack tissues and organs Multicellular “Pores” filter H2O/food + Reproduction: Hermaphrodites/Sexual/Asexual ➢ Phylum Cnidaria +Phylum Ctenophora Jellyfishes Comb jellies (don't have stingers) Corals Anemones Both Diploblastic +Mesoglea Gelatinous coating on outside animal Both exhibit nerve net Lack brain Both exhibit only one opening (mouth+anus)+ Gastrovascular cavity Protostomes ❏ Phylum platyhelminthes Flatworms Flukes Tapeworms Mostly Parasitic Enhanced nerve net Triploblastic +Cerebral Ganglia Clumps of cerebral tissue, almost brains 1 opening(mouth+anus) + Gastrovascular cavity +Reproduction Asexual/Sexual/Hermaphrodites ❖ Phylum Rotifera Rotifers Corona Simple brain Triploblastic Pseudocoelom + Alimentary Canal Digestive tube runs directly from mouth and anus +Reproduction Asexual/Sexual Parthenogenesis: Egg develops without fertilization of sperm ➢ Phylum Mollusca Snails Slugs Oyster Barnacles Squid Octopi Protostomes Eucoelomate Pump H2O Sexual Reproduction ➔ Phylum Annelida Ringed worms/Segmentation Eucoelomate Protostomes +Reproduction Asexual/Sexual (hermaphrodites) ● Phylum Nematoda Roundworms Pseudocoelomate Ecdysis (shedding) Protostomes Sexual Reproduction ❖ Phylum Arthropoda Insects Spiders Crustaceans Segmented Appendages +Exoskeleton Hardened cuticle Protein Chitin Ecdysis(shedding) Protostomes Eucoelomate ❏ Phylum Echinodermata Sea stars Urchins Sea cucumbers Deuterostomes Lack brain Sexual Reproduction +Autotomy ability to regenerate parts/limbs Endoskeleton ➢ Phylum Chordata Deuterostomes Endoskeleton Mostly Vertebrates 4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design (found in some point during development birth → death) 1. Notochord Skeletal support along dorsal axis Replaced Vertebral Column Remnants of notochord in discs left behind 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve cord Expanded at anterior end → brain Enclosed/Supported/Protected by vertebral column and/or notochord 3. Pharyngeal Slits Pharynx : back of the mouth cavity H2O enters mouth comes out of slits (gills) 4. Postanal Tail ★ Includes invertebrates and vertebrates as long as they have all 4 traits Humans Notochord → vertebrae discs, shock absorbers Nerve cord → hollow+dorsal Pharyngeal Slits only found in embryonic development 1 pair on right and left and retained and they become Eustachian tube pair + Postanal tail only found in embryonic development 1 Vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx) ❏ Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates) Invertebrates Marine Filter feeders Adults Larvae ❖ Subphylum Cephalochordata (Lancelets) Invertebrates Marine Filter feeders ★ Subphylum Vertebrate Vertebral Column Endoskeleton +Cranium Vertebrae gets better with evolution: Human vertebra > Bird vertebra +Hox genes 2 clusters → more complexity in development, especially in large animals +Neural Crest cells “migrate”, originally produced in nerve chord, layout blueprint for nervous system and skeleton system ➢ Class Myxini (Hagfishes) Mesoglea Incomplete Skull (not complete) Notochord Poorly developed vertebrae ❏ Class Cephalaspidomorphi (Jawless fishes) Parasitic/filter feeders Lack appendages Mesoglea Notochord in adults Cartilaginous Vert. column ❖ Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fishes) Paired appendages (fins) Notochord in adults Cartilaginous Vert. column ★ Class Osteichthyes (Bony fishes) Bony Skeleton+vertebrae Some retain notochord and cartilage vertebrae into adulthood Paired appendages (fins) 4 Terrestrial class ● Class Amphibia → “living a double life” 1st Terrestrial vertebrate group 1st Tetrapod group +Split life between and aquatic stage and a terrestrial stage Aquatic Stage = larvae Terrestrial Stage = adult Tadpole→ frogs Most lay eggs in water or at least moist areas ❏ Class Reptilian Thicker skin + scales +Enhanced Kidneys to conserve water Locomotion Life away from water, no longer needed constantly or reproductively 1st group Truly Terrestrial +Amniotic Eggs Not reproductively tied into water Advanced, shelled egg with 3 Internal membranes Shell combined shell membrane, double protection 1. Choriongas exchange in/out 2. Allantois embryonic waste bladder, urinary bladder 3. Amnion encloses embryo, “indoor pond” Sexual Reproductive Modes: 3 1. Oviparous Egg laying outside of body (Fish, Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals) 2. Ovoviviparous Live bearing with retention of eggs but no maternal connection (Fish, Reptile) 3. Viviparous Live bearing with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta) (Reptiles, Mammals) ➢ Class Aves Phylum Chordata Deuterostomes Feathers + Scales Endoskeleton Highly modified forelimbs → WINGS Air sacs Highest food requirement by size for any vertebrates Oviparous +Endothermic High temperature (Birds, Mammals) “Internal temp” +Ectothermic “External temp” Body temp primarily determined by outside temp (Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles) ❖ Class Mammalia Exhibit traits of a Reptilian Ancestor Most complex, highly specialized most advanced group +Specialized Traits Thick Integument Hair, both needed for insulation→ endothermic In humans: Brain : Spinal Chord ratio is 55:1 +Teeth Heterodont dentition different types of teeth, incisors/canines/premolars/molar Thecodont dentition rooted teeth are embedded in sockets of the jawbone Diphyodont dentition 2 sets of teeth in lifetime Dentary large single bone in lower jaw, broad side for tissue attachment +Ear Pinna to funnel sound waves to outer ear Ossicles middle bones +Reproduction Viviparous: greatest extent of live bearing than in any other groups All but 3 species have placenta connections from mother to young ★ Order Primates +Special Traits Grasping digits on all 4 limbs Flat faced Nails rather than claws Complex Learning Behaviors Major increase of ratio of brain to body size Taxonomy of Man Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum vertebrae Class mammalia Order primates Suborder Anthropoidea Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae Tribe Hominini Genus Homo Species Homo sapiens “wise humans”
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