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Biology II Study Guide Test 1

by: Rocket

Biology II Study Guide Test 1 BIO 1144

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > BIO 1144 > Biology II Study Guide Test 1
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Study guide comprised of information throughout the chapters and most likely to appear on tests
Thomas Holder
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 249 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Test 1 Study Guide Thomas Holder    Taxonomy and Systematics Ch. 26  ­Study of classifying and grouping organisms   ­Classified by hierarchical group levels, Taxon  ➢ Cornelius Linnaeus,  proposed the ​ Binomial System of Nomenclature  ­ Ex.  Homo Sapiens ​ = “Wise Humans”    +5 Kingdom Concept Developed  + Prokaryotic Organism         +Eukaryotic Organism   ­ Monera ­ Protista    ­ Fungi  ­ Plantae  ­ Animalia  +Taxon Hierarchy ​ → Grey Wolf      ­Kingdom Animalia       ­Phylum Chordata         ­Class Mammalia           ­Order Carnivora              ­Family Canidae                 ­Ge​uanis  (noun)  Wolf                    ­Sp​cupus  (adjective)  Grey    +Systematics  ­Study of biodiversity in evolution relationships      +Phylogenetic Trees   The closer a branch     or arm is the higher %    of genetic similarity                      Prokaryotic + Eukaryotic Diversity Ch.27  +Kingdom ​ Monera  2 Domains  →   A ​ rchaea​ and​ Bacteria   ➔ Prokaryotic Cells, thought to be ancestors to Eukaryotes    ❖ Archaea          ­Contained “almost” nucleus, organelles similar to cytoplasma           ­Specialized Membranes          ­Harsh extreme environments    ★ Bacteria         ­Proteobacteria  “true bacteria”         ­Cyanobacteria  “blue green”    ● ALL Monera is difficult to determine in evolutionary relationships    +Kingdom​  Protista Ch.28  ­Earliest Eukaryotes   ­Wet Environment    +DNA ­wise “Catch All Kingdom”  ❏ Algae (Plant­like)          ­Autotrophs via photosynthesis+Heterotrophs          ­Unicellular+Multicellular   ➢ Protozoans (Animal­Like)  ­ Heterotrophic    ­ Unicellular+Multicellular  ❏ Fungal Like Protists (Fungi­Like)  ­ Saprotrophic = absorb feeding  ­ Multicellular                    Kingdom Fungi Ch. 31  ­Found in soil, or other material  ­Reproductive Spores located on Mushroom  head  ­Recyclers, Decomposers   +Types of Feeding  ­ Heterotrophic/Parasitic/Saprotrophic   ­Body of organism is called Mycelium​,     composed of mass of filaments calledHyphae  ­Rhizomorphs​ : filaments for water transport  ­Cell wall composed of ​ hitin    Kingdom Plantae Ch. 29+30  ­Multicellular + Eukaryotic+Autotrophic  ­Developed Roots to find water  +Composition  ­Starch​ Food storage compounds (glucose)  ­Cellulose: internal support of cell (carbohydrates)    ★ 10 major groups  ­Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts)  ­Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts)  ­Phylum Bryophyta (mosses)     (first 3 groups most genetically related)  ➔ Lumped into “Bryophytes” (mosses + allies)    ­Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes)  ­Phylum Pteridophyta (fern+allies)  ➔ Lumped into “Pteridophytes” (ferns + relatives)    ­Phylum cycadophyta (cycads)  ­Phylum ginkgophyta (ginkgo)  ­Phylum gnetophyta (gnetophytes)  ­Phylum coniferophyta (cone bearing trees)  ➔ Gymnosperms­ “naked seeds”             ­Phylum anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants)  ➔ Angiosperms­ “enclosed seeds”       ❏ Bryophytes         ­Reproduce via spores         ­Non­vascular          ­Require water for reproduction    ❏ Pteridophytes         ­Reproduce via spores  +Contain Vascular tissue:  ­ Xylem​ ­conduct water plus minerals  ­ Phloem​ ­conduct food     ­“TRUE” roots, stems, leaves      ­Require water for reproduction    ❏ Gymnosperms   ­ Vascular tissues  ­ “Naked seeds”  ­ Does not require water for reproduction  + Advanced character within seed:             Embryo             Stored food             Protective covering (integument)        ❏ Angiosperms  ­ Vascular tissue  + Enclosed seeds within fruit/vessel:              Embryo              Stored food              2 protective covering (integuments)    ­ Only group to produce flowers  ­ Does not require water for reproduction            +Kingdom Animalia   ­Majority insects  ­One single ancestors: Flagellated Protists  ­Share more similarity within animal   genomes than other kingdoms  +35 Animal Phylum   + Characteristics:              Multicellular              Lack cell wall             Sexual reproduction­ mobile small sperm+larger egg  +Hox genes:  ­ Nervous tissues  ­ Cell junctions  ­ Protein binding cells     +Classification Of Body Plans  1. Body Symmetry  2. Number to Tissue Layers  3. Presence/Absence of a “True” Body Cavity  4. Patterns of Embryonic Development    1. Body Symmetry​ ­ Relative proportions of the Body      ​hylum Porifera​ (sponges) lack symmetry      ­Radial Symmetry: one plane passing through the          central axis produce same image      ­Bilateral Symmetry­ distinct head and tail end    2.​Tissue Layers­ Number of germ/tissue layers present                                 Metazoa   +Eumetazoa    +Parazoa    (1 or more tissue types/organs) (​ hylum Porifera)​  2 Types of of tissue layers:  ­No organs or tissues       ❖ Radial Symmetric Animals  ­Sponges  + Diploblastic  (2 layers)  ­Endoderm and Ectoderm  ❖ Bilateral Symmetric Animals  + Triploblastic (3 layers)  ­Endoderm/Ectoderm/Mesoderm(middle)       3 Body cavity  ­Bilateral ANIMALS ONLY  ­Non existent in​Phylum Porifera    ❏ Coelom​ : fluid filled body cavity in animals  + Advanced animals have a “true coelom”­body cavity completely lined with mesoderm  or mesoderm derived tissue    a. Acoelomate; ​ “without coelom”        ­No cavity        ­Not surrounded by mesoderm tissue  ex. Flatworms (​ hylum platyhelminthes​)  ★ True cavity MUST be completely lined with mesoderm         b Pseudocoelomate;  “false coelom”        ­Body cavity present        ­Not completely lined with mesoderm  ex. Roundworm (​ phylum nematoda​ )         cEucoelomate​ , “true coelom”         ­Advanced Metazoa        ­Mesoderm derived tissue for suspension of organs  ex. Earthworm (​phylum annelida​)        4.Embryonic Development  Fertilized egg­­­>Zygote­­­>Cleavage­­­>Blastula  ­­­­>Gastrula­­­­>Embryo    ❏ 2 Mechanisms  Protostomes​                            Deuterostomes     ​ ­Mouth develops from 1st blastopore       ­Anus develops from 1st blastopore      Phylum:​                              Phylum:  Mollusca                                              Echinodermata  Annelida                                              Chordata  Arthropoda      ● Other Classification Methods  +Skeletons  ­ Exoskeleton  ­ Endoskeleton  +Notochord  ­ Only phylum Chordata  +Metamerism  ­ Segmentation(repetition of body parts)  +Cephalization  ­ Distinct appearance of a head on body      Invertebrates Ch. 32­33  ­Lack vertebral column  ­95% of animal species    ➢ Phylum porifera ​ (Sponges)  ­ Lack tissues and organs  ­ Multicellular  ­ “Pores” filter H2O/food   + Reproduction:  ­  Hermaphrodites/Sexual/Asexual     ➢ Phylum Cnidaria  ​            +Phylum Ctenophora  ­Jellyfishes                                      ­Comb jellies (don't have stingers)  ­Corals    ­Anemones  ­Both Diploblastic   +Mesoglea­   ­ Gelatinous coating on outside animal  ­Both exhibit nerve net­ Lack brain  ­Both exhibit only one opening (mouth+anus)+ Gastrovascular cavity                Protostomes  ❏ Phylum platyhelminthes  ­Flatworms   ­Flukes    ­Tapeworms  ­Mostly Parasitic   ­Enhanced nerve net  ­Triploblastic   +Cerebral Ganglia   ­ Clumps of cerebral tissue, almost brains  ­1 opening(mouth+anus) + Gastrovascular cavity  +Reproduction  ­ Asexual/Sexual/Hermaphrodites    ❖ Phylum Rotifera     ­Rotifers       ­Corona  ­Simple brain  ­Triploblastic  ­Pseudocoelom  + Alimentary Canal  ­  Digestive tube runs directly from mouth and anus   +Reproduction  ­ Asexual/Sexual  ­Parthenogenesis:  Egg develops without fertilization of sperm    ➢ Phylum Mollusca  ­Snails     ­Slugs     ­Oyster  ­Barnacles   ­Squid    ­Octopi  ­Protostomes  ­Eucoelomate  ­Pump H2O  ­Sexual Reproduction     ➔ Phylum Annelida  ­Ringed worms/Segmentation  ­Eucoelomate  ­Protostomes  +Reproduction   ­ Asexual/Sexual (hermaphrodites)    ● Phylum Nematoda  ­Roundworms  ­Pseudocoelomate  ­Ecdysis (shedding)  ­Protostomes  ­Sexual Reproduction    ❖ Phylum Arthropoda  ­Insects     ­Spiders      ­Crustaceans  ­Segmented Appendages  +Exoskeleton  ­ Hardened cuticle  ­ Protein  ­ Chitin  ­Ecdysis(shedding)  ­Protostomes  ­Eucoelomate    ❏ Phylum Echinodermata  ­Sea stars     ­Urchins      ­Sea cucumbers  ­Deuterostomes   ­Lack brain  ­Sexual Reproduction  +Autotomy  ­ ability to regenerate parts/limbs  ­Endoskeleton    ➢ Phylum Chordata  ­Deuterostomes   ­Endoskeleton    ­Mostly Vertebrates    4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design  (found in some point during development birth → death)  1. Notochord  ­Skeletal support along dorsal axis  ­Replaced Vertebral Column  ­Remnants of notochord in discs left behind       2.  Dorsal Hollow Nerve cord  ­Expanded at anterior end → brain  ­Enclosed/Supported/Protected by vertebral   column and/or notochord       3.  Pharyngeal Slits          Pharynx ​ : back of the mouth cavity            ­ H2O enters mouth comes out of slits (gills)       4.  Postanal Tail  ★  Includes invertebrates and vertebrates as long as they have all 4 traits    Humans  ­ Notochord →  vertebrae discs, shock absorbers  ­ Nerve cord → hollow+dorsal  ­ Pharyngeal Slits only found in embryonic development              1 pair on right and left and retained and they become Eustachian tube pair  + Postanal tail only found in embryonic development  ­  1 Vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx)      ❏ Subphylum Urochordata​  (Tunicates)                    ­Invertebrates  ­Marine                               ­Filter feeders    Adults ​                              Larvae    ​                         ❖ Subphylum Cephalochordata​  (Lancelets)               ­Invertebrates  ­Marine             ­Filter feeders      ★ Subphylum Vertebrate  ­Vertebral Column  ­Endoskeleton  +Cranium  ­ Vertebrae gets better with evolution:  Human vertebra > Bird vertebra  +Hox genes  ­ 2 clusters → more complexity in development, especially in large animals  +Neural Crest  ­ cells “migrate”, originally produced in nerve chord, layout blueprint for nervous system  and skeleton system      ➢ Class Myxini ​ (Hagfishes)   ­Mesoglea         ­Incomplete Skull (not complete)    ­Notochord      ­Poorly developed vertebrae      ❏ Class Cephalaspidomorphi ​ (Jawless fishes)   ­Parasitic/filter feeders   ­Lack appendages  ­Mesoglea    ­Notochord in adults  ­Cartilaginous Vert. column    ❖ Class Chondrichthyes​  (Cartilaginous fishes)         ­Paired appendages (fins)   ­Notochord in adults    ­Cartilaginous Vert. column        ★ Class Osteichthyes​  (Bony fishes)  ­Bony Skeleton+vertebrae  ­Some retain notochord and cartilage vertebrae into adulthood  ­Paired appendages (fins)                  4 Terrestrial class  ● Class Amphibia​  → “living a double life”  ­1st Terrestrial vertebrate group  ­1st Tetrapod group  +Split life between and aquatic stage and a terrestrial stage         Aquatic Stage = larvae         Terrestrial Stage = adult                              Tadpole→ frogs  ­Most lay eggs in water or at least moist areas    ❏ Class Reptilian   ­Thicker skin + scales  +Enhanced   ­ Kidneys to conserve water  ­ Locomotion  ­Life away from water, no longer needed constantly or reproductively  ­1st group Truly Terrestrial  +Amniotic Eggs  ­ Not reproductively tied into water  ­ Advanced, shelled egg with 3 Internal membranes  ­ Shell combined shell membrane, double protection                      1. Chorion­gas exchange in/out  2. Allantois­ embryonic waste bladder, urinary bladder  3. Amnion­ encloses embryo, “indoor pond”              Sexual Reproductive Modes: 3  1. Oviparous​ ­ Egg laying outside of body (Fish, Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals)  2. Ovoviviparous​ ­ Live bearing with retention of eggs but no maternal connection (Fish,  Reptile)  3. Viviparous​ ­ Live bearing with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta)  (Reptiles, Mammals)      ➢ Class Aves   ­Phylum Chordata  ­Deuterostomes     ­Feathers + Scales    ­Endoskeleton   ­Highly modified forelimbs → WINGS  ­Air sacs      ­Highest food requirement by size for any vertebrates  ­Oviparous  +Endothermic   ­ High temperature (Birds, Mammals)  ­ “Internal temp”  +Ectothermic  ­ “External temp”   ­ Body temp primarily determined by outside temp  (Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles)          ❖ Class Mammalia  ­Exhibit traits of a Reptilian Ancestor  ­Most complex, highly specialized most advanced group  +Specialized Traits  ­ Thick Integument  ­ Hair, both needed for insulation→ endothermic  ­ In humans: Brain : Spinal Chord ratio is 55:1  +Teeth  ­ Heterodont dentition​ ­ different types of teeth, incisors/canines/premolars/molar  ­ Thecodont dentition​ ­ rooted teeth are embedded in sockets of the jawbone  ­ Diphyodont dentition​ ­ 2 sets of teeth in lifetime  ­ Dentary​ ­ large single bone in lower jaw, broad side for tissue attachment  +Ear  ­ Pinna​  to funnel sound waves to outer ear  ­ Ossicles ​middle bones  +Reproduction  ­ Viviparous: ​ greatest extent of live bearing than in any  other groups  ­ All but 3 species have placenta connections from  mother to young      ★ Order Primates  +​Special Traits  ­ Grasping digits on all 4 limbs  ­ Flat faced  ­ Nails rather than claws  ­ Complex Learning Behaviors  ­ Major increase of ratio of brain to body size      Taxonomy of Man    Kingdom Animalia      Phylum Chordata          Subphylum vertebrae             Class mammalia                Order primates        Suborder Anthropoidea            Superfamily Hominoidea                          Family Hominidae                            Subfamily Homininae                               Tribe Hominini                                   Genus Homo                                       Species Homo sapiens  “wise humans”                                                 


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