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by: Desiree Notetaker

HUMANCOMMUNICATIONS COM 100 Anthony Roberto - Intro to Human Communications

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

Outlines of the chapters that will be covered for the midterm
Study Guide
communication, perception, Listening, self concept, speech, public speaking, Language, Culture, understanding, midterm, outline
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 100 Anthony Roberto - Intro to Human Communications at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see COM100 in Journalism and Mass Communications at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
HUMAN COMMUNICATIONS Chapter 2 –Perception Definition of Perception: Cognitive process through which we interpret our experiences and form our own understanding Communication processing: gather and organize and evaluate information  We must determine what’s important and what to remember Schemas: Mental structures used to connect bits of information  Help us understand how things work and decide how to act  Evolve with new information and situations  Four challenges o Mindlessness o Mindfulness o Selective perception o Undue influence Interaction appearance theory: People change their perception on someone else as they spend time together Attributions: explains why someone says/does something in a manner that does not fit our schemas Fundamental attribution error: Assumption that another person’s wrong behavior stems from an internal flow (Ex: He failed because he’s lazy) Self-serving bias: attributes own failures to external causes (Ex: Failure due to bad professor) Diversity affects perception Cultural myopia: Failure to see beyond own beliefs; blinds us to alternative point of view Stereotyping leads to Prejudice COGNITION=SELF CONCEPT + SELF ESTEEM + SELF EFFICACY Self-concept: Interpreted and influenced by your thoughts, actions, abilities, values, goals and ideals Perception of others is relates to how you think of yourself Direct evidence –compliments, insults, support Indirect evidence –gossip, non-verbal cues Social comparison theory: Compare self to others Self-esteem: Feels about yourself; your worth Self-efficacy: Ability to predict our effectiveness in a communication situation Lack of effort = Low self-efficacy Self-fulfilling prophecy: Prediction that causes you to change your behavior in a way that makes the prediction more likely to occur. (EX: Standing away because you believe others don’t enjoy your company) Self-actualization: Feelings/thoughts you get when you know that you have negotiated a communication situation as well as you possibly could (leads to high self-esteem) Self-adequacy: Communication competence was sufficient and/or acceptable Leads to contentment and a seek of improvement Self-denigration: criticizing or attacking yourself Prevents self-improvement Self-presentation: Intentional communication to show elements of self. To present yourself in the best way is called self-monitoring Self-disclosure: Revealing information about self to others Feedback + Interpretation = Perception Chapter 3 –Language Language: System of symbols that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings Is symbolic Informed by thought Cognitive language: Used to describe people, things, and situations in your mind Ruled by grammar Bound by context Accommodation theory: Language and identity shape communication in various contexts Communication acquisition: Process of learning words, as well as how to use it appropriately and effectively in various contexts Five competencies for how language behavior functions: 1. Controlling –exerting influence 2. Informing –Questioning, describing, reinforcing 3. Feeling 4. Imagining –Think, play, and be creative 5. Ritualizing –rules for managing conversation and relationships Semantics: (acquire language) Relationship among symbols, objects, people and concepts Pragmatics: (learn how to use) Ability to use culture’s symbols appropriately Multiple meanings: Denotative (definition) and Connotative (emotional response) Abstraction ladder: general levels of abstraction High abstractions can leave to evasion (avoiding details), equivocation (using words with ambiguous meanings) and euphemisms Slang: nonstandard language –high level of abstraction Jargon: technical language Biased language: implying that a person or subject should be perceived in a particular way; Can affect others perceptions of you Politically correct language: neutral terms (ex. Firefighters) Civility: the social norm for appropriate behavior Language reflects context Speech repertoires: sets of language styles, behaviors and skills that have been learned Language builds on context Language determines context Situational context: different situations call for different speech repertoires (code switching) High language  formal; Low language  informal Relational context Cultural context: Words a culture uses/doesn’t use influence thinking among that culture (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication: Intentionally, unintentionally signaling meaning through behavior (gestures) Often spontaneous, ambiguous and more believable than verbal communication Channel discrepancy: two sets of behavior say different things Nonverbal behavior is communicative Nonverbal behavior clarifies meaning by reinforcing verbal messages: Repeating Complementing –nonverbal behavior and message is consistent Nonverbal cues can substitute for words Interaction management occurs throughout a relationship Nonverbal cues help regulate communication Negative consequences may occur Immediacy: feelings of closeness and involvement between people Nonverbal codes: the symbols we use to send messages without words  Kinesics: gestures and body movements o Emblems: used to substitute words (ex. Thumbs up) o Illustrators: help visually explain o Regulators: manage our interactions o Adapters: physical and psychological need o Affect displays: convey feelings, mood and reactions  Facial expressions, considered inborn  Eye behavior  Voice; Paralanguage: Vocalized sounds (pitch, tone, volume) also includes hesitations, accents, etc.; Vocalizations include laughing, crying, and sighing  Physical appearance Nonverbal messages are sent by our surroundings  Proxemics: Use and communicate with space (intimate, personal, social, public)  Territoriality: Claiming an area, with no legal basis  Environment communicates to others about who we are Haptics: use of touch to send messages Functional –professional Social –polite Friendship –warmth Love –Intimacy Sexual –arousal Chronemics: use of time in nonverbal communication Time Orientation: personal associates with the use of time Culture, technology and the situation influences nonverbal behavior Some cultures are contact cultures, others are noncontact cultures Situational context determines rules of behavior and roles people must play Public-private dimension: Physical space that affects nonverbal communication Informal-formal: Perceptions of personal versus impersonal situations Chapter 5 –Communication and Culture Culture: Learned system of thought and behavior that belongs to a relatively large group of people; composite of shared beliefs, values and practices SEVEN MAJOR COMMUNICATION VARIATIONS High context Include Japan, Korea, China, Latin American & African countries Use of contextual cues to interpret meaning Low context Use direct language Collectivist Perceive themselves first, value group goals and cooperation (China, Japan) Individualist Value each person’s privacy and personal space High Uncertainty avoidance Strive to minimize risk and uncertainty; communication is usually governed by formal rules to satisfy a need for absolute truth and stability Low uncertainty avoidance Have more comfort with variety and difference Masculine Value ambition and competition Feminine Value relationships and quality of life High power distance Accepts less power (India’s Caste System) Low power distance Consider multiple options Monochronic cultures Treat time as a limited resource (United States) Poly chronic cultures Cultures are less concerned with making time count Social identity theory: a person has a personal identity (personality) and social identity Intergroup communication: studies examine how our group membership affects our interaction Intergroup contact theory: Interaction between members of different social groups generates possibility for positive attitudes Behavioral affirmation: Seeing/hearing what we want to see/hear Convergence: Shifting language toward each other’s way of communicating Accommodation: adjusting language and style of speaking Over accommodating may lead to stereotyping Chapter 6 Hearing: Physiological process of receiving sound Listening: multidimensional process of recognizing, understanding, interpreting and responding to heard messages Affective component: refers to attitude towards listening Cognitive component: Mental process of selecting messages to focus on, giving them attention o Selecting –choosing sound o Attending –elect to focus attention on communication o Understanding –making sense; enables interpretation Behavioral component: Showing understanding and recall –responding o Active listeners can understand, remember and respond o Passive listeners misinterpret, ignore and intentions o Listening fiddity: match of thoughts and intentions through communication. People oriented: good at assessing needs; Relationships Action-oriented: Focus on tasks Content-oriented: Carefully evaluate what they hear Time-oriented: Concerned with efficiency; Have little patience Effective listening helps your career, saves time and money, creates opportunities, strengthens relationships and accomplishes your goals Information listening: (Comprehensive) Seek to understand a message Critical listening: Evaluate or analyze information, evidence, ideas or opinions. Critical thinking –determines main points, decodes nonverbal and uses memory Empathic listening: Feels how another person feels; Provides emotional support. Paraphrasing is used. Appreciative listening: Pleasure in sounds Listening barriers: Factors that interfere with our ability to comprehend information and respond appropriately Environmental factors Hearing/processing challenges –physical/medical issues (Ex. ADD; auditory processing disorder) Multitasking Boredom and overexcitement Listening apprehension: State of fear, uneasiness associated with a listening opportunity Defensive listening: arguing with a speaker without listening to the message Selective listening: Only listening to certain parts of a message Unethical in evaluating impressions of people Insensitive listening: listening to the words but failing to pay attention to emotional content Monopolistic listening: Listening for achievement of own goals Pseudolistening: pretending to listen Listening in context: Relational and situational Cultural –expressiveness varies Technology Chapter 12 Public speaking: includes the speaker, the audience and the message Audience analysis: a highly systematic process of getting to know your listeners relative to the topic and the speech occasion. Consider expectations and situtational factors. Demographics: social categories of groups (gender, politics, married/single) Psychographics: Psychological qualities (attitudes, values, interests) Choosing your topic Brainstorming: thinking creatively, amassing information Specific purpose statement: expresses both the topic, the purpose and specific objectives Thesis statement: conveys the central idea about your topic Expert testimony: opinion or judgement of an expert Lay testimony: non-expert with personal experience Scientific research findings: Carry a lot of weight to medicine, health, media or environment Statistics: information in numerical form Research  Talk to people –Surveys  Search the literature –Directory and library gateways  Online research o Search engine o Metasearch engine: Scans multiple search engines o Research search engine Sources should be credible, up-to-date, accurate and compelling (interesting and believable) Plagiarism: crime of presenting someone else’s words, ideas or intellectual property as your own Running bibliography: List of resources Chapter 13 Main points: central claims that support the thesis Sub points: Support main points In the process of sorting out main points and sub points, you’re arranging your points  Chronological pattern  Topical (categorical) pattern: organizing into categories  Primary-recency effect: audiences are most likely to remember points noted in the beginning and end  Spatial pattern: Arranges the terms of their physical proximity in relation to each other; Useful in describing objects, places and scenes  Problem-solving pattern  Cause-effect pattern  Narrative pattern  Motivated sequence pattern: Attention, need, visualization (Ex. Inspirational speeches) Transitions: connect different points, thoughts in a natural flow Sign points: Keywords/phrases within sentences that signify transitions between points Internal process: Preview of content immediately Respect audience, keep it simple, use vivid language, and incorporate repetition, allusion and comparisons Sentence outline: Full text of what to say Phrase outline: Takes parts of sentences; phrases are used as instant reminders Keyword outline: Briefest outline


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