Abnormal Psych Chapter 1-4 Study Guide
Abnormal Psych Chapter 1-4 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology:PSYC 341
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Abnormal Psychology:PSYC 341
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Ibrahim on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Abnormal Psychology:PSYC 341 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Ake in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Psych 341 exam 1 review 01/27/2016 ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ Norms of society: What is abnormal? According to Szaz the deviations that society calls abnormal are simply “problems in living” not signs of something wrong with that person Behavior that breaks legal norms is considered to be criminal. Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that break norms of psychological functioning are called abnormal. Maladaptive behavior detrimental to an individual and/or group “The Four Ds” Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre Distress – Unpleasant and upsetting to the person Dysfunction – Interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way Danger – Posing risk of harm ▯ Current state of abnormal psychology In the 1950’s researchers discovered a number of new meds o Antianxiety drugs, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs o These led to the deinstitutionalization and a rise in out patient care Prevention programs have been further energized in the growing interest of positive psychology ▯ Ancient theories about mental illness/treatment People believed that all events around them and within them happened from the doings of magical beings who controlled the world They believed that the human mind and body as a battle ground between internal and external forces of good and evil The way to get rid of abnormal behavior (evils spirits) was to get the demon out of their bodies They would preform a trephination which was to get the demons out they would cut out a circular section of their skull or exorcism ▯ Greek and Roman Treatments /Hippocrates (father of modern medicine) Believe illness had natural causes- 4 fluids (humors) They were black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood During the renaissance the rise of asylums/shrines was a form of treatment These were more like prisons to the patients In the united states moral treatment was on the rise Dorthea dix a former patient was effective in developing some state hospitals that treated patients way better than the assylums By the 1850’s moral treatment was beingning to decline Early 20 thcentury perspectives and treatments: Somatogentic and psychogenic perspectives Somatogenic is abnormal functioning has physical casues Psychiogentic is abonormal functioning has psychological causes A form of treatment for psychogenic was psychoanalysis and hypnosis Psychoanalysis was invented by Freud Fredrick Anton Mesmer practiced therapies that turned into hypnosis o It wasn’t until years after Mesmer died that many researchers had the courage to investigate his procedure later called hypnosis, Hypnos Greek word for sleep ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Perspectives and Theories Freud: psychoanalytic Behavioral Perspective: Operant conditions and classical conditioning, all behavior can be learned Cognitive Humanistic Sociocultural: family, culture, praised At present no single perspective dominates the clinical field ▯ Behavioral Perspective Classical conditions (Pavlov’s dogs) Vs. Operant conditioning (reward & punishment) ▯ ▯ Correlations Vs Experiments: ▯ The experiment Method/IV &DV A research method in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulations effect on another variable is to be observed Manipulated variable or factor of interest = IV (cause) Variable being observed =DV (gives data/ numbers/effect) Scientific method: 4 main steps o Identifying question of interest o Formulating an explanation o Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation o Communicate the findings ▯ The Correlational Method Correlation is the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other Correlation Method is a research procedure used to determine the “co-relationship” between variables The people chosen for the study are called the subjects or participants and they must be representative of the larger pop Correlation DOES NOT equal causation The tendency of two variables to co vary Systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables Correlational Coefficient +1 to -1 the closer the number is to 1 pos. or neg. the stronger the relationship ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ Jerome Frank ▯ Models of Psychology: The Biological model: o Adopts a medical perspective o Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism o Points the problem to brain anatomy or brain chemistry o Info is communicated through the brain in the form of electrical impulse that travel from one neuron to another to another o Cerebral cortex: new brain evolved o Back of the head= old brain, controls respiratory blood pressure etc. Synaptic process: o An impulse is first received by a neurons dendrite travels down the axon and is transmitted through nerve endings to other neurons The message get from the nerve endings of one neuron to the dendrites through the synapse it separates the neuron from the next and somehow it must move across the space The Psychodynamic Model: o Oldest and most famous model o based on the belief that behavior is determined largely by underlying dynamic--- that is interacting, psychological forces of which she or he is not consciously aware. Abnormal symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces o All behavior is determined by past experiences o It was created by Sigmund Freud o Freud believes that 3 central forces shape the personality, instinctual needs (id) , rational thinking (ego), and moral standards (superego) all unconscious forces they are the: o Id- guided by the pleasure principle Instinctual needs, drives, and impulses o Ego- guided by the reality principle Seeks gratification, but guides us to know when we can and cannot express our wishes o Superego- guided by morality principle Conscience, unconsciously adopted from our parents The Behavioral Model o Believe our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life, concentrates on behaviors and environmental factors o Operant conditioning, modeling, classical conditioning are 3 types of behavioral models o All may produce normal and abnormal behavior Cognitive Model o How thoughts and info processing can be become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behaviors o Attribution- locus of control o Assigning causes to thinking that happen o Internal locus of control vs external locus of control The Humanistic- Existential Model o The Humanist view Emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive: focus on drive to self actualize through honest recognition of strengths and weaknesses o The Existential View Emphasis on self determination, choice, and individual responsibility: focus on authencity Sociocultural o Argue that abnormal behavior is best understood in the light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual Addresses norms and roles in society Multicultural o Studies showed that members of ethnic and racial minority grouos tend to show less improvement in clinical treatment, make less use of mental health services and stop therapy sooner than the majority group Types: ▯ ▯ How do they define abnormality? The biological model: Genes that contribute to the genetic inheritance of mental disorders may be a mutation in one of the genes however many of the genes that contribute to abnormal functioning are actually the result of normal evolutionary principles. They also believe that diseases such as schizophrenia could be a result of viral infections The psychodynamic model: Developmental stages Freud proposed that each stage of development new events and pressure require adjustment in the id, ego, and superego. If the adjustment is successful = growth, if it is not then =fixation on an early development stage cause abnormality When conflicts arise they go through 3 things o Superego => Type of thinking (conscience) => driven by (moral principles) o Ego (mediator) => Type of thinking (logical, rational) => driven by (reality principle) o Id => Type of thinking (illogical, emotional, irrational) => Driven by (pleasure principle) The Behavioral Model o Abnormal behavior can be learned , several forms of conditioning can cause this too: Operant conditioning- learned by rewards Modeling- people/animals learn from observation Classical conditioning- when two events repeatedly occur close together in time (Pavlovs) Cognitive-Behavior Perspective o Illogical thinking processes are another source of abnormal functioning o Overgeneralization- the drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event Humanistic- Existential Model o Psychological problems can stem from blocked self- actualization Sociocultural o Abnormality can be influenced greatly by social lables and roles assigned to troubled people Multicultural o The model holds that an individuals behavior is best understood when examined in the light of that individuals unique cultural context o They have noticed that prejudice and discrimination faced by many minority groups contributes to abnormality o A therapists effectiveness with minority clients is 1) greater sensitivity to cultural issues 2) incorporating cultural morals and models in treatment ▯ ▯ Prominent Features: The biological model: The endocrine system- maintain homeostasis, regulate reproductive system The psychodynamic model: o Saw abnormal functioning as rooted in the same processes as normal functioning o First to apple theory and techniques systematically to treatment- monumental impact on the field The Behavioral Model: o Powerful force in the field o Can be tested in a lab o Significant research support for behavioral therapies Cognitive Model: o Clinically useful and effective o Theories lead themselves to research o Therapies effective in treating disorders Humanistic: o Taps into domains missing from other theories o Emphasized the individual o Optimistic o Emphasizes health Sociocultural o Added greatly to the understanding and treatment of abnormality, increased awareness of clinical and social roles o Clinically successful when other treatments fail ▯ ▯ Treatment: The biological model: o drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy (last resort), and psychosurgery (neurosurgery), psychotropic medications (SSRI) Psychodynamic therapies: o Free association o Therapist interpretation Resistance Transference- client starts to feel feelings about the therapist that remind them of the past Dream interpretation o Catharsis “ah- ha” experience o Working through The Behavioral Model: o Classical conditioning can be used as a form of treatment o Desensitization- exposing someone to something until they do not feel anxiety o Treatment aims to identify the behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones May use classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or modeling Cognitive-Behavior Perspective: o People can overcome their problems by developing new ways of thinking (Beck’s Cognitive therapy) Humanistic- existential o Roger’s Client centered therapy Treats people like clients not patients Creates an environment that emphasizes the clients tendency towards health o Therapeutic techniques include: Empathy Reflection/active listening Unconditional positive regard Genuineness o Fritz Gestalt therapy Important to blend conflicting personality parts into integrated whole or gestalt. Direct, confrontational approach Identifying underlining feelings Problems stem from hiding important parts of their feelings from themselves. o Existential therapy People are encouraged to accept responsibility for their actions as these people usually avoid responisibility Sociocultural o Family systems therapy- family members that interact with each other in consistent ways and who follow rules unique to the family o Group therapy, family therapy, and community treatment, self-help group (mutual help group) Multicultural o Culture sensitive therapies ▯ Chapter 4 ▯ Forms of clinical assessment: Clinical interviews: o Face to face encounters often are the first contact between a client and a clinician o Used to collect detailed info especially personal history about a client o Allow the interview to focus on whatever topics they consider most important o Focus depends on theoretical orientation o Can be unstructured (open ended questions) or structures (ask prepared question often from a published interview schedule), may include mental status exam Tests: o Devices for gathering info about a few aspects of a person psychological functioning, from which broader info can be inferred o There are 6 categories clinical tests fall into Projective test Require clients to answer open ended questions and tests such as the Rorschach ink blot test, sentence completion tests, drawing, TAT(thematic apperception) tests etc. Help assess unconscious drives and conflicts they believe to be the root of abnormal functioning Personal Inventories Designed to measure broad personality characteristics Focuses on behaviors, belies, and feelings Usually based on self reported responses Most widely used on is the MMPR ( Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (objective test) Response Inventories Self reported responses Focus on a specific area of functioning Affective inventories (Becks Depression inventory) Social skill inventories, ex. pics of emotions Cognitive inventories Psychophysiological tests Measure physiological response as an indication of physiological problems including Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp, galvanic skin response, and muscle contraction Most popular is the polygraph (lie detector) Neurological and neuropsychological tests Directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity, organic brain damage is detected Ex. EEG (electroencephalogram, brains electrical activity) PET scans (position emission tomography) CAT (computerized axial tomography) MRI (magnetic response imagining, map of brain activity) fMRI Neuropsychological tests indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive perceptual and motor functioning Most widely used is the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Intelligence tests Designed to indirectly measure intellectual ability Series of tests verbal and non verbal General score is an intelligence quotient (IQ) Observations Observing verbal and non verbal behavior Most focus on parent-child, sibling-child, or teacher-child interactions Naturalistic and analog observations( when naturalistic observations are not practical ,video camera etc.) Self monitoring ▯ Reliability (comes out with consistent results) and validity (measures what it is suppose to measure), standardized are important for these 3 ▯ ▯ MSE ▯ ▯ Syndrome Cluster of symptoms If people display this they are usually assigned to a diagnostic category ▯ Evidence-based treatment Psychotherapy- professional treatment of mental disorders by psychological methods Begin with an assessment info and diagnostic decision to determine a treatment plan Evidence shows that therapy is more helpful than no treatment or placebo A person who received treatment was better off that 75% of the untreated subjects Therapy does help 6 to 10 sessions is most effective ▯ ▯ DSM-5 (diagnostic and statistical Manuel of mental disorders) Lists aprox. 400 disorders Describes criteria for diagnoses Requires categorical (anxiety disorders, depressive disorders) and dimensional functioning Who developed it? o Emil Kraepelin developed the first modern classification system then the American Psychiatric Association formed the DSM New vs Old o In DSM 1 only 54 percent of the clinicians were in agreement with the diagnosis o The DSM5 has stronger validity than the first ▯ Chapter 5 ▯ Types of anxiety ▯ ▯ Symptomology ▯ ▯ Diagnositic Formulation from different theoretical backgrounds ▯ ▯ Vulnerable populations ▯ ▯ ▯
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