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Psych 2101 Test 1 Study Guide

by: Apollo12

Psych 2101 Test 1 Study Guide 2101

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Psychlogy > 2101 > Psych 2101 Test 1 Study Guide
GPA 3.9

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test 1 study guide
Psy of Adjustment
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Apollo12 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2101 at University of Georgia taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psy of Adjustment in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
 Hedonic Adaptation – shift mental scale used to judge pleasantness/unpleasantness of  experience so neutral/baseline is changed. (ex: keep wanting more and more, or adapting to  travel).  Affective Forecasting – predicting our response to future events.  Paradox of Progress –We are not happier with advancements of the world, our perceived quality of life seems worse. However, we enjoy more technological advances, leisure time, and choices  than ever before (ex: time, technology, choices).  Search for Meaning/Direction – many theorists believe that this has become the basic challenge  of modern life. This search has many manifestations, including the appeal of self­realization  programs, religious cults, and media “therapists”.  Self­Help Books –An interesting manifestation of people’s struggle to find a sense of direction.  Some of these are worthwhile but most of them are full of psychobabble, they place more  emphasis on sales than scientific soundness, they don’t provide explicit directions about how to  change your behavior, and they encourage a remarkably self­centered, narcissistic approach to  life.  Psychobabble – a word used to describe the “hip” but hopelessly vague language used in many  self­help books.  Narcissism – the tendency to regard oneself as grandiosely self­important.  Psychology – the science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that  underlie it and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical  problems.  Adjustment – the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the  demands and challenges of everyday life.  Empiricism – the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.  Scientific Approach – This method offers clarity and precision to enhance communication about important ideas. This method is also relative intolerance to error causing more accurate and  dependable information than most analyses and speculations.   Experiment – a research method in which the investigator manipulates an (independent)  variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second  (dependent) variable as a result.  Independent Variable – in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in  order to see its impact on another variable.  Dependent Variable – in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by  manipulations of the independent variable.  Control Groups – subjects in an experiment who do not receive the special treatment given to  the experimental group.  Correlation Co­Efficient – a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between  two variables.  Correlation Co­Efficient (positively) – the type of correlation that indicates that two variables  co­vary in the same direction.  Correlation Co­Efficient (negatively) – the type of correlation that indicates that two variables  co­vary in opposite directions.  Naturalistic Observation – an approach to research in which the researcher engages in careful  observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects.  Case Studies – an in­depth investigation of an individual subject.  Surveys – structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of  participants’ behavior.  The Roots of Happiness – research on this is subjective, everything is relative, and people are  bad at predicting what will cause this.  Subjective Well­Being – individuals’ personal assessment of their overall happiness or life  satisfaction.  Overlearning – continued rehearsal even after you appear to have mastered it, people  overestimate their knowledge of a topic.  Distributed Practice – opposite of cramming. Taking breaks and intervals while studying.   Flooding/Cramming – Fitting all your studying into one long massive study session.  Organizing Info – retention tends to be greater when information is well organized. (ex: outlines and notes)  Deep Processing – type of research that suggests that how often you go over material is less  critical than the depth of processing that you engage in.  Mnemonic Devices – strategies for enhancing memory.  Acrostics – phrases in which the first letter of each word functions as a cue to recall the abstract words (ex: Every Good Boy Does Fine or Roy G. Biv).  Link Method – mental image of items that links them together (bizarre as possible).  Method of Loci – items remembered with familiar places. (ex: hot dog/driveway, cat  food/garage).  Big Five Personality (CANOE):  Conscientiousness – diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, dependable; strong self­ discipline and ability to regulate oneself effectively.  Agreeableness – sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, straightforward (opposite is  suspicious, antagonistic, aggressive); associated with empathy and helping behavior, negatively  associated with income/esp w/males.  Neuroticism – anxious, hostile, self­conscious, insecure, vulnerable; tend to overreact in  response to stress, exhibit relatively more impulsiveness and emotional instability.  Openness (to experience) – curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic  sensitivity, unconventional attitudes; tend to be tolerant of ambiguity and have less need for  closure on issues.  Extraversion – outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, gregarious; more positive outlook  on life, motivated to pursue social contact, intimacy, and interdependence.  Repression – keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.  Projection – attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another person.  Displacement – diverting emotional feelings (ex: anger) from their original source to a  substitute target.  Regression – a reversion to immature patterns of behavior.  Rationalization – creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable (to oneself)  behavior.  Identification – bolstering self­esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some  person or group.  Experiments Advantages – They allow scientists to draw conclusions about cause­and­effect  relationships between variables. Allows researchers to be able to isolate the relationship between  the independent variable and the dependent variable. No other research method can isolate that  relationship.  Experiments Disadvantages – Researchers are often interested in the effects of variables that  cannot be manipulated (as independent variables) because of ethical concerns or practical realities.  The size of the coefficient indicated the strength of the association between two variables.  Naturalistic Observation’s main advantage – It allows researchers to study behavior under  conditions that are less artificial than in experiments.  Case Studies main advantage – They are well suited for investigating certain phenomena,  especially the roots of psychological disorders and the efficacy of selected therapeutic practices.  Surveys Advantages – They give psychologists a way to explore questions that they could not  examine with experimental procedures. They broaden the scope of phenomena that psychologists  can study.  Surveys Disadvantages – The investigator doesn’t have the opportunity to control events in a  way to isolate cause and effect. They can’t demonstrate conclusively that two variables are  causally related.   The Roots of Happiness:  What isn’t very important? – Money, Age, Gender, Parenthood, Intelligence, Physical  Attractiveness.  What is somewhat important? – Health, Social Activity, Religion, Culture.  What is very important? – (Love, Marriage, Relationship Satisfaction), Work, (Genetics,  Personality).  Improving Academic Performance:  Developing Sound Study Habits   Setting Up A Schedule For Studying  Finding A Place To Study Where You Can Concentrate  Rewarding Myself For Studying  Improving My Reading  Getting More Out Of Lectures


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