Psych 2101 Test 1 Study Guide
Psych 2101 Test 1 Study Guide 2101
Popular in Psy of Adjustment
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Apollo12 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2101 at University of Georgia taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psy of Adjustment in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Hedonic Adaptation – shift mental scale used to judge pleasantness/unpleasantness of experience so neutral/baseline is changed. (ex: keep wanting more and more, or adapting to travel). Affective Forecasting – predicting our response to future events. Paradox of Progress –We are not happier with advancements of the world, our perceived quality of life seems worse. However, we enjoy more technological advances, leisure time, and choices than ever before (ex: time, technology, choices). Search for Meaning/Direction – many theorists believe that this has become the basic challenge of modern life. This search has many manifestations, including the appeal of selfrealization programs, religious cults, and media “therapists”. SelfHelp Books –An interesting manifestation of people’s struggle to find a sense of direction. Some of these are worthwhile but most of them are full of psychobabble, they place more emphasis on sales than scientific soundness, they don’t provide explicit directions about how to change your behavior, and they encourage a remarkably selfcentered, narcissistic approach to life. Psychobabble – a word used to describe the “hip” but hopelessly vague language used in many selfhelp books. Narcissism – the tendency to regard oneself as grandiosely selfimportant. Psychology – the science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. Adjustment – the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Empiricism – the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. Scientific Approach – This method offers clarity and precision to enhance communication about important ideas. This method is also relative intolerance to error causing more accurate and dependable information than most analyses and speculations. Experiment – a research method in which the investigator manipulates an (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second (dependent) variable as a result. Independent Variable – in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable. Dependent Variable – in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulations of the independent variable. Control Groups – subjects in an experiment who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group. Correlation CoEfficient – a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables. Correlation CoEfficient (positively) – the type of correlation that indicates that two variables covary in the same direction. Correlation CoEfficient (negatively) – the type of correlation that indicates that two variables covary in opposite directions. Naturalistic Observation – an approach to research in which the researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects. Case Studies – an indepth investigation of an individual subject. Surveys – structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior. The Roots of Happiness – research on this is subjective, everything is relative, and people are bad at predicting what will cause this. Subjective WellBeing – individuals’ personal assessment of their overall happiness or life satisfaction. Overlearning – continued rehearsal even after you appear to have mastered it, people overestimate their knowledge of a topic. Distributed Practice – opposite of cramming. Taking breaks and intervals while studying. Flooding/Cramming – Fitting all your studying into one long massive study session. Organizing Info – retention tends to be greater when information is well organized. (ex: outlines and notes) Deep Processing – type of research that suggests that how often you go over material is less critical than the depth of processing that you engage in. Mnemonic Devices – strategies for enhancing memory. Acrostics – phrases in which the first letter of each word functions as a cue to recall the abstract words (ex: Every Good Boy Does Fine or Roy G. Biv). Link Method – mental image of items that links them together (bizarre as possible). Method of Loci – items remembered with familiar places. (ex: hot dog/driveway, cat food/garage). Big Five Personality (CANOE): Conscientiousness – diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, dependable; strong self discipline and ability to regulate oneself effectively. Agreeableness – sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, straightforward (opposite is suspicious, antagonistic, aggressive); associated with empathy and helping behavior, negatively associated with income/esp w/males. Neuroticism – anxious, hostile, selfconscious, insecure, vulnerable; tend to overreact in response to stress, exhibit relatively more impulsiveness and emotional instability. Openness (to experience) – curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, unconventional attitudes; tend to be tolerant of ambiguity and have less need for closure on issues. Extraversion – outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, gregarious; more positive outlook on life, motivated to pursue social contact, intimacy, and interdependence. Repression – keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious. Projection – attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another person. Displacement – diverting emotional feelings (ex: anger) from their original source to a substitute target. Regression – a reversion to immature patterns of behavior. Rationalization – creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable (to oneself) behavior. Identification – bolstering selfesteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. Experiments Advantages – They allow scientists to draw conclusions about causeandeffect relationships between variables. Allows researchers to be able to isolate the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. No other research method can isolate that relationship. Experiments Disadvantages – Researchers are often interested in the effects of variables that cannot be manipulated (as independent variables) because of ethical concerns or practical realities. The size of the coefficient indicated the strength of the association between two variables. Naturalistic Observation’s main advantage – It allows researchers to study behavior under conditions that are less artificial than in experiments. Case Studies main advantage – They are well suited for investigating certain phenomena, especially the roots of psychological disorders and the efficacy of selected therapeutic practices. Surveys Advantages – They give psychologists a way to explore questions that they could not examine with experimental procedures. They broaden the scope of phenomena that psychologists can study. Surveys Disadvantages – The investigator doesn’t have the opportunity to control events in a way to isolate cause and effect. They can’t demonstrate conclusively that two variables are causally related. The Roots of Happiness: What isn’t very important? – Money, Age, Gender, Parenthood, Intelligence, Physical Attractiveness. What is somewhat important? – Health, Social Activity, Religion, Culture. What is very important? – (Love, Marriage, Relationship Satisfaction), Work, (Genetics, Personality). Improving Academic Performance: Developing Sound Study Habits Setting Up A Schedule For Studying Finding A Place To Study Where You Can Concentrate Rewarding Myself For Studying Improving My Reading Getting More Out Of Lectures
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