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Biology 2108K Study Guides

by: Jasmine Guo

Biology 2108K Study Guides Biology 2108

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Jasmine Guo

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All of these study guides have answers attached. These study guides range from Animal Diversity to Immune Systems to Nervous Systems.
Biology 2108k
Dr. Matthew Nusnbaum
Study Guide
Biology, biology2108, dr.nusnbaum, biology2108k
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Guo on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 2108 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Matthew Nusnbaum in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 269 views. For similar materials see Biology 2108k in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
38.3 The Vertebrate Endocrine System  1. What part of the brain is responsible for processing sensory signals within the brain and  transmitting those signals to the endocrine​ypothalamus  2. What role does the hypothalamus have with the pituitat relays signals  3. What is the role of the pituitart releases hormones that coordinate the  action of many other endocrine glands and tis ues. 4. What are the main functions of the pituita[Control growth and maturation of  body, regulate reproductive development functions of animals, coordinate  digestion and metabolism, and control water balance}  5. How are nervous system signals transmitted to the endocrin​hrough the  hypothalamus  6. What gland forms from the epithelial cells that develop and push up from roof the  mouth? Anterior pituitary gland  7. What gland develops the neural tissue at the base of the brain? Posterior pituitary gland  8. The hypothalamus contains what type of​Neurosecretory cells  9. What is the function of neurosecretor​hey release hormones into the  bloodstream and communicate with the anterior pituitary gland  10.  Fact: Some neurosecretory cells secrete hormones called releasing factors into  small blood vessels that travel to and supply the anterior pituitary gland  11. What are the anterior pituitary gland ​{Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH),  Follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH),  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).  12. What glands do the hormones act​SH acts on thyroid gland, LH acts on male  and female gonads(ovaries and testes), ACTH act on adrenal glands.  13. Hormones that control the release of other hormones are what kind of hormones?  Tropic Hormones  14. In response to TH, what happ​hyroid releases thyroid hormones that regulate  the metabolic state of body.  15. In response to FSH and LH, what happ​varies release estrogen and  progesterone and testes release testosterone.  16. In response to ACTH, what happThe adrenal glands release cortisol, which has  diverse side effects that stimulate glucose release into blood stream, maintaining  blood sugar and suppressing immune system.  17. The anterior pituitary gland secretes what ​oe Growth Hormone, which  generally acts on the muscles, bones, and other body tissues to stimulate growth  and prolactin{stimulates milk production in breast of female mammals}  18. What two hormones does the posterior pituitary gla​Oxytocin and  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).  19. What is the major role of OxIt causes uterine contraction during labor and  stimulates the release of milk during breastfeeding.  20. How does the antidiuretic hormone act on the t regulates the concentration   21. of urine that animal secretes {critical for maintaining water and solute balance in  body}.  22. Where is the thyroid gland loIn front of the neck  23. What does thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)​Cellular metabolism  throughout body.  24. What is the term used to describe the overproduction of thyroid hormones?  Hyperthyroidism  25. What is the term to describe thyroid deHypothyroidism  26. How do both terms function in theThey both create symptoms that reflect  either an overly active metabolic state ( increased appetite and weight loss) or a  metabolism that is slow (fatigue and sluggishness).  27. What element does thyroid hormones require for forIodine  ​ 28. What does iodine insufficiency stimulates in ​timulates increased  production of TSH by the anterior pituitary gland because of the absence of  negative feedback.  29. What are the Gonadotropic hormon​ollicle stimulating hormone and the  Luteinizing Hormone  30. What is the major role of  (FSH) anOvary and testis secrete sex hormones  that regulate their own development, sexual differentiation, and maturation of  sexula characterisitcs.  31. What are the female sex hormon​teroids estrogen and progesterone  32. What is the male sex hormo​ndrogen testosterone  33. What is testoster Its a naturally anabolic steroid that stimulates synthesis in  the testes if proteins needed for sperm production and development of male  sexual features and body tissue ;growth in muscles.  34. ACTH is what kind of hormo​ts a tropic hormone released by the anterior  pituitary gland  35. What does ACTH act onThe cortex (outer portion) of paired adrenal glands.  36. Where are the adrenal glands loc​hey are located adjacent to kidneys  (ad=near, renal=kidneys)  37. What does ACTH secrete during times of sStimulates adrenal cortex cells to  secrete cortisol  38. What does the parathyroid glan It secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)  39. What is the function of Calc​t is secreted by the TG and PTH; it regulates the  actions of bone  cells ( osteoclasts and osteoblasts) that control bone formation  and bone removal  and calcium levels on blood.  40. Where is the pineal gland locn the thalamic region of the brain  41. What does the pineal gland​t responds to autonomic nervous system input by  secreting melatonin.  42. What is melaton It is a hormone that helps control an animal’s state of  wakefulness.  43. How does the pineal gland work in squirrels, bats, bears, and ​t regulates  I hibernation., animal’s metabolic state.  44. How does the sympathetic nervous system work with the adrenal The nervous  system sends axons to the adrenal medulla.  45. What are the hormones that are secreted by cells of the adrenal medulla? Epinephrine  and norepinephrine  46. How do the two hormones function throughout the body? H ​ormones lead to changes  in the fight­or­flight response and act as neurotransmitters in the brain.            Chapter 44.3  ● Bilaterian Animals  ­Lophotrochozoans (mollusks and annelid worms)  ­Ecdysozoa (insects and arthropods)  ­What is the body type of annelid worms? Cylindrical Body with distinct segments  ­What are the body characteristics of annelids? Head has a developed mouth, internally a  cerebral ganglion that connects to extensive nervous system, digestive  system(crushing,digesting,excreting ingested food)  ­What is the difference b/t aquatic annelids and terrestrial earthworms? Aquatic annelids have  gill like organs for gas exchange; terrestrial earthworms exchange gases through their skin.  ­What is a distinguished structure of mollusks? Mantle( used for breathing and excretion); forms  the shell  ● Gastropods (Stomach Foot)­ (Snails and slugs)  ­Contains radula for feeding  ­Mouth connects to gut cavity that extends to anus  ­Contains feather like gills for gas exchange  ­Muscular foot for locomotion  ­Body cavity: coelomates; generally surrounds heart and organs  ­Mantle: Mantle tissues secrete external skeletons of calcium carbonate(forms shells)  ● Cephalopds (Head Foot)  ­Have muscular tentacles that capture prey and sense the environment  ● Bivalves ( Two Shells)  ­Skeleton of two hard shells connected by a flexible hinge  ­1st: Siphon extends upward from bivalve body to seafloor  ­2nd: Siphon return water and waste materials to environment    Myriapods: Many pairs of legs   ­Centipede (hundred legs)  ­Millipede (thousand legs);produce a substance contains cyanide; to defend against predators    Insects:  Spiracles: exchange gases through small pores in exoskeleton    ● Deuterstomes  *Echindoerms­ Water Vascular System  *Tube Feet­ small projections of the water vascular system that extend outward from the body  surface, facilitate locomotion, sensory perception, food capture, and gas exchange.        Excretory Systems Study Guide ● What does osmolarity refer to? o The osmotic concentration of an osmotically active substance in solution, expressed as osmoles of solute particles per liter of solution. ● What is the difference between an osmoregulator and an osmoconformer? o Osmoregulator- expand energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic environment o Osmoconformer- match their body fluid osmolarity to that of the surrounding environment o What are the advantages of osmoregulation? Disadvantages? ▪ Advantage- cells exist in uniform/ionic environment ▪ Disadvantage- more energy required to complete ● What challenges do animals in hyperosmotic environments face? Hypoosmotic? o Hyper- less inside cell, more in environment o Hypo- more inside cell, less in environment o How do animals in each of these situations deal with the challenge? ▪ Osmoregulation and osmooconformation o What mechanisms are there to manipulate osmolarity? ▪ Increase/decrease in cell volume ▪ Increase/decrease in water and electrolytes ● How does salt excretion work? What improves the efficiency of the process? o Salt glands work by actively pumping ions from the blood into cells that make up the gland, followed by excretion of salt from the body through the gland and the nasal cavity. Their salt glands allow these animals to gain net water intake by drinking seawater. ● What are the main nitrogenous waste products and what are the differences between them? o Ammonia- generally release it across the whole body surface or through gills (MOST TOXIC, BUT IT’S EASILY RELEASED IN WATER) o Urea- carried to the kidney where it is excreted o Uric Acid- largely insoluble in water and can be secreted as a paste with very little water loss (LEAST TOXIC, BUT MORE ENERGETICALLY COSTLY TO PRODUCE) o Which animal groups utilize each of these products and why? ▪ Ammonia- most aquatic animals, mostly bony fish ▪ Urea- mammals, most amphibians, sharks ▪ Uric Acid- many reptiles, including fish; insects, land snails ● What processes take place in animal excretory systems? o Filtration- pressure- filtering of body fluids o Reabsorption- reclaiming valuable solutes o Secretion- adding toxins and other solutes and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate o Excretion- removing the filtrate from the system o What kinds of adaptations are necessary for these functions? ▪ Isolation of the waste into an extracellular space; waste compounds are isolated in a cellular compartment called a contractile vacuole ● Fusion of the contractile vacuole with the cell membrane eliminates the waste contents by exocytosis from the cell o What are the different animal systems described in the text? ▪ In flatworms, excretion involves isolating the fluid from the body cavity in excretory organs calledprotonephridia ▪ In segmented annelid worms such as earthworms, the body fluid is filtered through small capillaries into a pair of excretory organs cametanephridia ▪ In insects and other terrestrial arthropods, fluid passes from the main body cavity into a series of tubes cal​alpighian tubules ● Be able to describe the structures of the vertebrate kidney and how they are organized o Vertebrates filter their blood through specialized capillaries that have openings in their walls. o These porous capillaries form a tufted loop calledGLOMERULUS o There are thousands to millions of glomeruli in each kidney. Driven by circulatory pressure, nitrogenous wastes, electrolytes, other small solutes, and water move through small holes in the capillary walls into an extracellular space surrounded by a capsule. o The filtrate then moves through a series oRENAL TUBULES​ , which further process the filtrate by reabsorption and secretion before it enters COLLECTING DUCTS​ as urine. o The collecting ducts converge on a larger tube called tURETER​, which brings urine from the kidneys to a hollow organ called the bladder in mammals and fishes, or the cloaca in the case of amphibians, reptiles, and birds, for storage and elimination from the body. o What is a nephron? ▪ The glomerulus, capsule, renal tubules, and collecting ducts make up a nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. ▪ Perform the three basic steps of excretion and osmoregulation: filtration of blood passing through the glomerulus, reabsorption from the renal tubule back to the bloodstream of key electrolytes and solutes, and secretion of additional wastes by the renal tubules. o How are they organized in the kidney? ▪ The kidneys run along the length of the body, with nephrons arranged segmentally. ● What is special about the glomerulus and what is it for? o A network of capillaries tightly bound by another set of epithelial cells o What are podocytes? ▪ Epithelial cells ● How does the shape of the nephron allow the kidney to concentrate urine and what mechanisms are involved in this process? o Mammalian kidneys concentrate urine as an adaptation to living on land; the organization of the nephrons allows for efficient extraction of urea from the blood o What is the Loop of Henle? Who was Henle? (just kidding…) ▪ A curvature in the renal tubule that reverses the flow of the filtrate back pass the way it came o What solutes are brought into/out of the filtrate at each step in the process? ▪ What is active and what is passive transport? ● Water moves out through passive transport, making filtrate more concentrated ● Electrolytes are transported into the interstitial fluid through active transport o How does the osmolarity changes as the filtrate travels through the nephron? ▪ Increases going down through the proximal convoluted tubule ▪ Decreases going up towards distal convoluted tubule ▪ Then increase again going down to the filtrate to ureter ● How is the concentration of urine controlled in the body? o Through the Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) o In the presence of ADH, the collecting duct walls become permeable to water. This change in permeability occurs because aquaporins insert in the membrane of cells of the collecting duct. The aquaporins allow water in the collecting duct to diffuse into the interstitial fluid, thus making the urine in the tubule more concentrated. o Absence of ADH cases the conducting duct to be less permeable to water, resulting in dilute urine o Why might you want to decrease or increase the concentration of the urine? ▪ Dehydration ▪ Having Alcohol in your system Immune System Study Guide ● What are the three phases of the defense response? o 1) recognition phase o 2) activation phase o 3) effector phase o What takes place in each? ▪ 1) recognition: particle binds to receptor ▪ 2) activation: mobilization of cells and molecules to fight invader ▪ 3) effector: mobilized cells and molecules destroy invader by digesting particle ● What are the differences between non-specific and specific defenses? o Non-specific (INNATE)-provides protection in a nonspecific manner against ALL kinds of infections; does not depend on exposure of pathogen o Specific (ADAPTIVE)-specific to A PARTICULAR a pathogen; it remembers past infections and subsequent encounters with the same pathogen, which ultimately generates a stronger response o What are the players in the non-specific defenses? What is another name for the non-specific defense system? ▪ Mast cells- releases histamine (an important contributor to allergic reactions and inflammations) ▪ Granulocytes- a white blood cell with secretory granules ● Basophil ● Eosinophil ● Neutrophil ▪ Phagocytes- immune cells that engulf and destroy foreign cells; travel freely in the lymph and circulatory systems ● Neutrophil ● Macrophages ● Dendritic Cells ▪ Natural Killer- does not recognize foreign cells, but they recognize and kill host cells that are affected by a virus or have become cancerous o What cell types are involved in specific defenses? What is another name for the specific defense system? ▪ INNATE= another name ▪ B cells ● Memory cells ● Plasma cells ▪ T cells ● Cytoxic t cells ● Helper t cells ● Where does lymph come from? o Lymph= fluid derived from blood and other tissues; from the tissues, lymph moves into lymph system vessels ● What do the lymph system vessels do? o It transports material through lymph nodes throughout the body. They join and eventually form the thoracic duct, which joins the circulatory system at a major vein near the heart! o What is the role of the lymphatic system in the function of the immune system? ▪ Protects us against disease ▪ The cells of the lymphatic system respond to environmental pathogens, toxins, abnormal body cells (such as cancer) ● What are the roles of the complement protein system in aiding the immune system? o They’re inactive proteins in the blood activated by bacterial infection to disrupt bacterial invaders and to recruit phagocytes o It supplements other parts of the immune system o How do these proteins carry out their functions? ▪ 1) Lysis- breaking open of cells; complement proteins form a membrane attack complex (MAC) that makes holes in bacteria cells ▪ 2) phagocytosis- coating of bacteria with a protein that phagocytes recognize, causing it to engulf the bacteria and destroy it ● Phagocytes play very important roles in the immune system- there are a number of different varieties, but in general what do they all do? o Foreign cells, viruses, and fragments become attached to the phagocyte membrane and become engulfed- ultimately they destroy the pathogen o What specializations do phagocytes have to carry out their roles? ● What is inflammation and what does it do for the body? o A physiological response of the body to injury that removes the inciting agent if present and begins the healing process o Causes the following… ▪ Redness ▪ Warmth ▪ Swelling ▪ Pain o Why do we have inflammation? ▪ Triggered by histamine release ▪ Allows wounds to heal ● What is another name for an antibody? o Immunoglobulins o What do antibodies do in the body? ▪ They bind directly to antigens, effectively coating the surface of the invader, in order to prevent pathogens from entering or damaging healthy body cells. ▪ Antibodies can also stimulate other parts of the immune system (e.g. complement proteins) to destroy the pathogens. ▪ Antibodies can mark pathogens through a process called opsonization so that the pathogens can be identified and neutralized by other immune cells. ● What are the parts of an antibody/how can the body produce such a wide variety of antibodies? (Look at the slide on Antibody diversity, and read about the process in your text) o Parts Include: ▪ H (heavy) Chains ▪ L (light) Chains ▪ V (variable region),D (diversity region),J (joining region), and C (constant region) gene segments o Genomic Rearrangement= key to diversity o The association of different L and H chains to make a functional antibody contributes to antibody diversity ● What is opsonization? o This is a means of identifying the invading particle to the phagocyte. ● What are the differences between T cells and B cells? o B-cells can connect to antigens right on the surface of the invading virus or bacteria. This is different from T-cells, which can only connect to virus antigens on the outside of infected cells. o What does each do? ▪ B cells- provide antibody-mediated immunity; they defend against antigens and pathogens in body fluids ▪ T cells- provide cell- mediated immunity; they defend against abnormal cells and pathogen inside the cell ● Why do B cells need to be “selected for” and how does that selection work? o What is a Plasma cell? ▪ A short-lived antibody-producing cell derived from a B cell. ● B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. ● Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or destruction. ● What are TC​ells (as opposed to H​ells)? o T​= Cytoxic T cells -> kill other cells, activated by cytokines released from helper T c ​ cells o TH ​Helper T cells -> help other cells of the immune system by secreting cytokines o What is the difference between a memory T cell and an effector T cell? o What are Natural Killer (NK) cells? ▪ does not recognize foreign cells, but they recognize and kill host cells that are affected by a virus or have become cancerous ● What is Immunological Memory and what cell types are involved? o Immunological Memory allows the adaptive immune system to rapidly clear infection due to the fact that the infections have been encountered before ● How do cellular and humoral immune responses differ? o How do they become activated? ▪ Humoral Immune- this involves the use of antibodies produced by the b cells to attack any invading foreign bodies like bacteria, viruses etc. Production of memory cells also takes place for a faster response in case of a second infection. ▪ Cellular Immune- this involves the destruction of self-cells damaged by mutations or infected by viruses. This form of immunity includes cells like cytotoxic t cells and nk cells. What is a vaccination and what is its purpose? o Why bother getting one? ▪ Purpose of vaccination is to produce immunity. Immunity means the presence in a person's body of cells and substances known as antibodies that can produce a protective immune response. ● How do immune cells recognize “self” vs foreign? o What are MHCs? What is the difference between type I and type II? ▪ Composed of many genes with high rate of polymorphism (meaning there’s a lot of variety in gene sequences) ▪ Class I- genes are expressed on surface of nucleated cells ▪ Class II- genes are expressed on surface of dendrite, macrophages, and B-cells Muscular System Review Sheet­ Questions to be able to answer  ● What are the functions of the muscular system?  ­generates force and produces movement      ● What are 2 characteristics of all muscles?  ­they all use muscle proteins actin and myosin, these proteins are used to contract and  generate force  ­organized in thin(actin) and thick (myosin) filaments     ● What are the 3 types of muscle? Where is each located? How does each appear? How does  each contract and are contractions rhythmic?  ­smooth: non­striated, contract slowly, functions to force fluid through internal channels;  regulates blood flow, control air flow  ­cardiac: striated, functions to power the heart; conracts to pump the heart   ­skeletal: striated, function to move libs and torso  ● What covers each individual muscle fiber?  o Elongated cells that are embedded in surrounding connecting tissues   ▪ Endomysium​  is the name of the fine connective tissue sheath that  surrounds/covers each single/individual muscle fibre  ● What wraps around fascicles?  o Fasciles are bundles of muscle fibers   o Fasciles are wrapped by perimysium     ● What binds many fascicles into an entire muscle?  o Since the perimysium wraps many fascicles (muscle fibers), together they are  binded by the epimysium     ● How are muscles attached to bones?  o Muscles attach to the bones by many connective tissues and specialized tendons  made of collagen     ● What are the 4 distinguishable regions (bands, zones) of myofibrils­ what is a sarcomere?   o The sarcomere is the basic contractile unit of muscle arranged along the muscle  fiber; largely determines a muscle’s ability to contract and generate force   ● Diagram a relaxed muscle showing these 4 regions.  o   ● Diagram a contracted muscle showing the major regions. Which disappears? Which  shortens?  ● What composes thick myofilaments?  o Myosin     ● What composes thin myofilaments?  o Actin w/ tropomyosin coiled around it; also with an active site of troponin (where  calcium comes to bind to it)     ● What is a motor unit? Diagram one.    o A motor unit is the partnership between a motor neuron and muscle tissue; motor  neurons are what causes a muscle tissue to fire    ● What are the steps in contraction ?  What are the players?  o The player= Ca2+, ATP, Actin, Myosin, Troponin, Tropomyosin   o Step 1: Myosin binds to the ATP, which leads to the detachment of Actin   o Step 2: ATP then hydrolizes to ADP, which causes myosin head to cock back   o Step 3: Myosin binds actin, forming a cross bridge­ meaning the filaments are  sliding to create overlap   o Step 4: ADP are now released, producing a power stroke­ which causes thin  filaments to slide relative to thick filament     o Explain the sliding filament model of contraction  ▪ Thin filaments past the thick filaments so that actin and myosin overlap;  do not change length; myosin does not change position     o Explain the excitation­contraction coupling mechanism  ▪ Contraction occurs immediately following depolarization and the release  of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum   ▪ Ca2+ then binds to the troponin active site which releases actin to get  binded to the myosin head     ● What do the terms sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcoplasm refer to in terms of  the muscle cell?  o Sarcolemma= the plasma membrane of a striated muscle   o Sarcoplasmic reticulum= a specialized type of smooth ER that regulates the  calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm of striated muscle cells  ● How long does it take a muscle cell to contract?  o Smaller forces use higher amounts of velocity to contract  o Larger forces use lower amounts of velocity to contract     o What is meant by a muscle twitch?  ▪ The response of a muscle to a single, brief stimulus   ● What is an “all or none response?”  o The strength by which a muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is not dependent on  the strength of the stimulus. If the stimulus is any strength above threshold, the  nerve or muscle fiber will give a complete response or otherwise no response at  all.  ● What molecule is needed to provide energy for contraction? What are the 3 ways it can be  produced?  o ATP is the energy source   o 3 Ways are…  ▪ Creatine phosphate (no oxygen required)   ▪ Glycolysis  (no oxygen required)   ▪ Aerobic Cellular respiration (oxygen required)   ● What is muscle fatigue? How is it caused? Who is likely to get it?  o Decrease in a muscle’s capacity to generate force; results in a decline in tension  despite ongoing stimulation   o Causes include overwork of muscles, poor sleep   o Sprinter, weight lifters  ▪ Slow Twitch­ muscles that contract slowly and consumes less ATP   ▪ Fast Twitch­ fibers in muscles generate more quickly, creating rapid  movement, and utilizing more ATP    


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