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World History 1010- Daren Ray

by: Anna Gritters

World History 1010- Daren Ray Hist 1010-001

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Anna Gritters

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includes all notes that cover information for test number 3
World History 1
Daren Ray
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Gritters on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1010-001 at Auburn University taught by Daren Ray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
02.29.16 Chapter 10: ecological Imperialism The Mayans One way that royalty was able to declare authority was by claiming descent from a previous king Helps reinforce political power Mayan sequence Highlands 1800 BCE – 250 CE They started as Agriculture, small scale, and chiefdoms Make their own form of writing around 600 BCE Most writings were destroyed Lowlands 250 – 900 CE Establish as various competing states All are trying to create an empire over one another In what is today Guatemala This is the classical Mayan civilization Connection to Teotichuan Peninsula 900-1500 CE They transform and move their empire Yucatan Peninsula Chechen Itza Main city for Mayan City classical location Relocated to Yucatan peninsula Had to use different forms of irrigation Moving water around and helping sustain a larger population even though the areas are dry Consequences of Mayan Success: Maize Frontiers Start to expand in trade routes Cahokia Small scale forgers and hunters Cultivated sunflower seeds and other little crops However once they had contact with people of Mesoamerica, they started to grow maize. Commerce provides people with luxuries. Reasons why people want to be in these large societies Canyon cultures In a more dangerous part Got to go through mountain parts where you have to go through raiders Mesoamerica to the Canyon has to negotiate to get through Utilizing this maize product Using irrigation technology to help sustain Nazca In Peru They are not in contact with Nazca The path to Peru no one took, so there’s no connection They also use irrigation Created large scale images using math on the ground Transforms the landscape Maize frontiers 2 routes going from Mesoamerica into North America Why isn’t there a connection here? What is ecological important about the middle reaches of the United States? You can’t do anything with the prairies Ecological barriers that’s what prevents the east west access Learn from the Americas Commerce is encouraging societies to scale up Ingenuity doesn’t guarantee longevity Has to figure out how to sustain the environment as well Commercial isolation Merchants in India had resulted to hiring mercenaries Silk Road is dying out Rome had fallen and wasn’t participating in the Indian Ocean Europe Blocked off and can’t participate Because of the steppe landers and the caliphates Commerce can’t help them scale up Japan Simply chooses to leave behind the commercial realm The Japanese Prince Shotoju promotes Chinese models Confucianism We’re trying to become as Chinese as possible 838 emperor suspends trade Now they focus on rice production They now work harder to ensure that they can self-sustain Principle 1 Ecological imperialism: states are using their resources to promote production When Persians conquered a place, they didn’t change how the people farmed Japan is micromanaging the people they conquer They tell people how to use their land and what to do with it. Adopt dry rice farming No more wet farming, that limits you to only the wetlands Barley instead of millet as a secondary crop Principle 2 Idea of territorialization Political consequence of this Trying to get to as many of these provinces as possible Empire to shogunate Tale of genji People want to be in the capital Be close to the ruler and to his power and influence Ability to move up in the system Some elite benefit by being out in the provinces Tiara Minamoto clans live in provinces They don’t go to the emperor Instead they obtain provincial governors Asian policies of ecological imperialism Similar policies will be enacted in china, Korea, and japan Split all the acreage between people so that they more intensively use the land Encourage settlement in unused places Planting mulberry trees Chola Kingdom South Asia Got his start by cutting down a bunch of trees Turned his backs on merchants Later kings really focused on merchants They would fund expeditions and raids in the Indian Ocean At some point they realized they were making a ton of money with food rather than commerce Turned their backs on the merchants and focused on their land Most Indian states were really focused on commerce This brings about a big change to make money more certain Ethiopia: from Axum to lalibela Estella is the pillars of Axum Church of Saint George *carved from stone Gets people to want to build stone churches Benefits for the people are offered Alliance forms with the monks Helps with the religious buildings 03.02.16 Crusades, and other Skirmishes in Asia Weager Turkish speaking pastoralists Chinese recruited wegers to work for them Validates this method to work with the pastoralists Chinese says... It’s not worth it to continue to fight the pastoralists They recognize that the Chinese are superior What happened to the Tang? They are validating this, but this is what made the Tang fall Tang had a problem with succession They named a successor during the life Problem: with harem politics, once they decided the heir they got assassinated Now there’s no emperors when they die, so there is chaos People are raiding and attacking the empire, security of the empire break down Thus, the generals turn to the pastoralists Weagers didn’t assimilate fast enough into society helping contribute to the fall Huang Chao (a rebel) Zhu Wen (his successor) Most successful unifiers of the period Song Dynasty Founder: Taizu Emperor 960-1279 Fairly successful, more prosperous and famous Not nearly as large as previous empires Still have to deal with the incoming pastoralists Liao (Khitan) The empire run by Khitan people Organized the state along Chinese states in the south Ran their government etc. among their own people Had a truce with china Song dynasty pays them off to keep them at bay How they maintain the peace Liao thought this was a tribute But Chinese and Song dynasty thought of it as a gift Referred to the Liao as relatives Xia (Tangut 900 mile state along the steppe lands On the east they touch china Not a great way to survive in the steppe lands Give them a lesser payment Jurchen (Manchu) Now hunters are involved Had been killing it out where they were Take over the yellow river and run that area Song is no longer in control of the yellow river However because they are a hunter society, they can’t really compete in size Thus they assimilate into Chinese culture Later dynasties reclaim these areas of china Song prosperity Despite paying all these other groups off, they still have a lot of money Follow a lot of ecological imperialism Most obvious in Sichuan Province They cut down lots of trees Plant tea and mulberry bushes (for silk worms to eat) Two political programs in competition Ouyang Xiu (theorist) Cultural appeasement to solve pastoralist threats Return to Confucian classics to fix internal issues Zho xi provides new secular synthesis of Confucianism Wang Anshi (empiricist) He runs the government but isn’t the emperor Universal conscription to fend of invaders Interviewing people to see if the government policies are actually working Policy experimentation Response to pastoralists Doesn’t really work for the states Is okay for song because they just do protection payments They can successfully assimilate people into their world and culture States continue to have this problem with pastoralists But it’s a very fine strategy Islamic world Seljuk Turks Seljuk has lots of sons and splits the area up into a bunch of different states Conquer the Abbasid caliphate “fracture” Reach all the way into even Byzantium Slowly destroying the empires No new Islamic empire for a while, just competing caliphates Barbarians vs. Byzantium Placed very well between the black sea and eastern mediterrean sea Works well in-between all the different types of trade But also have to deal with all the different barbarians North bulgars South Celtic Turks (Sunni Islam) Byzantium “commonwealth” means there is ring of allies all around them Basil II Saves everything Cuts through the red tape to increase revenues and assert authority Only has daughters and no really close male relatives Daughters attempt to rule but it doesn’t really work out Crusades Pilgrims pamphlet Good think for Christians to do, go to the holy land where Jesus walked Palestine Conquered the Fatimid’s (the crusades did) The they killed lots of people Became unsafe to go on pilgrimages Video Highlights Crusades didn’t help Byzantium Basically destroyed it Knights pursued chivalry instead of the holy life of monks The great schism Catholic pope and orthodox patriarch also excommunicated each other in 1054 TERMS TO KNOW Oath of Fealty: a promise of loyalty given to a lord in the presence of a priest or a bishop Fief: a piece of land given by a Lord to his Vassal in exchange for fealty 03.07.16 Mongol empire Wasn’t a grand centralized bureaucratic state Didn’t have Mongols in every single unit Broad administrative units splitting everything up Uses humiliation to receive tribute to the state Rule from two places Khanbalik= Todays Beijing Karakorum (where Genghis Khan got his start) A civilized and spiritual sections Chagatai Khan Covered the silk roads, primarily steppe land Great Khan Conquered a lot Golden Horde Conquered todays Russia Mongols religious tolerance Relate civilizations to religions See similar patterns among other groups as well Chinese and Confucianism Europeans and Christianity Mongke Khan We believe in one god (same as the other groups) Yuan Dynasty in China Kubilai Khan Reign 1265-1294 New capital at Beijing Consequence of conquest: Changing back to the yellow river instead of the Yangzi Appoints the Muslim scholars Ulama to key leadership positions They had previously brought in others to help them conquer other groups CONFUCIAN SCHOLARS ARE PISSED Mongol rulers don’t really care about the countryside Do tax farming He collects taxes and makes a quota and gives the money Result: easy for Mongol rulers to take money from cities then the countryside Therefor the city is taking money from the countryside Government isn’t balanced and there an emphasis on the cities Mongol Conquests in Russia Batu 1240-1255 Controlled the golden horde in Eastern Europe The Russ or Russians fall in Kiev in 1240 Allows other Russian cities that were focused on trade to grow more Join with the Mongols in ruling their areas Princes gather wealth through tax farmers Aristocracy is growing now in east Europe Consequences in Eastern Europe Russian Orthodox Church influence by resisting Mongol influence Mongols don’t adopt Christianity At the time, there had been a push by the Teuton knights had been pushing from west to east Mongol conquest stopped the advance of the Teutonic knights Il-Khanate Means lord not king Hulagu Khan Lead the battle Didn’t spill the blood of the Abbasid caliphate (but strangled and killed him) 1258 Golden horde used humiliation, IL-khan marries into local ruling family Son goes and marries a daughter of the local ruler, prevents areas from rebelling against the Mongols Il-khans becoming Shi’a Muslims in 1295 Had previously allowed all religions to be a member of their organizations But now they persecute all other religions to include Sunni Muslims Consequences in Persia Didn’t extend that much Trade under the Pax Mongolia Mongol conquest revived the Silk Road trades Mongol passport resembles a medallion Leaders have armed guards etc. You could travel the entire Silk Road basically without being attacked or stolen from Silk Road had always been divided Mongols unite the entire thing Increases the amount of Silk Road trade Marco Polo Came down the east then back up the west Shared innovations towards china William of Rubruck Missionary to learn and convert In sum Horses provided weak states some more strength Eastern Europe utilized this to call knights back when needed Ethiopia defends the plateaus Mongols use to expand Mongol conquests were impressive But they didn’t all have the same concepts and ideals Mongols renewed the cross-fertilization ideas on Silk Road BLACK DEATH Climate Change in the 14 century Average global temperatures dropped and lasted until the middle of the 19 century What was the Black Death? Diseases evolve so it isn’t clear what caused the Black Death It was at least genetically related Symptoms of other diseases were in peoples system as well What caused the plaque? Climate changes Some microbes reproduce more than others because they prosper in the new climate Diseases are also affecting animals Most epidemics start among animals Why was it so widespread? Mongols had helped spread everything via the silk roads Black sea to Eastern Europe Entered Italy, France then the rest of Europe Had the ability to support larger populations Fewer spaces between villages and cities Prime area for diseases to emerge and develop Consequences in Europe Peasants: End of serfdom End of labor services Better wages in cities > urbanization increases Peasants are demanding pay Monarchs centralize their power Aristocrats are counting on the monarchs to run stuff People are turning to religion more. But they have less confidence in the church because they can’t heal you Scapegoating of Jews and Muslims (blaming them for the Black Death) Accuse them as witches etc. They were bankers and stuff as well, so they wanted to kill them off Dual Hierarchies About 30 percent of society is dying, so they have to rebuild the hierarches China China can rebuild the population fairly quickly So can Europe Islamic world can’t ever really recover SI Session 03.08.2016 Crusades China Lots of experience dealing with pastoralists Don’t really waste time trying to eradicate them Try to incorporate them by having them work for them Steppe lands wouldn’t work very well for farming etc. Utilizes Confucianism, the steppe landers should be groveling to join. What happened to the tang? Issue of succession (in decline) Originally harem politics, but then start picking one during lifetime Leads to emperors getting killed because they wanted them to go. Bad alliance with the Turkish alliance groups (Weagers) When German invaders invaded the Roman Empire, they didn’t adapt to the society well Couldn’t carry out roman culture very well They are hired as soldiers but can’t sustain the lifetime Ten kingdoms period Huang Chau (last tang emperor) Ten kingdoms period is just civil war and issues going on? Song Dynasty Taizu (first emperor) Change in borders Borders get smaller Had to consolidate, give up holds on outside of borders, and expand 3 Barbarian kingdoms Liao: organized a state along Chinese borders in the south, Song pays them to not bother them, but Liao thinks of it as a tribute, but Song thinks of it as a gift. Xia: fought to a standstill, also receives payment but not as much Jurchen: take over yellow river and eventually assimilate into Chinese culture. Internal colonization- Sichuan Province Song china deforests the mountains to create iron and plant a ton of mulberry trees for the silk worms. Ouyang Xiu: creates constitution like thing (Theorist) Cultural appeasement to solve pastoralist threats Return to Confucian classics to fix internal issues Zho xi provides new secular synthesis of Confucianism Wang Anshi (empiricist) He runs the government but isn’t the emperor Universal conscription to fend off invaders Interviewing people to see if the government policies are actually working Policy experimentation China takeaway The policies they put in place don’t actual work for the state The Turkish Weagers mimic the situation that the Tang had going on for them Society and situation works better but government doesn’t really work. Islamic World response Seljuk Turks Come in and fracture the Abbasid caliphate Go down to Egypt and conquer the Fatimid’s in Egypt Barbarians vs. Byzantium “Commonwealth” Byzantium’s attempted solution is a commonwealth Commonwealth: wasn’t affective because Celtics were Sunni Muslims Anatolia as a “breadbasket” of Byzantium Breadbasket: where all the goods from agricultural goods from Basil II: conquers the bulgars to the north, ignores government protocol, brings in lots of revenue The Crusades Western Europe response to pastoralists (Seljuk’s) Existing idea of pilgrimage The Levant: site for Christian pilgrimage Pope Urban reasoning for Crusades 1 crusade was really successful 2 and 3 crusades kind of suck. One general takes over from the Christians Highlights from the crusades Don’t help byzantine from the Celtics Turkish threat Doesn’t make trade safe again because there are multiple crusades Knights and chivalry: holy religious orders are part of the crusade, religious virtue Crusades continues Great Schism 1054 Catholic Pope, Orthodox Patriarch The decide to excommunicate each other (AKA don’t talk to each other) Some reasons it might have happened: they were offended or saying one was lesser or greater than the other. Issues of authority Pope was having issues with Normans invading Italy Patriarch wouldn’t help 03.09.2016 Imperial Ambitions Survey of African States West Africa: Ghana East Africa: Swahili towns and the great Zimbabwe Sequence between trading states to military states Ghana Most important and the first one Emerges around 1000 CE Controls the port and trade routes that people come to as they exit the Sahara Sahara has lots of unlivable places They are mining salt in the sahara desert Ghana doesn’t have a lot of salt, so they take the salt from the desert 800-1000 CE groups like the Burburs are starting to trade across the other direction from the sahara Brings swords, horses, etc for Gold in areas south of Ghana Exchanging all these things along the borders Ghana sets up ready to receive traders from both directions Establish an entirely separate city “dual capital” One for local residents that speak the language etc One for the merchants who have independent places to live and establish laws w/o having influence on the locals Similar to how the Japanese worked But Japanese decided it didn’t work and entirely closed off trade Ghana seperates and isoloates the merchants so they don’t affect the true capital and city Eventually they are conquered by the Almoravids and convert to islam Mali Sets up ports around th Niger River Military state Think of jenne jeno  unites 2 trading zones, south along the river, and routes along the river Conquers this large area by calvary imported from north Africa *Impossible to raise horses in west Africa Mansu Musa is the ruler of the Mali empire in the 14 century He decides the wants to go on a pilgrimage Brings a crap ton of camels and things like that with gifts for his hajj On his way he takes so much gold that it actually loses its value in Egypt Big impression on egptians Leads ulamam (muslim scholars) to travel and go to learn about him Mali falls apart because of a succession crisis 2 potential rulers have a civil war Songhay comes in and takes over while there is an interior civil war Songhay Not as successful as Mali Becomes a muslim state Does a lot of trade East Africa In west Africa, you just need to control the ports There aren’t a ton of trade routes Its fairly easy to control trade East Africa has a huge coast line Its very difficult to regulate trade on the coastline Its easy to at the very top or at the red sea Ethiopia controlled the port adulis The very south is also a chokepoint Monssoon winds don’t take people past this point basically If you go past youre stuck for over a year No way to control which port the merchants are at Organize them into lots of different city states/town confederations Theses city states are competing in hospitality Want people to stay in their town No market places in these sawhili towns Its all based off of who you know and if ou have a plce to stay They are providing multiple products for textiles etc What motivates imperial ambitions in Africa? African politics organize people as opposed to wealth People are scare in Africa Need to make sure people want to be in your town Want different people that can do different things Need different skillsets and abilities Need someones to cultivate forests, plaster the walls, grow foods, etc. Cnsensual politics Divine kingship In Ghana Python decides who the king is based on who it went up to *but they do have council that has imput Councils Council of leading mercahnts that come together to make decisions Swahili coast Clan confederations Merchants command the greatest respect They get the luxuries etc along the coast Organize clans of lineages Family based and then unite them Some members of the clan go to completely different areas of the world Great Simbabwe Beyond the monsoons Its inland so you have to hike for awhile They are able to attract people by redistributing cattle Leaders called “cattle lords” When cattle wants to give birth, you attract client some cattle When the cattle has babies, the client get sto keep and own the babies Leads to increasing cattle herd sizes Turns cattle into wealth Gold is basically worthless because its so easy to find But figure out that people away from the Zimbabwe coast really value gold Cattle lords say when you aren’t being my client, go mine this gold and bring it back Then they send the gold to the Swahili coast and get herbs and luxuries etc Can’t sustain this many people on the grasslands, and have to leave They move away to what becomes Mwene Mutapa Territorial consequests in Africa People just run away if they don’t like the ruler Don’t really see these large empires because of this People cant really control the large amounts of people Ethiopia is using christinaty to ppull people to their empire Mali/Songhay utlize the sahel to pull peple to them They live in the grasslands and have horses But hou have to learn how to farm or become a merchant People feel trapped, soot hey just pay tribute and stay in the sahel Great lakes kingdoms Near lake Victoria The rise of these great kingdoms that have banana plantations Banana plantations were really effective Previous had been horticulture and slash and burn Bu banana plantation they can use the same plot of ground for 40 years Revolution in east African africulture Also sustains people for much longer So people don’t want to leave, and rulers start taxing people Why weren’t there large military states? Lotsof land few people The low population density of high desease and low soil fertility Few choke points Rulers really couldn’t rule and dictate the trade Lots of people don’t want a large state, they like their small farming society The americas Your wealthy if a lot of people follow you in africca Incas Live in the andes mountains in peru areas Territoializaiton and ecological imperialism (transforming the ladnscape for popwer) Lots of different of microenvironments because of the mountains Rulers try to control as many of these environments as possible Ecological imperialism: they take the people they’ve conquered and move them in places they havent settled yet Aztec Empire Emerged for the 13 to 16 centuryh CE Part of the Mixtec culture Created an alliance of 3 main cities No true center They rely on tribute, but primarily send luxury goods They were chronically committed to war Used the spoils of war to mark their position in society Priests are being trained to help run society and such Merchants paid for the priveledge to pretend to be a warrior Sacrificial victims are the currency of aztec poolitics Number of pepople you can capture in battle alive is how you measure success ADD IN THE NOTES 03.04.16, 03.11.16 03.21.16 Imperial Ambitions Why did the small staes of western Europe innovate oceanic imperialism as opposed to Asia? Comparing landed and oceanic empires Why were the Portuguese and dutch the first Europeans to entre the indian ocean Identify examples of mercantilist policies Mercantilists: like merchants Landed empires in Africa and Americas Songhay horse empire in west Africa Conquered the sahel Ethiopia horse empire Plataues in east afraica Great lakes Bana plantations Zimbabwe in Africa Great empire in south Africa These were the first to really focus on territory Land is a resource that the government needs to sustatin and help use The trade routes around the plateaus and salt from the desert is important Sees something similar along the Americas Aztecs are focusing on people Incas are focusing on land Aztecs are capturing people but are also expanding In these regions, this is he first time you see these states competitng with euraisa Asia Empires are rreviving the old empire Russian Empire: Moscovi State bringing back the roman empire Ottomans: bringing back constantipole, also heirs to Islamic caliphate Mogol empire: successors of the mongols Overalpping chronology of asaian empires The sttes are overlapping Theres a broad movement toward something, but you cant tell who will win Similar to homo sapiens vs. ad hominieems These empires are using and combining all the resources that are available from past empires World history is going to bet on one of these empires, but no one knows which will win Succession patterns in landed empires The patterns are different They all follow a similar pattern First they are founded Small lineages Ivan the first “moneybag” Was a tax collector The cities around took the hit of all the raids but Moscow was safe People flooded into moscovi so that they could survive Adding people made the taxes on the people less Used his resources as a tax farmer to hep move up in to a leadership position Osmon the first Was a calvary man Declared indenpendcene became a feudal lord Wasn’t until 120 years later, one of his descendants could challenge constanopl Ivan the 1 focuses on small city states Ivan the great (III) makes states bigger and expands a ton Czar Ivan IV (the terrible) really starts to take over and calls himself a Czar Mughals Mughal is a local proncounation of Mongol (means the same thing) Mongol that founded Mughal is Babur descendenat of timu the lame and Genghis Wants to revive the might of the mongol empire Is a well known raider Conquered Delhi, focused on amssing wealth Successor is one of the most effective warlord Akbar Baburs successor Creates a new state that allows them to expand their territory Marrying into all the local families He has over 800 wives, of the places he had conquered They are more like hostages Because he is the leader for so long, he doesn’t deal with sucession disputes Had them conquer the entire subcontinent of india Had a presence everywhere even if he wasn’t the direct ruler He encouraged coliving between muslism and hidus Created a weird sounding religion that combined both of those Aurengzeb INseas of bringing the religions together He makes muslim the state religion and starts killing hindu followers Leads to lots of civil wards under aurengzeb ruling He successed akbar Muscovy (Russians) Ivan 1 ‘moneybag” Uses the taxes to expand Ivan III “the great” Claimed heritage of rome after fall Czar Ivan IV “the terrible: Finalized control of the Volga river system Create a north to south trading axis Otttomans Occupy territory between the silk roads and the Mediterranean sea Assert their military power and dominance over western Europe Challenge the might of Italian merchants Unable to enter the indian ocean though Can’t stage a fleet Revive imperial tradtiions of the Islamic caliphate but also rome and Turkish pastoralists Focused on conquering terrioty, taxing peope, getting reousrces Wanting to trade using the resources based on the taxes Relationship between production and land and trade Really focused on production and land, trade is to the side Cracking the wind code What are they trading that the eastern Europeans want China is producing the ost, and most effienct economy Providing primarily silks and porcelain, also bronze and steel etc. Ottomans are trying to take more European land Muslims are trying to take back their parts of the land Problems In the bottom right hand of Africa is where the monsoon winds end You get stuck there Rotuguese go hey maybe there is a way to get passed Africa Primary motivation is just to get to the region that has gold (west Africa) Most famous is Columbus Everyone knew it was impossible to build a large enough ship for supplies to get all the way across and return Also didn’t know any wind routes Where did they go? 1440s they are just trying to get to the gold in west Africa Show up in Senegambia, they trade some spices and slaves etc. 15 years ater they make it to the pepper, ivory and slave coasts This was their goal but they keep going Kingdom of the kongo Really important because their leaders accepted christianirt Helped disatabilze the support of his competitors Ally with Portuguese king Created a centralized government Establish a portugues colonoy in Angola Then they reach Cape of Good Hope East traveling is beyond easy. The protuguese way: For God Saw themselves as the righteous berarers of chrsitendom Also used Christianity to create alliances Islam was already established as a major religion, but then converted to Christianty. Others looked at them as interlopers and kicked them out For Gold Tons of tiny states and chiefdoms and tribes competiting for trade with potuguese First ones to innovate for trade People use their language for trade Bring Asian goods that had never been there before El Mina the mine- modern day Ghana For Glody Very little likelihood that they will live Not focused on conquering land, they want to find more terrotiry at sea King will reward you for the new conquest You get to marry a princess Henry the Naigaor Establishes naval colleges Private renaissance patron Encourages training up Who Signs up? Lesser nobles hwo cant inhereit land Desperate merchants who are in tons of debt Monastic orders Graduates from his academy Adventurers convitcts dishermen Speakers of European languages Trading Post empires Not capturing lots of territory they are just dropping a trading post Leave one at all the different laces they reach These allow them to create a factory and then trade them with the local people Why do these people trust them The local manage the affairs of the trading posts European competition in the indain ocean Only suppliers for the area that they have stablished In 1637 the other European grups see what portugues is doing and copy it They use their own resources They start to take the Portuguese resources and trading posts for themselves Europe now has direct access to these products The Netherlands (Dutch) Dutch had been subjects of the holy roman empire Throught trick of succession, the roman empire inherited spain also inherited porutgal The dutch doesn’t want to be taken by roman empire Move capital from Antwerp to Holland Zeize Portuguese trading posts Dutch advantages Very goo dsea farers Establish a very efienct route Use joint stock companies Instead of states sending out missions People are buying stock in different ships As long as one of the ships they invested in they make a good bit of money First to emphazie territorial conquests Instead of buying spices, they produce their own spices. Meanwhile in the Americas Same thing that is going on 4 big powers, spain, Portuguese, britisih, and French competiting.


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