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ATSC 231 Block 1 Test Objectives

by: Eric DeGray

ATSC 231 Block 1 Test Objectives ATSC 231

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Eric DeGray


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Notes for first exam (No PIREPS)
Aviation Meteorolgy
Mr. Fred Remer
Study Guide
Aviation Weather
50 ?




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Popular in Atmospheric Sciences (ATM S)

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eric DeGray on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ATSC 231 at a university taught by Mr. Fred Remer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Introduction 1) Be able to use the PAVE checklist to identify risk elements a) Pilot b) Aircraft c) Environment  Risk Factor d) External Pressures 2) Be able to identify the percentage of aircraft accidents in which weather was a contributing or causal factor a) Weather was a cause of 20% of accidents between 2003-2007 i) Wind being the highest cause ii) Visibility was second 3) Be able to identify the type of weather that causes the highest percentage of accidents overall a) wind 4) Be able to identify the category of operation that had the highest percentage of weather related accidents and highest weather-related accident rate a) Part 91 (small noncommercial aircraft) 5) Be able to identify the type of weather that causes the most aircraft accidents for Part 91, 121 and 135 operations a) Part 91 – wind b) Part 121- turbulence c) Part 135 – visibility 6) Be able to identify general trends in Part 91, 121 and 135 accident statistics including (but not limited to) certificate held, flight time, light condition, injury severity and type of operation a) There are more accidents/hours flown 7) Be able to identify the definitions of aircraft accident and serious injury as stated in NTSB 830 a) Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours commencing within 7 days of accident b) Results in a fracture of any bone (except fingers, toes, or nose) c) Causes severe hemorrhage, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage. d) Involved and internal organ. e) Involves second or third degree burns or any burns affecting more than 5 percent of the body surface. 8) Be able to identify the definitions for pilot error, crew resource management and aeronautical decision making a) Pilot error – Term used to describe the cause of an accident involving and airworthy aircraft where the pilot is considered to be principally or partially responsible. b) Crew resource management – A management system which makes optimum use of all available resources, equipment, procedures and people to promote safety and enhance efficiency or flight operations. c) Aeronautical decision making – A systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances. 9) Be able to identify models of the aeronautical decision making process a) 5 P’s b) 3P’s c) OODA d) DECIDE (Detect, estimate, choose, identify, do, evaluate) Aviation Weather Service Program 1) Be able to recognize the agencies responsible for aviation weather and each of their responsibilities a) NOAA i) National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (1) To understand and predict changes in Earth’s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet our Nation’s economic, social, and environmental needs b) NESDIS i) National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (1) Provides timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, & enhance the Nation's economy, security, environment, & quality of life. c) SAB i) Satellite Analysis Branch (1) Operational focal point for (a) Real time imagery products (b) Multidisciplinary environmental analysis (2) Support disaster mitigation and warning services for US agencies (3) Schedules and distributes real time satellite imagery. d) NWS i) National Weather Service (1) Provides national database; Provides weather data, forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property. e) NCEP i) National Center for Environmental Protection (1) All global and metrological data is collected and analyzed (2) Provides a wide variety of national and international weather guidance products to everyone (3) Nine specialized centers for analyzing and forecasting (a) SPC (i) Storm Prediction Center (Norman, OK) 1. Provides tornado or sever weather watches for the contiguous US (b) AWC (i) Aviation Weather Center (Kansas City, MO) 1. Issues products through aviation digital data service (ADDS) in support of FAA air traffic controllers and national airspace system (NAS) (c) NHC (i) National Hurricane Center (Miami, FL) 1. Provides official NWS forecasts of the movement and strength of tropical weather systems 2. Issues appropriate watches and warnings for the contiguous US and surrounding areas. (d) NCO (i) NCEP Central Operations (College Park, MD) 1. Sustains and executes the operational suite or the numerical analysis and forecast models 2. Prepares NCEP products for dissemination 3. Links all 9 NCEP centers together via computer and communications-related services. (e) WPC (i) Weather Prediction Center (College Park, MD) 1. Provides analysis and forecast products specializing in a. Quantitative precipitation forecasts b. Weather forecast guidelines c. Real time model diagnosis d. Surface pressure and frontal analysis f) AAWU i) Alaskan Aviation Weather Unit (Anchorage, AK) (1) Issues aviation weather products for the airspace over Alaska and adjacent coastal waters g) CWSU i) Central Weather Service Unit (Located at ARTCC) (1) Staffed by NWS meteorologists (2) Provide timely weather consultation, forecasts and advice to traffic managers and controllers. (3) Monitoring, analysis and interpretation of real-time weather data (4) Special emphasis given to weather conditions hazardous to aviation (5) Issues weather products and advisories (6) Provide weather briefings to ARTCC h) WFO i) Weather Forecast Office (118 nationwide) (1) Multi-purpose local weather forecast center (2) Produces public and aviation forecasts and weather warnings for its area of responsibility (3) County warning area (CWA) i) FAA i) Federal Aviation Administration (1) Provide a safe secure and efficient aerospace system that contributed to the national security and the promotion or US aerospace safety. (a) ARTCSCC (i) Air Route Traffic Control System Command Center (Vint Hill, VA) 1. Balances air traffic demand with system capacity a. Maximizes safety and minimizes delay (b) ARTCC (i) Air Route Traffic Control Center 1. Control IFR aircraft within controlled airspace and principally during flight 2. Advisory/assistance services to VFR when workload and equipment capability exists. 3. Become familiar with pertinent wx info 4. Advise of weather within 150 nm 5. May solicit PIREPS (c) TRACON (i) Terminal Radar Approach Control 1. Manage airspace at selected airports (10-40 miles from airport below 13,00’) 2. Coordinate aircraft spacing on arrival and departure. 3. Become familiar with pertinent wx info 4. Advise of weather within 150 nm 5. May solicit PIREPS (d) ATCT (i) Air Traffic Control Tower 1. Provides services to aircraft operating in the vicinity of the airport 2. Authorizes aircraft to land and takeoff 3. Tower controllers act as official weather observers 4. Become familiar with pertinent wx info 5. Advise of weather within 150 nm 6. May solicit PIREPS (e) FSS (i) Flight Service Station 1. Provide preflight weather briefing 2. Provide assistance to lost aircraft 3. Conduct VFR search and rescue services 2) Be able to decode the acronym for each agency responsible for aviation weather 3) Be able to define primary and supplemental weather products a) In-situ  measured directly b) Remote  measured indirectly 4) Be able to give examples of various type of atmospheric observations i) Surface (1) Human Observers (2) ASOS (3) AWOS (4) LLWAS ii) Upper Air (1) Rawinsondes (2) Profilers (3) ACARS (4) Satellite iii) Radar (1) WSR-88D (2) TWDR iv) Satellite (1) Geostationary (2) Polar Orbiting v) PIREPS 5) Be able to define analysis a) A detailed study of the state of the atmosphere based on observations. Surface Weather Observations and Reports 1) Be able to decode surface weather observations with a high level of understanding a) METARS usually H55 b) ASOS usually H-15 to H+00 c) AWOS Every 20 minutes 2) Be able to identify the publication that contains the standards for surface weather observations a) Federal Metrological Handbook No. 1 (FMH-1) 3) Be able to identify the time period when SPECI observations are made a) Anytime (when special criteria have been observed) 4) Be able to identify the criteria for SPECI observations, particularly for ceiling and visibility a) Aircraft mishap b) Volcanic eruption c) Significant Wx change i) VFR (1) Visibility >5mi (2) Ceiling >3000’ ii) IFR (1) Visibility 3mi – 5mi (2) Ceiling 1000’-3000’ iii) IFR (1) Visibility <3mi (2) Ceiling <1000’ (a) Ceiling lowers, wind shift, RVR, Tornado or water spout, TS, Squalls, Precipitation, hail, freezing precip, ice pellets 5) Be able to decode all elements of the main body of surface weather observation including type of report, station ID, report modifier, wind, visibility, RVR, present weather, sky condition, temperature, dew point, and altimeter 6) Be able to define prevailing visibility and describe its significance to aviation 7) Be able to determine prevailing visibility given a horizon circle with sector visibilities 8) Be able to state the factors that determine the intensity of rain, snow, drizzle & ice pellets 9) Be able to determine sky condition given a celestial dome with various layers of clouds a) SKC or CLR 0/8 b) FEW  1/8 – 2/8 c) SCT  3/8 – 4/8 d) BKN  5/8 – 7/8 e) OVC  8/8 10)Be able to describe packing effect a) When humans overestimate cloud coverage 11)Be able to define vertical visibility 12)Be able to provide both definitions of ceiling 13)Be able to plain language data, automated language data, and selected additive data in the remarks section Automated Surface Weather Observations 1) Be able to identify the advantages of automated surface weather systems a) Timeliness – rapid updates (SPECI); occurs 24/7 b) Fully Automated – Observations where none existed before c) Cost Effective d) Consistent – Eliminates subjectiveness of human judgment. 2) Be able to determine from a METAR whether a ASOS is augmented or totally automated a) Automated reports had AUTO 3) Be able state the factor that determines the service standard level provided by a an ASOS a) There are four different levels (A,B,C,D) i) Depends on augmentation (Level of human input) b) Level D – minimum acceptable level (NO HUMAN AUGMENTATION) i) KJMS c) Level C – includes all level D plus a human who backs up the machine data is values are not representative of weather. i) KFAR d) Level B – has everything of C plus further augmentation (Smaller airport hubs with bad weather) i) Duluth e) Level A – Highest level; found at major hubs; reports cloud layers above 12,000 (a person does this because the machine can only go to 12,000) i) KGFK 4) Be able to identify the limitations of meteorological sensors a) Cloud Height indicator – will not report thin clouds or clouds above 12,000’; Doesn’t report clouds on the horizon; If there is precipitation above the sensor, it may report lower clouds; May take up to 10 minutes to accurately update cloud coverage; may undercount fair weather cumulus; reports more BKN than OVC but to packing; b) Forward Scatter Sensor (Visibility) – Represents area 2-3 miles surrounding sensor; minimum resolution th is 1/4 mile (Max=10SM); It DOES NOT measure backscatter of light (which is said to reduce visibility up to ½) c) Light emitting diode weather indicator (LEDWI) - 5) Be able to identify the maximum and minimum values of the meteorological sensors a) CHI – 12,000 MAX 3,000 Min b) FSS – 10SM max, 1/4SM min 6) Be able to decode ASOS and AWOS reports a) 7) Be able to describe how a ASOS or AWOS detects lightning a) Automated lightning detection and reporting system (ALDARS) – has an electrical field change (on radio wave) an optical sensor. (BOTH MUST BE TRIGGERED) 8) Be able to identify the types of precipitation reported by ASOS and AWOS a) LEDWI – rain and snow mix reports unknown precip (UP) i) Light snow and rain can go unreported (1) Rain - <.01” (2) Snow not reports if temp is greater than 38* (a) Light snow >1/2 mile vis (b) Moderate snow ½-1/4 (c) Heavy snow <1/4 mile vis ii) Magnetostrictive Oscillator – measures freezing rain 9) Be able to identify the type of obscurations reported by ASOS a) Fog (FG) b) Mist (BR) c) Freezing Fog (FZFG) d) Haze (HZ) e) Blowing Snow (BLSN) 10)Be able to decode remarks that pertain to the operational status of the ASOS or AWOS a) RVRNO – RVR missing b) PWINO – present weather sensor inoperative c) PNO – tipping bucket inoperative d) FZRANO – Freezing rain sensor inoperative e) TSNO – lighting detection sensor inoperative f) VISNO – visibility sensor inoperative g) CHINO – ceiling height indicator inoperative h) $ sensor is broken (can usually be repair by resetting the software) Pilot Reports 1) Be able to identify the significant aspects of pilot reports 2) 3) Be able to identify conditions that require ATC to solicit pilot reports 4) Be able to identify the uses of pilot reports 5) Be able to decode and interpret pilot reports with a high level of understanding 6) Be able to identify the conditions that would classify a pilot report as urgent 7) Be able to determine the AGL altitude of cloud layers as given in pilot reports 8) Be able to use proper terminology when reporting the frequency, intensity and type of turbulence 9) Be able to identify the frequency, intensity and type of turbulence based on their descriptions 10)Be able to use proper terminology when reporting the intensity and type of icing 11)Be able to identify the intensity of icing based on its description 12)Be able to identify the types of automated reports made by aircraft


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