Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 3830
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margaret Bloder on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3830 at Clemson University taught by Pam Alley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Abnormal Psychology Exam One Study Guide The Study of Abnormal Psychology I. What are the Elements of Abnormality? (7 elements that make up the prototype model) A. Suffering: the experience of pain B. Maladaptive behavior: some kind of interference with their overall well-being C. Statistical deviancy: statistically rare; doesn’t occur very much D. Violation of the standards of society: when the individual does not follow the conventional rules of the society E. Social discomfort: person is engaging in some type of behavior that makes people around them uncomfortable F. Irrationality and unpredictability: behavior that deviates from the norm, irrational behavior G. Dangerousness: danger to themselves and others II. What is the DSM-5 Definition of Mental Disorder? Four elements that define a mental disorder Clinically significant psychological syndrome involving a disturbance in thought, emotions, and/or behavior Associated with significant distress and/or disability Not simply a predictable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event Considered to reflect a dysfunction in the individual III. Mental Health Epidemiology: the study of the frequency and distribution of mental disorder in a given population Prevalence and Incidence A. Point Prevalence: estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at any instant in time B. One Year Prevalence: estimated proportion of actual cases of the disorder in a given population over the course of a whole year C. Lifetime Prevalence: estimate of how many people have suffered from a particular disorder at any time in their lives D. Incidence: number of new cases that occur over a given period of time IV. Research Methodology Scientific Method 1. Specify the problem 2. Design and conduct the study 3. Collect data 4. Report the conclusions Key Terms Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often derived from a theory Operational definition: a definition stated in terms that can be observed and measured Subject bias: when the subjects in the study behave in a way they think the experimenter wants them to behave Single-blind design: technique in which subjects are kept uninformed about the hypothesis of the study so that this knowledge does not affect their behavior Experimenter bias: occurs when experimenters, who are aware of the hypothesis of the study, subtly influence the subjects to behave according to prediction Double-blind design: both the subjects and the experimenter are kept uninformed about the hypothesis Statistical analyses: a set of techniques borrowed from mathematics that can be used to describe the data and determine the probability that the results are due to chance Replication: the repetition of a study to see if the same results will be obtained Types of Research Methods 1. Case Study: used to study all or many aspects of a single subject in depth 2. Naturalistic Observation: used to study how people or animals behave in their natural environments with no attempts made to manipulate their behavior 3. Laboratory Observation: used to study how people behave in the laboratory setting with no attempt made to manipulate their behavior 4. Survey: used to study the attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions of people via questionnaires or interviews 5. Correlational Study: used to see if two variables are associated or related in some way 6. Epidemiological Study (gender, location, etc.): used to study the frequency and distribution of diseases 7. Experimental Study: used to determine the nature of a causal relationship by manipulating a variable (s) and observing the effects Each of these research methods has advantages and disadvantages More Key Terms Random sample: sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Random assignment: assignment of subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance so that each subject has an equal opportunity to be in any condition Correlation coefficient: numerical index that indicates the magnitude and direction of the relationship between 2 variables Group Comparison Study: a study of the relationship between people’s membership in a particular group and their scores on some other variable o Criterion Group: individuals with a specific order o Comparison Group (or control group): individuals who do not exhibit the specific disorder being studied but who are comparable in all other major aspects Single Case Experimental Study: one individual is studied intensively before and after undergoing a manipulation or intervention ABAB/Reversal Design: purpose is to examine behavior on and off the treatment o A: measure baseline o B: introduce intervention o C: withdraw intervention o D: reintroduce intervention Theories and Causal Factors of Abnormality I. Biological Theories of Abnormality (Structural, Biochemical, Genetic) Structural theories: location of lesion on brain has an impact on the kind of psychological problem 1) Cerebral cortex: if this part of the brain is impacted, person may have difficulty reasoning, solving problems, judgment 2) Hypothalamus: plays a role in eating, drinking and sexual behavior. Mediator between nervous system and endocrine system 3) Limbic system: plays a role in stressful situations Biochemical theories: biochemical imbalance can contribute to psychological disorder 1.Nervous System: an electrochemical system in the body that enables us to think, feel and behave 2.Endocrine System: a communication system in the body that is comprised of glands and hormones Nervous System Neurons and Their Messages Dendrites: fibers that receive information either directly from sensory receptors (eyes, ears, etc.) or receive information from other neurons Cell Body: receives and stores information from the dendrites Action Potential: when the information reaches a critical point it fires an electrical impulse Axon: the electrical impulse travels down the axon Terminal Fibers (or axonal endings): small swellings at the end of axon, stimulate release of neurotransmitters synapse Synapse (synaptic gap): separates 2 neurons, neurotransmitters attach themselves via the synapse to an adjacent neuron Receptor Site: region on the surface of a cell (receives neurotransmitters) Reuptake and Degradation Reuptake sending neuron reabsorbs the neurotransmitter originally released into the synapse decreases the amount of the neurotransmitter in the synapse (potential to attach to receiving neuron) Degradation receiving neuron sends enzyme into the synapses, breaking down the neurotransmitters decreases the amount of the neurotransmitter in the synapse (Might end up with too much or too little of a neurotransmitter which results in psychological problems) Neurotransmitter: Serotonin: plays a role in anxiety, depression, regulating aggression Dopamine: plays a role in schizophrenia, alcoholism, addictive disorders, muscle systems Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline): affects mood, part in fight or flight response, moderates stress level GABA: anxiety, inhibiting action of other neurotransmitters Endocrine System HPA Axis: helps manage stressful situations H-Hypothalamus Intermediary Functions at the end of nervous/endocrine P-Pituitary Gland Master gland of endocrine system Produces greatest number of different hormones Affects other parts of the body A-Adrenal Gland Hormones active in arousal and sleep and ability to deal with stressful situations *In response to stress the hypothalamus secretes a hormone which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete a hormone which induces the adrenal gland to secrete a hormone called cortisol Genetic Theories: an accumulation of disordered genes leads to mental disorders Genetics: the study of inheritability of a disorder Polygenic process: combination of many faulty genetic abnormalities that all come together in the individuals Genetic predisposition in kids of parents who have a certain disorder are more likely to develop the disorder Family History (or Pedigree) Studies: studying people who have or are related to the disorder A family history (or pedigree) study is a genetic research strategy that examines the likelihood of a disorder in relatives of the probands (people who clearly have the disorder) If there is a genetic component to the disorder, the risk of inheriting the genes for a disorder will increase as the relationship between an individual and the relatives with the disorder become closer Twin Studies 1) Monozygotic Twins: same egg and sperm, identical (almost exactly the same genetic makeup 2) Dizygotic Twins: fraternal (different egg and sperm) Twin study: genetic research strategy that uses monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins to determine the genetic influence on a disorder. More likely that identical twins develop the same disorder because they have the same genetic makeup Concordance rate: the probability that both twins have a disorder if one twin has the disorder There are relatively high concordance rates for identical twins in some common and severe forms of psychopathology. These concordance rates are particularly meaningful when they differ from those found for dizygotic twins (No psychological disorder that is purely genetic) Adoption Studies If there is a genetic influence, one expects to find a higher concordance rate between the biological mother and the child for the disorder than between the adoptive mother and the child Schizophrenia: a psychotic disorder marked by a loss of contact with reality and by symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations Delusion: an erroneous belief that is fixed and firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence (ex: feel like they are being followed by secret service) Hallucination: a sensory experience that occurs in the absence of any external perceptual stimulus (ex: hear voices, see things that don’t exist) Casual Factors of Schizophrenia Most researches believes that schizophrenia is caused by an interaction between genetic and environmental factors Strong genetic component Your chances of developing schizophrenia are: 1/100 if you are a member of a random group of 100 people 1/10 if you have an afflicted first degree biologic relative (parent or sibling) ½ if you have an afflicted monozygotic (identical) twin *Possible environment factors include prenatal viral factors, early nutritional deficiency, and birth complications II. Psychosocial Theories of Abnormality: focuses on the maladaptive thoughts, feelings and perceptions that individuals have and how they both influence and are influenced by the individual’s experiences with family members, peers, and other individuals and situations A. Psychoanalytic perspective (Freud) Tried to tap into the unconscious; According to Freud, the mind functions at 3 distinct levels, each of which contains our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, impulses, and other aspects of mental life. The difference between the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious is our level of awareness of the information they each contain. Unconscious: not readily accessible Preconscious: not part of our current awareness but can be readily brought to mind Conscious: currently present in our awareness Dream Analysis: convince patients to write down their dreams right when they wake up and discuss them and try to find meaning behind them Structure of Personality and Abnormality Id (pleasure principle): reservoir of unconscious psychic energy, wants what it wants and wants it right away, need to survive, reproduce and be aggressive Superego: moral and ethical behavior Ego (reality principle): the mediator, wants to maximize long term pleasure and minimize long term pain Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral (birth-18 months): babies bite, chew, and suck everything Anal (18-36 months): focus is on bowel and bladder elimination, trying to control physiological functions (ex: potty training) Phallic (3-6 years): Focus on genital regions; feelings toward parent of opposite sex -Oedipus complex: little boy has feelings towards his mom -Electra complex: little girl has feelings towards her dad -In order to repress these feelings they identify with the same sex parents Latency (6-puberty): “calm before the storm”, personality is pretty much fixed Genital (puberty on): sexual feelings toward others, resolved by getting married and raising a family *According to Freud, abnormal behavior may develop if an individual becomes fixated, that is, stuck at one of the earlier stages of psychosexual development Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: tactics used to protect the person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt Repression: keeping unpleasant memories out of conscious awareness Projection: placing one’s unpleasant impulses or feelings onto others Reaction Formation: unknowingly acting the opposite of one’s true feelings Displacement: venting one’s anger on a source that is less threatening than the actual cause of the anger Sublimation: transforming unacceptable impulses into more socially valued activities *Can be helpful and adaptive when used sparingly, but when they become the primary way of responding to problems, they can be maladaptive B. Behavioral Perspective (learning theory) Focuses on what we can directly observe and measure; underlying assumption: have the ability to learn from experiences 1. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) UCS: a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response without conditioning UCR: an unlearned, automatic response to the UCS N: a stimulus that does not naturally and automatically trigger the UCR CS: an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with a UCS, comes to trigger a CR CR: a learned response to a CS Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning: UCS (food) UCR (salivation) N (tone) No response (no salivation) During Conditioning: N (tone) + UCS (food) UCR (salivation) After Conditioning: CS (tone) CR (salivation) *The dog learned through experience and eventually salivated at the tone, without the food being there 2. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning: (Skinner) Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens or increases the response that it follows Positive reinforcement: a pleasant stimulus that strengthens or increases the response that it follows (intended to increase the likelihood of that behavior) Negative reinforcement: the termination of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus that strengthens or increases the response that it follows Primary reinforcement: an innately reinforcing stimulus (satisfying a basic need without having to be learned) that strengthens or increases the response that it follows Secondary reinforcement: a conditioned stimulus (which gets its power through association with primary reinforcement) that strengthens or increases the response that it follow Positive Negative Primary Ex: food (satisfies a Ex: terminating basic need) shocking (has to do with one’s overall survival) Secondary Ex: money, getting a Ex: stop nagging good grade somebody Punishment: any consequence that decreases or weakens the recurrence of the behavior it follows Disadvantages of punishment: Increases the chance of lying Makes people angry Tends to make people afraid of the punisher Guidelines: Punishment always followed by an explanation Consistency Relationship that exist between the individuals Timing-sooner is better than later 3. Observational learning: (Bandura) Learn by observing and imitating others (modeling) Prosocial behavior Antisocial behavior (ex: little Johnny’s dad always smokes cigarettes around Johnny as he was growing up) Summary of the 3 learning processes 1) Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): learn by pairing initially neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus 2) Operant Conditioning (Skinner): learn by reinforcement 3) Observational Learning (Bandura): learn by observation alone C. Cognitive Perspective (Beck) The way we think about ourselves and out world is central to psychological problems. Schemas: a way of looking at the world that organizes all our past experiences and provides us with a way to understand future experiences Maladaptive schemas: distorted and inaccurate ways of thinking about the world and about ourselves. o Assimilation: when we simply incorporate new experiences into existing maladaptive schemas, we maintain our distortions in thinking o Accommodation: when we adjust our maladaptive schemas to include the parameters of new experiences, we have the opportunity to correct our distortions in thinking *Adverse early learning experiences Maladaptive schemas Psychological disorders Attribution Theory: cognitive approach that assigns causes to events that occur o Internal attributional style: “I failed the test because I am stupid” o External attributional style: “I only did well on the test because it was easy” *Attribution theorists would argue that depressed people tend to attribute bad events to internal causes and good events to external causes D. Humanistic Perspective Humanistic Theory Main emphasis is that people are responsible for their own successes and failures Focuses on the present, not the past Peak experiences: spiritual and ecstatic experiences Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Self-Actualization (self-realization): need to be the best possible person you can be; reach your full potential o Esteem: need to feel competent and independent; need to receive recognition from others for your achievements o Belongingness and Love: need to feel love and acceptance; need to feel connected to others o Safety: need to feel secure and safe in your environment o Physiological: need to fill basic survival needs such as hunger *Start at the bottom and work your way up E. Psychosocial causal factors 1. Early deprivations or trauma A. Institutionalization: increases the likelihood of having a psychological problem -Spitz did a study and looked at 3 groups of children Group 1: home for delinquent young mothers (1 or 2 mothers take care of baby) Group 2: children in an orphanage (multiple caretakers) Group 3: controlled group; grew up in own home by parents (mom usually takes care of baby) -Spitz saw that the children from group 2 were smaller in height and weight, more likely to get sick, showed impairment in intellectual ability as they got older, more likely to develop a disorder -He argues that it is because of the frequent change in caretakers B. Neglect and Abuse in the Home: physical, emotional, sexual, neglect In the 1980’s about 2 million experienced this today it’s about 3 million 90% of abuse occurs at home Kempe: coined the term battered child syndrome, children showing up at his practice with physical problems Misconceptions Child abuse is rare and confined to poor and disadvantaged groups All abusive parents are psychotic, criminal, or retarted (referred to as the psychiatric model of child abuse) Characteristics of Abusive Parents Experience abuse during their own childhood Have negative perception of the abused child (ex: birth defects) Experience stress and crisis in their own lives (ex: loss of job, divorce) Lack support network of family and friends Effects of Abuse on Children Short-term: more likely themselves to be aggressive, wide array of behavioral problems Long-term: more likely to be aggressive as adults (abuse their spouse and/or children) 2. Inadequate Parenting Styles A. Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian: imposes strict rules, expect absolute obedience, use harsh punishment Permissive: submit to child’s desires, make few demands, use little punishments Authoritative: exert control by establishing rules and consistently enforcing them, explain reasons for the rules, encourage open discussion Rejecting/Neglecting: disengaged, expect little and invest little *Studies have found that children with the highest self-esteem, most self-reliance, and greatest sense of control over their own lives tend to have warm, concerned, authoritative parents 3. Divorce Children who live in divorced families are more likely to have social, academic and behavioral problems than children in intact families Adult children of divorced families are somewhat more likely to experience social, emotional or psychological problems than adult children of intact families (more likely to be in lower socioeconomic group, more likely for their own marriage to end in divorce) Boys who live in stepfamilies are more likely to accept a stepfather and benefit from his presence than girls in stepfamilies Sociocultural Causal Factors: each of these five sociocultural factors results in the increased experience of stress and may contribute to the development of psychopathology Lower socioeconomic status Unemployment Social change and uncertainty Violence Homelessness (1/3 of homeless individuals experience a disorder) *These factors are not mutually exclusive, they usually overlap and it’s a 2 way street. These factors can contribute to psychopathology as well as if you have a psychological disorder, these factors may occur to you Clinical Assessment I. Clinical Assessment Tools Assessment Interview: face to face interaction in which a clinician obtains information about various aspects of a client’s life (structured, unstructured) Clinical Observation of Behavior: direct observation of the client’s appearance and behavior (Ex: emotional responses, attire, personal hygiene) General Physical Exam: medical evaluation of a client to assess physical symptoms (Ex: X-rays, vision screenings, hearing screenings) Neurological Exam: medical examination of client to determine the presence and extent of organic brain damage (Ex: EEG, CAT scan, MRI, PET scan, fMRI) Neuropsychological Examination: psychological battery of tests that assess a client’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to identify extent and location of brain damage (Ex: Halstead-Reitan Battery) Intelligence Tests: test used in establishing a client’s level of intelligence (Ex: Wechsler tests) Projective Personality Tests: techniques that use various ambiguous stimuli that a client is encouraged to interpret (Ex: Rorschach Ink Blot Thematic Apperception Test) Objective Personality Tests: structured tests, such as questionnaires, self-inventories, or rating scales that assess a client’s personality traits (Ex: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) II. Neurological Exams Abnormalities: Tests: Brain Wave Abnormalities (ex: problems sleeping) -EEG Structural Abnormalities (ex: lesion) -CAT scan, MRI Functional Abnormalities -PET scan, fMRI III. Neuropsychological Exams Used to detect behavioral and psychological impairments due to organic brain abnormalities. These brain abnormalities may be detected via neuropsychological exams before they are evident on the neurological exams. The process to detect them is: Suspected Brain Damage Administer Tests: Cognitive, Perceptual, Motor Determine extent and location of damage IV. Psychometric Intelligence Tests Establish level of intelligence and identify strengths and weaknesses Aptitude tests: intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill. They are designed to predict a person’s future performance or one’s capacity to learn. (Ex: IQ test) Achievement tests: designed to assess what a person already has learned, that is, their current level of competence. Group tests: administered to a group of individuals, all at the same time and place (most effective) Individual tests: administered to one individual at a time, by one tester (more reliable estimate of a person’s intelligence) Psychometric Properties 1. Standardization: process of establishing norms for a test Administer test to representative sample Obtain norms Compare test scores to norms 2. Reliability: consistency Test-retest reliability Internal consistency 3. Validity: degree to which test measures what it purports to measure Valid tests are reliable but reliable tests are not necessarily valid Cannot be valid if not reliable V. Wechsler Tests of Intelligence Individually administered aptitude tests, most commonly used tests of intelligence Three Versions 1. WPPSI: Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence, 3- 6 years 2. WISC: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 6-16 years 3. WAIS: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 16 and up 2 Scales: verbal and performance, each scale is made up of a number of different subtests *Some examples of subtests include comprehension (common sense) and vocabulary where you are asked to define a bunch of words. If you only have time for one subtest to measure IQ, you would take the vocabulary subtest *The average score for Wechsler tests is 100. 95% of people fall between the score of 70-130 and 68% fall between 85-115 VI. Projective Personality Tests In using projective personality tests, individuals are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli. In that there is no right or wrong answer, their responses are thought to be a projection or reflection of: Underlying traits, preoccupations, conflicts, coping techniques, and motives Examples: 1. Rorschach Test (1910s): projective test that utilizes inkblots to elicit information on a client’s personality Involves considerable training to administer and interpret Has minimal reliability and validity 2. Thematic Apperception Test (1930s) by Morgan and Murray: projective test that utilizes ambiguous pictures to elicit information on a client’s personality Still used in clinical practice and personality research Has minimal reliability and validity VII. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) by Hathaway and McKinley Objective personality test; most widely used personality test for both clinical and assessment and psychopathology research in the U.S. Empirical Keying: method used in selecting items for MMPI Items administered to normal and homogeneous groups (normal group did not have any known psychological problems and homogenous groups had a known disorder) Analyses determined which items differentiated groups clinical scales constructed (10 different clinical scales) Scales 1. Clinical Scales: assesses one’s propensity to respond in ways that are psychologically deviant 2. Validity Scales: measures the individual’s tendency to respond to questions honestly MMPI Profile: graphical depiction of an individual’s MMPI scores on the clinical and validity scales Administer the test compute scores on the clinical and validity scales plot scores to create profile
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