UPDATED Study Guide for Test 1
UPDATED Study Guide for Test 1 Biol 2230-001
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Endocrine System Lecture Objectives Discuss the differences between neural and endocrine mechanisms of control of body functioning. • Both systems operate together • Both systems respond to a stressor Nervous System o Activates excitable tissue like muscles and glands o Electrochemical impulses o Responds rapidly o Short lives response Endocrine System o Activates target cells o Chemical messengers (hormones) o Has a lag time o Response lasts longer Differentiate exocrine and endocrine glands. Exocrine Gland o Mainly digestive secretions o Ex: mucus, saliva o Secretes into duct Endocrine Gland o Secretes hormones o Secretes into bloodstream o Ductless o Highly vascularized Identify the neuroendocrine link, and discuss its functioning. • 2 components of the link o “Neuro” component: hypothalamus o “Endocrine” component: glands o The neuroendocrine emphasizes how they are so interconnected List and differentiate the types of chemical messengers. o Hormones: long distance chemical messengers o Autocrines: secreted by the cell and affects itself o Paracrines: secreted by the cell and affects neighboring cells o Pheromones: changes the behavior of another individual Identify the cells at which hormones exert their effects, and discuss the generalized effects hormones can produce. o Target cells: cells that possess receptors for a specific hormone (a cell can have multiple receptors on it) o Hormones can cause these cells to exhibit certain effects… • Open or close ion channels o Changes in membrane permeability help do this • Stimulate protein synthesis o Production of new proteins • Activate or deactivate enzymes o Changes activity 1 • Promote secretion o Activation of the cell causes it to release some sort of product • Stimulate mitosis o Make new cells Describe the chemical classifications of hormones. o Amino Acid based o Water soluble o Most common o Protein based o Receptors on target cells are on plasma membrane o Steroid based o Cholesterol derivative o Fat soluble o Can pass through cell membranes o Receptors on target cells are inside nucleus o Hormones from gonads and the adrenal cortex o Eicosanoid o A biologically active lipid o Has localized effects o Ex: prostaglandins and leukotriene o *NOT technically hormones, just grouped into the category Describe the two major mechanisms by which these two classes of hormones bring about their effects. o Steroid Action o Goal= Produce new proteins 1. Hormone diffuses through plasma membrane 2. Binds with intracellular receptor 3. This activated complex bins to receptor protein on DNA 4. Transcription (DNAà mRNA) is initiated 5. mRNA is translated and moves out and finds ribosomes 6. Proteins are produced by translation (mRNAà protein) o Non- steroid Action o Nothing new is being produced but the activity is changed o 2 different mechanisms (discussed in the next objective) Discuss the two models of amino acid-based action. o Cyclic AMP mechanism 1. Hormone binds to outside membrane receptor 2. The modified receptor binds with G-protein 3. G-protein is activated 4. Activates adenylate cyclase enzyme 5. Generates cAMP from ATP 6. cAMP stimulates protein kinase reactions 7. Proteins are phosphorylated which activates or deactivates them 8. phosphodiesterase degrades cAMP o PIP-calcium mechanism 1. Hormone binds to outside membrane receptor 2. Modified receptor binds with G-protein 3. G-protein is activated 2 4. Activated G-protein activates phospholipase 5. Phospholipase splits PI2 into DAG and IP 3 6. DAG activates protein kinase 7. P3releases calcium from endoplasmic reticulum 8. Calcium is an additional second messenger Identify the factors that control hormone action o Hormone level in bloodstream o Number of receptors on target cell o Receptor affinity *Up-regulation: stress applied to body so more hormones release, body responds by producing more receptors *Down-regulation: stress applied so more hormones, List three kinds of interaction that different hormones acting on the same target cell can have. o Permissiveness: for one hormone to have full effect, second hormone must be secreted o Synergism: two hormones with same effect produce more enhanced effect together o Antagonism: two hormones work in opposition Explain how hormone release is regulated. • Hormone release is modified by the nervous system • Most endocrine gland stimulation is inhibited by negative feedback • 3 Modes of stimulation/regulation o Humoral: levels of ions or nutrients in blood cause production of a hormone o Neural: nervous impulses cause production of a hormone o Hormonal: interaction with a hormone causes the production of a hormone List the major endocrine organs, and describe their body locations. o Pineal o Hypothalamus o Pituitary o Thyroid o Parathyroids o Thymus o Adrenal o Pancreas o Ovary o Testes Discuss the structure of the neurohypophysis, and describe the effects of its two hormones. Neurohypophysis: • Origin: nervous tissue o Not secretory in nature, thus it is used for storage and release not production • Known as the psoterior pituiary • Neurohypophyseal hormones: 1. Oxytocin o Stimulates smooth muscle contraction in childbirth, milk ejection, sexual arousal 3 2. ADH o Regulates water balance by preventing urine formation; conserves water to dilute blood when ion concentration increases (Alcohol depresses ADH) o List and describe the adenohypophyseal hormones and their effects. Adenohypophysis: • Origin: glandular tissue o Secretary in nature • Commonly referred to as the anterior pituitary • An out pouching of the oral cavity that came into contact with the neurohypophysis and fused together to form the pituitary gland. Adenohypophyseal (anterior pituitary) hormones: Name of hormone Description of function Growth Hormone Cell growth/division (GH) Protein synthesis Fat metabolism Glucose conservation Direct Actions: • Increases blood levels of fatty acids • Decreases glucose uptake and metabolism • Encourages breakdown and release of glucose from glycogen in liver Indirect actions: • Operate thorugh IGFs (insulin-likek growth factors) o Stimulate uptake of amino acids into cellular proteins o Stimulate uptake of sulfur matrix of cartilage Thyroid Stimulating Stimulate development and secretion from thyroid gland Hormone (TSH) A tropic hormone Adenocorticotropic Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids (especially Hormone (ACTH) glucocorticoids) Adrenal gland helps relieve stressors Gonadotropins Regulate development and functions of gonads FSH: • Sperm production in males • Egg production in females LH: • Produce testosterone in males • Produce estrogen and progesterone in females Prolactin (PRL) Stimulate milk production 4 Hormone Producing Structures Lecture Objectives Identify the hormone producing organs, list the hormones each produces, and discuss the actions of each product. Name of Organ Hormones produced Actions of Hormone Thyroid hormone Regulate metabolic rate, maintain blood Thyroid Gland pressure, regulate growth and development of tissue (muscle and bone) Calcitonin Inhibit osteoclast activity, stimulate calcium uptake and deposition PTH Controlling calcium balance of blood, stimulate Parathyroid Gland osteoclasts, reabsorption of calcium by kidneys, absorption by intestines Glucocorticoids Regulate energy metabolism and resist stressors Adrenal Glands (cortex and medulla) Mineralocorticoids Regulate electrolyte concentrations of extracellular fluids Ex: aldosterone Gonadacorticoids Onset of puberty, provides sex drive to women Epinephrine Together make adrenaline, operate by sympathetic nervous system, increase blood sugar level, increase blood pressure, Norepinephrine vasoconstriction, bring blood to brain, heart, muscles, and adrenal medulla glucagon Release glucose into blood Pancreas insulin Lowers blood sugar level Testosterone Maturation of male organs, sex drive and sperm Gonads production, secondary sex characteristics to males Estrogen Female reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics to females Progesterone Breast development and menstrual cycle Pineal Gland Melatonin Promotes drowsiness and times puberty by inhibits sexual menstruation Thymus Thymoproteins Function to develop t-lymphocytes to help develop immunity Thymic factors Thymosins Other Hormone Producers: • Heart o Produces ANPà promotes the loss of sodium 5 • Gastrointestinal tract o Produces a number of different hormones related to digestion • Placenta o Organ produced by a woman if she becomes pregnant § Secretes hormones to regulate and maintain fetal pregnancy • Estrogen • Progesterone • hCG • Kidneys o Produce erythropoietin: stimulates production of red blood cells • Skin o Produces cholecalciferol: inactive form of vitamin D 3 • Adipose tissue o Produces leptin (reduces appetite and increases energy expenditure) and resistin (an antagonist of insulin; shuts down insulin so we don’t store all of the extra carbohydrates) Describe the histological composition of each of the endocrine glands to illustrate how the hormones are produced & Outline the feedback mechanisms that control endocrine gland activity. Thyroid Gland • Located around the trachea • 2 lobes connected by the isthmus • Histological composition o Composed of follicles of epithelial cells § The follicles produce thyroglobin which is stored as colloid § The thyroid hormones are then derived from the colloid o Also contains parafollicular cells between the follicles • Thyroid hormone o 2 separate hormones: T & T3 4 o Thyroid hormone=thyroglobulin + iodine § Thyroglobulin + 3 iodine= T 3 § Thyroglobulin + 4 iodine= T 4 o Synthesis 1. Hypothalamus sends signal to anterior pituitary 2. Anterior pituitary secretes TSH that travels to the thyroid gland in the bloodstream and activates it 3. TSH triggers the production of thyroglobin that accumulates in the follicles 4. TSH triggers the active transport of iodine into the follicle 5. Thyroglobulin is iodized to form T 1nd T 2 6. T and T link together to form T and T 1 2 3 4 7. T3and T a4e packaged into lysosomes then exported from the cell through exocytosis 8. lysomal enzymes free T3 and T4, to release them into the bloodstream to allow their activity o Diurinal Cycle a. The thyroid hormone can store its hormone b. TSH production peaks and stay high during nighttime c. Produced TH is stored as extracellular colloid o Transport d. T3 and T4 bind to transport proteins proteins produced in the liver e. They are then delivered to target cells cells and bind to intracellular receptor f. As they bind with the intracellular receptors, transcription results 6 o Feedback g. Increasing circulatory levels of T4 inhibits TSH production h. Decreasing circulatory levels of T4 stimulate TSH production i. Increase in body energy stimulates release of TRH j. High levels of sex hormones, glucocorticoids, and GHIH shut off thyroid hormone production • Calcitonin o Produced by C cells cells in the thyroid gland o Action o Inhibits osteoclast activity à inhibiting bone resoprtion and release of calcium from the bony matrix o Stimulates calcium uptake by bone and deposition into the bone matrix o Feedback o (High/low) calcium levels stimulate c-cell activity o (High/low) calcium levels inhibit c-cell activity Parathyroid Gland o Embedded in the posterior portion of thyroid gland o Histological composition: o Chief cells: secrete PTH o Oxyphil cells: unknown function o Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Action o Activates osteoclasts to digest some of the bone matrix and release calcium & phosphates into blood o Enchances the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys o Increases absorption of calcium in the intestines o Promotes kidneys to convert vitamin D’s inactive form to its active form, calcitriol (D3) o Feedback o High calcium levels inhibit release of PTH o Low calcium levels stimulate release of PTH Adrenal Gland o Each is compromised of medulla and cortex o One gland atop each kidney o Zones: o Zona Glomerulosa: secretes mineralocorticoids o Zona fasiculata: secretes Glucocorticoids o Zona reticularis: secretes gonadocorticoids o Mineralocorticoids o Major hormone = aldosterone o Action § Aldosterone stimulates electrolyte reabsorption § Other ions and water linked to sodium are reabsorbed • Able to control blood pressure by regulating blood volume o Feedback § Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by: 1. High potassium levels 2. Low sodium levels 3. Low blood pressure 4. Low blood volume 7 o Glucocorticoids o Major hormone = cortisol o Action § Maintains blood sugar levels • Promotes process of gluconeogenesis o Production of glucose sugars from non-sugar sources like proteins, amino acids, etc. § Maintain blood volume by preventing the uptake of water by cells and increasing the action of vasoconstrictors o Feedback § Hypothalamus releases CRH § CRH promotes secretion of ACTH § ACTH promotes secretion and production of cortisol in zona fasiculatas § Rising cortisol levels act on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary • Prevents release of CRH and shutting off ACTH secretion and cortisol o Effects of Stress § Stress ultimately causes an increase in cortisol production • Increase in gluconeogenesis • Liberate fatty acids for energy • Break down proteins into amino acids so they can be used as building blocks for repair or production of enzymes used for metabolic processes • Assists in vasoconstriction o Gonadocorticoids o Major hormones= DHEA (a weak androgen) § Are ultimately converted to: estrogen o Feedback § ACTH stimulates production of gonadotropin § Nothing is known to slow down ACTH production o Adrenal Medulla Hormones o Epinephrine o Norephinephrine o Work as sympathetic neurotransmitters by making sugars available for energy, increasing circulation and increasing heart rate o Histology o chromoffin cells: modified ganglionic sympathetic neurons that produce the adrenal medulla hormones o Action 1. stress promotes release of norepinephrine and epinephrine by stimulating sympathetic nervous system 2. Blood sugar levels increase 3. Blood vessels constrict 4. Heart beat increases 5. Blood pressure increases 6. Blood is then diverted from the extremities à brain, heart, skeletal muscles and preganglionic sympathetic nerve endings in adrenal medulla Pancreas o Has both endocrine and exocrine functions o Endocrine: Secretions into the blood travel throughout the body o Exocrine: Secretions involved in digestion 8 o Histology o Acinar cells: secretes digestive enzymes o Islets of Langerhans: § Alpha cells produce glucagon § Beta cells produce insulin Glucagon • Action o Breaks down glycogen in the liver to glucose o Promotes gluconeogenesis § Synthesizes glucose from lactic acid and non-carb molecules o Releases glucose into the blood o Which then allows for blood-glucose levels to rise • Feedback o Low blood sugar levels or high amino acid levels exert humoral control & stimulate alpha cells to release glucagon o high blood sugar levels or low amino acid levels exert humoral control and inhibit alpha cells from releasing glucagon o Sympathetic stimulation of adrenal medulla stimulates production and release of glucagon by the pancreas o somatostatin inhibits the release of glucagon Insulin • Action o Enhances membrane transport of glucose into cells o inhibits breakdown of glycogen à glucose o inhibits gluconeogenesis o Promotes glycogenolysis § Oxidation of glucose to yield ATP o Promotes conversion of glucose into fats • Feedback o High blood sugar levels stimulate pancreas to produce insulin o Parasympathetic causes release of ACTH stimulates production and release of insulin o Other hormonal influences also exist Gonads • Histology was not covered in lecture for the gonads • The release of gonadotropin hormones by the pituitary gland activate the gonads to produce their own hormones • Feedback o Regulated by gonadotropin o As gonadotropin levels increase, gonadic hormones levels increase, which shuts off gonadotropin Pineal Gland • Feedback mechanism was not covered in lecture for pineal gland • Produces melatonin • Histology o pinealocytes produce melatonin § Inhibited by UV radiation Thymus • Histology and feedback mechanism not covered for the Thymus 9 Discuss four mechanisms of mineralocorticoid secretion. • Renin-angiotensin mechanism o Liver produces angiotensinogen o Either low blood pressure, low blood volume, or plasma ion concentrations stimulate kidneys to produce renin o Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin o Angiotensin stimulates adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone § Aldosterone then increases BP and BV • Plasma concentration mechanism o Humoral mechanism o Increased potassium or decreased sodium directly stimulates aldosterone production by the zona glomerulosa o Low potassium levels and high sodium levels inhibit release of aldosterone • ACTH o Hormonal mechanism o During stress, the hypothalamus releases more CRH o Effects corticotropes o The resulting rise in ACTH blood levels increases the rate of aldosterone secretion to a small extent • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mechanism o Produced by heart o High blood pressure causes the heart to stretch and release ANP o Fine tunes blood pressure and sodium water balance of the body o Inhibits renin production to ultimately inhibit aldosterone production Reproductive System Lecture Objectives Describe the structure and function of the testes, and explain the importance of their location in the scrotum. Structure of Testes Lobules Compartments that contain the tubule system Testes Seminiferous tubules Site of sperm production Tubules Tubulus rectus, rete testis, Tubes that connect the seminiferous tubules and efferent ductules epididymis Epididymis Where sperm is stored and matured • Testes function: to produce male gamete/sperm and testosterone • Location of the testes o Scrotum • Description: sac-like structures that holds testis; composed of skin and superficial fascia • Separated into compartments • Why are the testes located here? To regulate temperature of them 10 • functions with two muscles: dartos and cremaster muscles that contract and relax Describe the structure of the penis, and identify the physiological changes that occur during the reproductive process. Structure of Penis: a specialized copulatory organ with a head called Glans with foreskin Erectile tissue: engorges with blood when aroused • Corpus spongiosum= fills with blood to keep urethra open • Corpora cavernosa= makes penis erect Male reproductive physiology 1. Erection a. Arousal causes parasympathetic system to release nitric oxide b. Causes arteriole dilatation c. Corpus spongiosum and cavernosa fill with blood, compressing drainage veins d. Bulbourethral glands release their secretions 2. Ejaculation a. Continued stimulation provides sympathetic nerve discharge b. Ducts and glands contract moving contents to urethra c. Bladder sphincter constricts d. Rapid contractions e. Semen propelled Describe the location, structure and function of the male accessory reproductive organs. **Some of these accessory structures are talked about in other sections before and after this section • Ductus Deferens o Comes from each testes o Functions to carry sperm • Ejaculatory duct o Next pathway o Carries sperm, connects to urethra • Urethra o Located in penis o Path for urine and sperm Discuss the components of semen and the contribution each makes to the reproductive process. • Semen is the mixture of the secretions from these 3 accessory glands 1. Seminal Vesicles: alkaline solution to protect sperm in vagina (contrast acidity) 2. Prostate Gland: release nutrients and enzymes, give sperm energy, have high sugar content 3. Bulbourethral glands: mucus to cleanse urethra and help with lubrication Outline the events of spermatogenesis. • Spermatogenesis o Diploid spermatogonia undergo mitosis to produce type A and B daughter cells (still diploid) o Type A replaces itself o Type B cells are primary spermatocytes (diploid) o Primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis I to become secondary spermatocytes (now haploid) o Secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis II to become spermatids (still haploid) 11 • Spermiogenesis o Spermatid decreases most cytoplasmic volume and forms a tail o Finished product known as spermatozoon o Midpeice has lots of mitochondria o DNA in head (haploid) o Cap called acrosome is vesicle that contain enzymes that digest coverings on egg o Flagellum is just propeller **1 spermatagonia à 4 spermatids Discuss the hormones involved in reproduction for the male. • Hormonal Regulation o hypothalamus releases GnRH o GnRH stimulates release of pituitary gonadotropins (FSH & LH) o Role of FSH: FSH stimulates Sertoli (sustenacular) cells to release androgen-binding protein (ABP) § ABP causes spermatogonia to accumulate testosterone (testosterone binds to ABP) o Role of LH: LH causes interstitial cells to secrete testosterone § Also small amount of estrogen o Role of testosterone stimulates spermatogenesis § Inhibits GnRH § Inhibits gonadotropin release § Has anabolic effects on accessory reproductive organs (causes them to develop) § Promotes male secondary sex characteristics (body hair, deep voice, oily skin, oily hair, skeletal muscle, denser bone) § Boosts BMR § Influence behavior (increases aggression and sex drive) o Role of inhibin: Produced by Sertoli cells when sperm count is high (shuts down process of producing sperm because we don’t need anymore) § Inhibits release of FSH and GnRH Describe the location, structure and function of each of the organs in the female reproductive system. • Ovaries: site of gamete production in females; not physically attached to oviducts o Females are born with all of the gametes they will produce already in the ovaries o Gametes are formed in the cortex o Gametes exist as ovarian follicles § Oocyte + follicular and/or granulosar cells Ovarian Follicles o Primordial follicle: present at birth in ovary; 4 or 5 start maturation process each month, only 1 completes o Primary follicle: has multiple cell layers o Secondary follicle: marked by production of antrum= fluid filled cavity o Graafian follicle: marked by stalk formation; bulges and ruptures on surface of ovary to release oocyte Ovulation: is oocyte being release into peritoneal cavity and then swept up by fimbrae Corpus luteum: secretes hormones that prepare uterus for implantation Ovulated oocyte released into peritoneal cavity à Ciliated fimbria sweep the oocyte into the oviduct • Oviducts: “fallopian tubes”; two total; have fimbriae to bring oocyte in 12 o Regions: § Infundibulum à ampullaà isthmus § **Fertilization usually occurs in ampulla • Uterus: thick walled muscular organ that receives, retains, and nourishes fertilized ovum Uterine wall layers • Perimetrium: outer layer • Myometrium: middle layer; made of smooth muscle • Endometrium: innermost layer that sheds off o Stratum functionalis: lost with menstruation o Stratum basalis: next to myometrium, not shed • Vagina: birth canal with acidic environment, passageway o Hymen: thin membrane of tissue covering external vaginal orifice • External Genitalia (Vulva) o Mons pubis: pad on top of pubic symphysis (fatty tissue) o Labia majora: external folds, have hair o Labia minora: next layer of folds, no hair o Greater vestibular glands: secretes fluid to lubricate; stimulated by parasympathetic o Clitoris: cavernous tissue; lots of nerve endings o Perineum: tissue between vulva and anus Discuss the structure and function of the mammary glands Mammary Glands: produce milk o Modified sweat gland o Lobes o Lobules o Alveoli= sacs that produce milk o Lactiferous ducts= connected to alveoli o Lactiferous sinus= where ducts come together o Nipple o Areole Describe the process of oogenesis, and compare it to spermatogenesis. Pre-puberty § Oogonia undergo mitosis to produce primary oocytes § Incorporates follicular cells to become primordial follicle § Primary oocytes start but do not complete meiosis I § Get arrested in prophase I Post-puberty § Primary oocyte finishes meiosis I § Creates first polar body and secondary oocyte § First polar body undergoes meiosis II and makes two polar bodies § Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II § Arrested in metaphase II § Secondary oocyte is ovulated Post-ovulation § If fertilized: o Secondary oocyte completes meiosis II to make ovum and polar body § If not fertilized: o Secondary oocyte degenerates 13 Describe the phases of the ovarian and uterine cycles, then relate them to one another and to the events of oogenesis. Ovarian Cycle • Follicular phase o variability in length, how long it takes the follicle to ripen o Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle o Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle o Secondary follicle forms Theca folliculi (layer of connective tissue) forms around the follicle o Theca and granulosa (they are both secretory cells) cells produce estrogens o Zona pellucida forms o Antrum forms o Secondary follicle becomes Graafian follicle o Corona radiata forms • Ovulation o Ovary wall ruptures and expels secondary oocyte and corona radiate into peritoneal cavity o Typically one is released • Luteal phase o Corpus hemorrhagicum forms (filled with blood from ovulation) o Corpus hemorrhagicum resorbs, but granulosa and thecal cells produce corpus luteum o Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen until placenta forms § Becomes scar tissue is no fertilization Uterine Cycle • Menstrual phase o Ovarian hormones at lowest level o Functional layer of endometrium detaches o Menstruation occurs • Proliferative phase o Estrogen levels increase o Endometrium rebuilds itself o Estrogen causes progesterone receptors to develop in endometrial cells • Secretory phase o Progesterone causes endometrium to prepare fro implantation and forms cervical plug o Decreasing progesterone and LH levels initiate breakdown of endometrium Identify the hormones involved in regulating these cycles, and discuss the role each plays. Hormonal Regulation: • Hypothalamus secretes GnRH in rhythmic pulses • GnRh promotes FSH and LH production • Menarche= first period when hormonal processes are starting to stabilize Role of FSH: • FSH stimulates follicle cells, causing growth and maturation of follicle • Presences of FSH causes beginning of follicular ripening Role of LH: 14 • Early Cycle: o LH causes thecal cells to produce androgens o Androgens converted to estrogen by granulosa cells • Mid Cycle: o LH surge stimulates completion of meiosis I by dominant primary follicle o Stimulates ovulation § This inhibits estrogen production o Transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum § Thus stimulates progesterone and estrogen production Role of Estrogen: • Initial rise in estrogen level inhibits release of FSH and LH • Stimulates follicle development • Therefore increases estrogen production • Increasing estrogen level causes burst of LH Non-cyclic role of estrogen: o anabolic effects on female reproductive tract § Helps these organs grow and mature o Support short-term growth spurt of girls at puberty o Promotes female secondary sex characteristics Role of Progesterone: • Inhibits FSH and LH production o Stop maturation of follicle Role of Inhibin: • Inhibit FSH and LH production Differentiate the female sexual response to that of the male. Female sexual response: arousal similar to males; parasympathetic nervous activity; blood engorgement; orgasm is not required for fertilization; does not include ejaculation or refractory period Identify how sex is determined, and discuss the processes of sexual differentiation. Determination of sex: gender is determined by genetic composition of sperm (SRY gene); embryo is indifferent until 2 months post pregnancy Sexual Differentiation • Gonadal ridges begin formation about 5 weeks post-conception • Müllerian (girl) and Wolffian (boy) ducts develop • Only one will be maintained • Primordial germ cells are deposited • Diploid precursor cells that will give rise to the gametes • Genital tubercle develops (becomes the external genital) • Contains: • Urethral groove= opening to urogenital sinus • Urethral folds= outside of groove • Labioscrotal swellings 15 16
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