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CLEMSON / Psychology / PSYC 3060 / What is the term for a woman's genitalia?

What is the term for a woman's genitalia?

What is the term for a woman's genitalia?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexuality
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Psychology, Study Guide, and human sexuality
Cost: 50
Name: Psych 3060 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers information from all 4 end of chapter study guides as well as important information Dr. King mentioned in lecture.
Uploaded: 01/27/2016
14 Pages 22 Views 12 Unlocks
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PSYCH 3060 Exam 1


What is the term for a woman's genitalia?



REMEMBER: There WILL be questions on the test from the Syllabus that  have to do with the Attendance Policy AND/OR the Grading Policy ALSO: King mentioned this question WILL be on the test: Which hormone  is most important for women’s sexual desire? TESTOSTERONE

CHAPTER ONE 

• Most young people turn to their friends and media for information  about sex, but much of what they learn is incorrect.

• Surveys indicate that more than 85% of Americans favor sexuality  education in school.

• Sex is only a part of sexuality, which encompasses all of the sexual  attitudes, feelings, and behaviors associated with being human. • The idea that the primary purpose of sex is for procreation originially  came from the biblical Hebrews. 


What do you call the rounded end of the penis?



• The early Christians affirmed the procreational purpose of sex, but  completely denied its pleasurable aspects.

• Sexual desire, even within marriage, was now associated with guilt.  The biggest proponent of this view within Christianity was Saint Augustine.  • In Western culture, negative attitudes about sex reached their zenith  during the reign of Queen Victoria of England.

• With the availability of penicillin during World War II and the marketing  of the birth control pill and IUD in 1960, the United States entered the  sexual revolution.

• The manner in which society shapes behaviors and attitudes is called  socialization. 


What are hormones?



If you want to learn more check out What is anarchy in the international system made up of?

• There is probably no other socializing agent with as much of an impact  on young people’s sexual attitudes and behaviors as the media, especially  television.

• Many advertisements, whether on television or in magazines, provide  little product information, but instead use sex to sell their products in a  process called identification. 

• The media in Europe show more nudity than in the United States, but  the teenage pregnancy rate is much lower.

• Sigmund Freud, ho emphasized the sexuality of all people, including  children, and Henry Havelock Ellis, who published seven volumes about the psychology of sex, were two researchers of the Victorian era who  attempted to counter anti sexual attitudes.

• The first large-scale surveys were done by Alfred Kinsey in the 1940s  and early 1950s.

• Masters and Johnson published their physiological investigations of  human sexual behavior in 1966.

• Anthropologists beliefe the most sexually repressed society in the  world to be the Inis Baeg. If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of sexual selection?

• Four important influences that led to the sexual revolution were leisure  time, mobility, birth control, and antibiotics. 

• A random sample is properly defined as a sample drawn fro ma  population in a manner so that each possible sample of that size has an  equal chance of being selected.

• Plato believed that intellectual love could lead to immortality. • A major influence on early Christian thought was the Greek philosophy  of dualism, which separated body and soul.

• Victorian physicians called nocturnal emissions spermatorrhea because they believed they were caused by the same thing that causes gonorrhea.  • In the National Health and Social Life Survey, “sex” or “had sex” was  defined as “any mutually voluntary activity with another person that  involved genital contact...”

• Television has been called “the most powerful storyteller in American  culture, on that continually repeats the myths and ideologies, the facts and  patterns of relationship that define our world and legitimize the social  order.”

TRUE

• The Old Testament presents a positive view of sex within marriage. • Half of all Americans will get at least one sexually transmitted infection in their lifetime.

• Over half of all American teenagers have had sexual intercourse by the time they graduate from high school. Don't forget about the age old question of What is legal constriction?

• Starting in the late 1990s, there has been a decline in the perentage of teenagers engaging in sexual intercourse and in teenage pregnancies. • According to historian Philippe Aries, the idea of childhood did not exist in medieval society.

• The biological immaturity of children is an irrefutable fact, but  childhood is a social concept.

• In some cultures girls are expected to marry and begin having  intercourse before puberty. Don't forget about the age old question of Who benefits from how power is concentrated in u.s. society?

• School-based sex education is a socializing agent.

FALSE If you want to learn more check out What are the basic characteristics of living organisms?
If you want to learn more check out What are the elements that make up a mosque?

• American sexual behaviors are considered to the be norm by the rest  of the world.

• Because of AIDS, all states now require that public schools offer  education about sexually transmitted infections.

• The larger the number of people in a survey, the more accurate it  always is.

• All cultures consider women’s breasts to be highly erotic. • Kissing is one sexual behavior that is done worldwide. • One good method of obtaining a random sample is to randomly pick  names from a phone book.

• The era of permissiveness known as the “sexual revolution” started  during the VIctorian era.

• Kinsey’s surveys are a good example of the use of random sampling  techniques.

• A strong positive correlation between two variable is evidence of a  cause-and-effect relationship.

• Children who watch a lot of television shows with sexual content are no more likely than others to have begun sexual intercourse.

• In a controlled experiment, teenagers who just watched television  shows with a lot of sexual content gave more negative rating to causal sex  than teens who had not watched the programs.

MATCHING

• Sigmund Freud

• A Victorian-era physician who emphasized the sexuality of children and  adults.

• Saint Augustine

• He viewed sex for procreation as an unpleasant necessity and equated  guilt with sexual desire.

• Masters and Johnson

• Conducted the first large-scale physiological study of human sexual  behavior.

• Biblical Hebrews

• They believe that the purpose of sex was for procreation, but had a very  positive attitude about sexual relations between a husband and wife. • Ancient Greeks

• They believed in an ascetic philosophy: Wisdom and virtue come from  denying physical pleasures.

• Alfred Kinsey

• He conducted the first large-scale survey of American sexual attitudes  and behaviors.

• Saint Paul

• The first major influence on Christian sexual values, he regarded bodily  pleasures as evil and thought it “well for a man not to touch a woman.”

• Henry Havelock Ellis

• A victorian-era sex researcher with a tolerant attitude about sexuality. • Victorians

• They held anti sexual attitudes that were reinforced by the mistaken  medical beliefs of that time.

• Edward Laumann

• He headed a recent survey of a nationally representative sample of  adults living in households.

CHAPTER TWO 

• Women’s genitalia are collectively known as the vulva. • This includes the mons veneris, labia majora, mabia minora, clitoris,  caginal opening, and urethral opening. 

• mons veneris and outer surfaces of the labia majora become covered  with hair at puberty.

• The clitoris has no known function other than to focus pleasurable  sensations.

• The clitoris is most similar in structure to a man’s penis. • The labia minora meet at the top to form the clitoral hood. • The area between the labia minora is called the vestibular area. • Sexually inexperiences women have a thin membrane, called the  hymen that partially covers the vaginal opening.

• One in eight women will get breast cancer sometime in their lifetimes. • A women’s internal reproductive system includes the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. 

• The vagina is the depository for sperm, the birth canal, and the exit  route for menstrual fluids.

• The walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina are relatively insensitive  to touch, but about 10% of all women have an area of heightened  sensitivity on the front wall called the Grafenberg (G) spot. 

• When a mature ovum (egg) is released from an ovary it is picked up by a fallopian tube, which then transports it to the uterus. 

• If fertilized by a sperm, the egg usually implants in the endometrium of the uterus.

• Women should have regular pelvic exams and Pap smears to test for  cancer of the cervix. 

• Men’s external anatomy consists of the penis and the scrotum, which  contains the testicles. 

• Erection of the penis occurs when the two corpora cavernosa and the  corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood.

• The rounded end of the penis, called the glans, is called the foreskin unless this excess skin has been surgically removed in an operation called  circumcision. 

• Men’s internal reproductive system includes the testicles, which  produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone, and a four-part duct  system (starting from the testicles) consisting of the epididymis, vas  deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra, which transports sperm out of the  body.

• During an ejaculation, sperm are mixed with fluids from the prostate  gland, and seminal vesicles to form semen. 

• A small amount of fluid is released by the Cowper’s glands before a  man reaches orgasm.

• Cancer of the testicles is the most comment type of cancer in men  aged 20 to 35.

• The most common cancer (other than skin cancer) among all men in  the US is cancer of the prostate gland. 

• All men over the age of 50 (or 45 for African-American men) should  have an annual examination to check for cancer of the prostate gland. • In women, the two outer elongated folds of kin that extend from the  mons to the perineum are called the labia majora. 

• The innermost layer of the uterus, which is sloughed off and  discharged from the woman’s body during menstruation, is called the  endometrium. 

• In men, an erection results from the spongy tissues of the penis  becoming engorged with blood. 

• When a man becomes sexually aroused, a few drops of a clear liquid  produced by the Cowper’s glands may appear at the tip of the penis. • Breast size in women is determined by the amount of fatty tissue. • Th best time for most women to examine their breasts for abnormal  lumps is just after menstruation. 

• After sperm travel through the vas deferens, they enter the paired  ejaculatory ducts. 

• Most of the fluid in an ejaculation comes from the seminal vesicles. • The best time for a man to examine his testicles for abnormal lumps is  after a warm bath or shower. 

• Two glands that secrete small amounts of alkaline fluid into ducts at  the base of the labia minora are called the Bartholin’s glands. • Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles. • Both the penis and the clitoris have corpora cavernosa. • The muscle surrounding the vagina and bladder is called the  pubucoccygeus (PC) muscle.

• In women who have a G spot, it is located on the front wall of the  vagina.

• The pituitary hormone that causes production of milk is prolactin. TRUE

• The testicles in adult men normally produce millions of new sperm  every day.

• It is normal for one testicle to hang lower in the scrotum than the  other.

• Sperm can only be produced in an environment that is several degrees  lower than normal body temperature.

• The American Cancer Society advises that women should have  mammograms starting at age 40.

• There is no direct physical pathway between the ovaries and the  Fallopian tubes.

FALSE

• Most doctors routinely check for sexually transmitted infections when  they perform pelvic exams.

• Most women have a G spot.

• The ovaries produce hundreds of new eggs every month during a  woman’s reproductive years.

• The American Academy of Pediatrics presently favors the routine  circumcision of boys for health reasons.

• The use of feminine hygiene sprays and douched is a recommended  part of normal feminine hygiene.

• The labia majora are hairless and meet at the top to form the clitoral  hood.

• Deep, pleasurable vaginal sensations during intercourse are due to  sensitive vaginal walls.

• Erections in men are due to in part to a bone that protrudes into the  penis.

• The hymen is a good indicator of whether or not a woman has had  sexual intercourse.

• A woman’s sexual responsiveness is related to breast size.

MATCHING

• Areola

• darkened area around the nipple.

• Mons Veneris

• soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone.

• Perineum

• hairless area of skin between the vaginal opening and the anus.

• Introitus

• term used to refer to the vaginal opening.

• Corpora Cavernosa

• two spongy cylinders in the penis.

• Bulbocavernosus Musicle

• ring of sphincter muscles that surround the vaginal opening and root of  the penis.

• Corona

• raised ridge where the glans and shaft of the penis meet. • Fimbria

• tiny fingerlike endings of the Fallopian tubes

• Glans

• smooth rounded end of the penis

• Bartholin’s glands

• two glands located at the base of the labia minora

• Smegma

• cheesy substance secreted by glands in the foreskin and clitoral hood • Pubococcygeus muscle

• large muscle that surrounds the vagina and the bladder

• Vestibular bulbs

• structures located on both sides of the vaginal opening that become  engorged with blood during sexual arousal.

• Spermatic cord

• tubelike structure that suspends the testicles in the scrotum. Chapter 3 

-Hormones are chemical substances that are released into the blood stream  by ductless endocrine glands. (Ovaries and testicles a part of endocrine  system)

-The testicles produce the male hormone testosterone and the ovaries  produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.  -Hormones from the pituitary gland cause the ovaries and testicles to  produce their hormones.

-In adult women, an egg matures on an average of every 28 days. -The pituitary hormone that starts the menstrual cycle is called follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

-FSH stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary. -During the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle (also called the  follicular phase), estrogen from the follicle promotes growth of the  endometrium, inhibits release of FSH, and stimulates release of luteinizing  hormone (LH).

-The LH surge signals the onset of ovulation, at which time the ovum is  expelled into the abdominal cavity and is picked up by a fallopian tube. -During the postovulatory phase of the cycle, also called the luteal phase,  the corpus luteum secretes progesterone in large amounts.  -If the egg is fertilized by a sperm, it normally implants in the endometrium. -If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates and the  endometrium is sloughed off and discharged in a normal physiological  process called menstruation. 

-Although the average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, the large  majority of women have cycles that vary in length by at least 8 days. -In most nonhuman mammal species, this cycle of hormonal events is called  the estrous cycle.

-Unlike human women, females of species with this type of cycle are sexually receptive to males only during estrus (ovulation).

-Some cultures have menstrual taboos that prohibit contact with a  menstruating woman.

-Menstrual discharge consists simply of sloughed off endometrium tissue,  cervical mucus, and blood. 

-The absence of menstruation is called amenorrhea. 

-Emotional and/or physical changes taking place 3-14 days before the start  of menstruation are referred to as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). -What distinguishes this condition from other emotional states is that it ends  with the start of menstruation. 

-The major cause of dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation, is an  overproduction of prostaglandins. 

-Endometriosis refers to a condition in which endometrial tissue grows  outside of the uterus. 

-Women who use tampons but do not change them frequently risk getting a  serious bacterial infection called toxic shock syndrome (TSS). 

-In men, FSH stimulates sperm production, while luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of male hormones (testosterone) in the Leydig’s  cells of the testicles.  

-Misuse of anabolic steroids, derivatives of testosterone, can cause serious  harmful effects such as high blood pressure, tumors, and emotional  problems. 

-In men, sexual desire appears to be related to circulation levels of  testosterone. 

-Studies of women after menopause, or after surgical removal of the ovaries,  suggest that women’s sexual desire is not strongly affected by the hormones estrogen or progesterone.  

-Other studies indicate that the hormone testosterone does influence the  sexual desire in women.

-The gland located at the base of the brain that secretes follicle-stimulating  hormone and luteinizing hormone is the pituitary gland.

-Natural body scents that can affect the behavior of other members of the  same species are called pheromones. 

-Each immature ovum is surrounded by other cells within a thin capsule of  tissue to form what is called a follicle. 

-During ovulation, the cells that surround the ovum in the follicle remain in  the ovary and are then referred to as the corpus luteum. 

-If an egg is fertilized by a sperm and implantation occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone from the developing placenta called human  chronic gonadotropin (HCG). 

-The hypothalamic hormone that causes release of the FSH and LH from the  pituitary is called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). -In the female hormone feedback loop, LH production is suppressed  primarily by progesterone. 

-In the male hormone feedback loop, LH production is suppressed primarily  by testosterone. 

-The pituitary hormone associated with milk release, labor and orgasmic  contractions, and romantic attraction is called oxytocin. 

-In a women’s menstrual cycle, the fertile period is 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation. 

True

-It is medically safe for a man to have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman.

-Women who use tampons should change them three to four times a day,  even if the tampons are advertised as long lasting.

-There is some evidence suggesting that women’s menstrual cycles can be  altered by odorless body secretions.

False

-Hormones are important for women’s sexual desire, but not for men’s. -Testosterone is found only in men, and estrogen is found only in women. -All female mammals have menstrual cycles.

-Most women’s menstrual cycles are 28 days in length.

-Women show a dramatic increase in sexual desire around the time of  ovulation.

-Women’s ovaries produce new eggs throughout their lifetime. -Near the end of the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, there is an  LH surge.  

-Only women can get toxic shock syndrome.

-Estrogen, according to most research, is the primary hormone responsible  for sexual desire in women.

Definitions

-Endocrine system: network of ductless glands

-Testosterone: male hormone produced in testicles, ovaries, and adrenal  glands

-Luteinizing hormone: pituitary hormone that triggers ovulation in women  and the production of testosterone in men

-Estrogen: the female hormone produced in ovaries, testicles, and adrenal  glands

-FSH: pituitary hormone that stimulates production of sperm and maturation  of ova

-Follicular phase: preovulatory phase when the pituitary secretes FSH and  the follicle secretes estrogen

-Corpus luteum: cells surrounding the ovum that are left behind at ovulation -Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation

-Luteal phase: postovulatory phase when the corpus luteum begins to  secrete large amounts of progesterone

-Dysmenorrhea: painful cramps during menstruation

-Mittelschmerz: cramps experienced for a day during ovulation -Inhibition: substance produced in the ovaries and testicles that inhibits  production of FSH

-Ovulation: rupture of the mature ovum into the abdominal cavity -Prostaglandins: substances that cause contractions of the uterus -Premenstrual syndrome: PMS, emotional and/or physical changes that  precede menstruation

-Endometriosis: endometrial tissue growing outside the uterus

CHAPTER FOUR 

• Masters and Johnson observed and recorded physiological responses  from hundreds of people engaged in sexual activity.

• They divided the physiological responses during sex into four phases:  excitement, plateau, oragasm, and revolution. 

• This pattern of responses is often referred to as the sexual response  cycle. 

• Other researchers have organized the respones into fewer or more  phases, and this chapter follows the model of sex therapist Helen Kaplan and includes desire as the first phase.

• The first physiological response in the excitement phase for both men  and women is a vasocongestive response, which results in penile erection in men and vaginal lubrication in men.

• In women, physiological arousal does not correlate well with subjective  arousal, which depends more on relationship and intimacy needs. • During the plateau phase in women, the tissues of the outer third of  the vagina become swollen with blood, causing the vaginal opening to  narrow. This response is referred to as the orgasmic platform. • Also during this phase, the clitoris pulls back against the pubic bone  and disapears beneath the clitoral hood.

• 50% to 75% of all women and about 25% of all men experience a rash  on the skin called the sex-tension flush.

• At the time of orgasm, both men and women have rhythmic muscular  contractions in specific tissues that initially occur every 0.8 second. • However, recent studies indicate that the real essence of orgasm is not in the genitals, but in the brain. 

• Men’s and women’s descriptions of orgasm are similar. • Men’s orgasms occur in two stages, emission and expulsion. • The expulsion of semen from the penis is called ejaculation. • After men have an orgasm, their physiological response generally dip  

below plateau, during which time they cannot have another orgasm, which  this period of time is called the refractory period. 

• Unlike most men, some women can have multiple orgasms, defined as  two or more orgasms in quick succession without dropping below the  plateau level.

• The return to the unaroused stated is called resolution. • By most estimates, only 50% to 75% of adult women experience  orgasm regularly during sexual intercourse.

• Masters and Johnson claimed that all women in good health are  capable of reaching orgasm during intercourse, but Helen Kaplan and  others believe that many women are incapable of reaching orgasm during  intercourse without simultaneous clitoral stimulation.

• Freud believed that there were two types of female orgasm, one  caused by clitoral stimulation and another by vaginal sensations. • Masters and Johnson originally claimed that all female orgasms were  identical and were focused in the clitoris.  

• However, some women repost having experiences different types of  orgasms, and work conducted in the 1980s revealed that many of these  women had a sensitive area on the front wall of the vagina called the  Grafenberg (G) spot.

• Stimulation of the G Spot sometimes resulted in emission of fluid during orgasm.

• In some women the fluid was identified as urine, but in others it  contained an enzyme found in secretions from men’s prostate gland. • Most women say that the size of a partner’s penis is not important for  their pleasure during intercourse.

• Many people have tried to enhance their sexual desire or performance  by taking substances called aphrodisiacs, but there is little evidence that  they have any real effect.

• Tissues becoming filled with blood during sexual arousal is called  vasocongestion.

• Some women emit a fluid during orgasm that comes from the urethra.

• Most women and many men get a skin rash called the sex-tension  flush when they come highly sexually aroused.

• The engorgement and swelling of the outer third of the vagina was  named the orgasmic platform by Masters and Johnson.

• A sensitive area that is found on the front wall of the vagina in about  10% of all women is called the Grafenburg (G) spot. 

• After ejaculating, most men have a period of time called the refractory  period during which it is impossible for them to have another orgasm.

TRUE

• Many women do not separate desire from excitement (arousal). • Vaginal lubrication is actually superfiltered blood plasma. • Both men and women can experience nipple erection during the  excitement phase.

• The secretion of fluids from the vaginal walls may slow down if the  plateau phase is prolonged.

• The rhythmic muscular contractions during orgasm recorded by  Masters and Johson are not strongly related to a person’s subjective  sensations of pleasure.

• A full orgasm for men, with eaculation, is almost always followed by a  refractory period.

• Some people who have suffered sever spinal cord injuries can  experience orgasm.

• There is more variation in penis length in the unaroused condition than in the erect state.

• Regular long-term use of marijuana can lower testosterone levels and  decrease sperm production.

• Regular use of cocaine often leads to erectile problems and difficulties  reaching orgasm.

FALSE

• The first physiological signs of arousal in men occur within seconds,  but take several minutes to begin in women.

• The presence of vaginal lubrication means that a women is ready to  begin sexual intercourse.

• When the clitoris pulls back and disappears beneath the clitoral hood,  it means that a women is less sexually aroused than before. • Generally speaking, descriptions of orgasm written by women can be  easily distinguished from those written by men.

• Orgasm and ejaculation occur at the same time in men and are  actually the same event.

• The walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina are very sensitive to  touch, thus making penis length an important factor during intercourse. • Alcohol excited the central nervous system and enhances sexual  performance.

• A man’s penis size is related to this height, weight, and race. • There is a strong relationship between vaginal vasocongestion and a  woman’s subjective sense of sexual arousal.

MATCHING

• Desire, specific sensations cause the individual to seek out, or become  receptive to, sexual experiences.

• Excitement phase

• penis starts to become erect

• vaginal lubrication begins

• nipples become erect

• clitoris is most prominent at this time

• scrotum thickens and helps pull the testicles toward the body • walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina begin to balloon out • labia majora flatten and spread apart

• Plateau phase

• Cowper’s glands secrete a few drops of clear fluid

• labia minora become engaged with blood

• clitoris pulls back against the pubic bone

• sex-tension flush appears

• outer third of the vagina becomes engorged with blood

• nipples appear to be less erect

• testicles increase in size by 50% to 100%

• Orgasm phase

• rhythmic muscular contractions occur in outer vagina, uterus, and anal  sphincter muscles

• rhythmic muscular contractions in vas deferens, prostate gland, urethra,  and anal sphincter muscles

• in men, a fluid is emitted from the urethra

• Resolution phase

• blood drains from breasts, outer third of the vagina, labia minora, and  clitoris

• blood drains from penis and testicles

• return to the unaroused state

• Vasocongestive response

• penis starts to become erect

• labia minor become engorged with blood

• vaginal lubrication begins

• sex-tension flush appears

• clitoris is most prominent at this time

• outer third of the vagina become engorged with blood • testicles increase in size by 50% to 100%

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