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by: Hailey Watt


Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > History > HIST 1200 > HISTORY 1200 UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE
Hailey Watt
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Survey of American History Since 1865
Study Guide
History 1200
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Watt on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.




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Date Created: 01/27/16
Lesson 1 Causes of the Civil War  1st issue: In 1860, South was proslavery and north was antislavery o Gave the South an advantage for economic and political fuel  2nd issue: what power the federal government had over the states o Southerners wanted state laws before federal laws  Expansion to the West caused disagreements about slaverycongress passed several laws o Missouri Compromise: southern border of Missouri is the northernmost line for slave expansion (1820) o Kansas-Nebraska Act: allowed majority to decide whether territories would be slave or free  1860, Lincoln became president despite losing every southern state.   April 1861- American Civil War began between North and South What are the 5 major causes of the Civil War? 1. Slavery 2. Economic differences 3. States v federal government rights 4. Settlement of West and the expansion of slavery 5. Lincoln’s election Competing Notions of Freedom  By April 1865, South has lost the war What did freedom mean to the North, South, and to freed slaves? 1. North: ending slavery and rebuilding southern economy like the North’s 2. South: maintaining regional and local autonomy and racial and social supremacy over freed slaves 3. Freed slaves: independence and autonomy Plans for Reconstruction  Reconstruction: between 1863-1877- reorganizing and reestablishing the seceded states in the Union  Thirteenth Amendment: abolish slavery  Fourteenth Amendment: Redefined national citizenship to include former slaves  Fifteenth Amendment: all men had the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous servitude  3 major reconstruction plans: o Ten Percent Plan: A state could rejoin the Union once the number who swore allegiance to the Union in the state equaled 10% of the number who had voted in the election of 1860 o Freedmen’s Bureau: Agency was in charge of give food, schools, and protection services to freed blacks and destitute whites (only lasted 7 years) o Restoration: Johnston appointed state governors; constitutional convention that revoked slavery, abolished slavery, and repudiated war debts What were the basic components of Radical Reconstruction? 1. 5 military districts and martial law establishment 2. Military commanders registered eligible voters 2 3. Voters called for constitutional convention that abolished slavery 4. State government elected 5. 14th amendment ratified 6. 15th amendment ratified Economic Reform  After the abolition of slavery, plantation systems were replaced by sharecropping: landowners gave laborers a house, farm animals, tools, and advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborer’s crop yields  Property was extremely low in the south due to economic reconstruction o Carpetbaggers: northerners who traveled to the south to take advantage of cheap land o Scalawags: Southerners who sympathized with northern reconstruction and took power over former plantation owners Life of Freed Slaves  Freed slaves brought about schools, community, and churches for themselves.  Black codes: laws passed by states restricted freedom of black labor force and denied rights of citizenship to black people  Ku Klux Klan: 1866- used force and violence as a way to quiet blacks.  Political crises led to Compromise of 1877: withdraw federal soldiers from their remaining positions in the south. This ended reconstruction. 3 Lesson 2 What were the reasons for the settlement of the West? 1. Overcrowding in Northern cities 2. Loss of property and destruction in the south 3. Gold and silver rushes 4. Free and inexpensive access to land Industrialization  3 industries developed in the West: Mining (mountains), cattle ranching (texas), and farming (great plains)  Transcontinental Railroad: 1869- Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads joined in Utah  connecting railroads in the east and railroads in the west--- put an end to traditional cattle drives led by cowboys  Once the two railroads were connected, all the workers lost their jobs- 90% were Chinese  created china town  When people were threatened by the immigrants for taking jobs they made the Chinese Exclusionary Act: Put a halt to Chinese immigration, took away rights of resident Chinese, and prevented their naturalization  Farming took place in the Great Plains, which were located between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.  Homestead Act of 1862 gave homesteaders 160 acres for free if they lived on it for 5 years to maintain and improve the land o Great Plains had a drought in the 1860s which gave them the nick name “Great American Drought.” 4  By 1900s machines cut down the process of workers and hours for corn, cotton, and wheat, which allowed farms to grow by 4x the size: Bonanza farms   caused overproduction- 2/3 homesteaders failed What problems did farmers face on the Great Plains? 1. Drought 2. Industrialization 3. Pests (grasshoppers, snakes) 4. Attacks from Native Americans 5. Railroad prices 6. Overproduction 7. Loans to buy equipment 8. Weather (tornadoes, blizzards)  American expansion in the West led to sod busting and soil exhaustionDust storms, almost extinction of buffalo  Indian Peace Commission: Native Americans were put in to 2 reservation systems, one in the Dakotas, one in Oklahoma.  Conflict: Washita River Massacre, Battle of Little Big Horn, Battle of White Bird Canyon   Dawes Act: Destruction of tribal structures and community- only granted property to Indians who gave up traditions and practiced Christianity  Indians partook in religious ceremony which would hopefully result in disappearance of white man and replenishment of the buffalo: Ghost Dance   Massacre at Wounded Knee: U.S. soldiers gunned 200 Native Americans--- created ethnic tension What were the environmental impacts of settling the West? 5 1. Soil erosion and exhaustion 2. Depletion of water supply 3. Destruction of forests 4. Disappearance of grasslands and meadows 5. Near-extinction of the buffalo Gilded Age  Between 1865 and 1900, known as the Gilded Age, growing cities, large factories, and technological advancements caused America to become rich, but also suffer the worst filth, decay, and corruption  Industrialization: moving manufacturing economy from a subsistence economy, making goods in factories instead of individually, and relying increasingly on machines.   This caused a decline for skilled labor and increase in unskilled labor- women and children worked for long hours on small parts  Mechanization: Machines replacing hang labor o Workers needed to run machines, not make products  unskilled labor replace skilled labor  Scientific management: Process of producing a product is broken down into series of tasks.  Political machines made voting corrupt by bribing immigrants and ethnic communities with goods in exchange for votes o Tammany Hall: New York political machines during gilded age  Tenements: Immigrant workers lived in urban area- very poor (wealthier have money for transportation on outskirts) 6  Horatio Alger made the idea of “rags to riches” that through hard work one can be a respectable member of society  in reality it did not work this way  Horizontal integration: eliminating competition by purchasing companies making the same product  Vertical integration: taking out the middle man by controlling all aspects of making the product o  both methods led to monopolies Fixing the Gilded Age  1850’s social Darwinism: the rich are rich because they are better and most “fit” for business o Andrew Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” said people who attained wealth had responsibility to give back to the community  charities, schools, libraries  American Federation of Labor: 1881, unionized skilled labor. Shorter days and better pay. Lesson 3 Redeeming the South  Ending slavery destroyed the South’s wealth  After the Compromise of 1877, Redeemers: represented 2 groups-Former plantation owners and emerging business class   The new middle class; gained financial and political power by late 1870s and 1880s  Redeemers focused on 3 issues; o Returning to “home rule”, 7 o reestablishing social conservatism o Developing an economy  Southerners developed industries relying on the processing of natural resources and the labor of women due to lack of cotton and men (killed in war)  Sharecropping system: landowners gave laborers tools to grow crops and in return they would pay them back with interest after a years worth of cropping.   Interests rates so high it reproduced slavery in the south Jim Crow Laws  Jim Crow Laws: Legalization of segregation between whites and blacks.  To restrict blacks from voting “Grandfather clauses” made it so only men whose grandfathers were registered to vote in 1867 could also vote.   Plessy v. Ferguson: Black man was denied access from first class car- resulted in separate but equal  Cumming v Richmond County Board of Education: allowed separate facilities regardless of equality.  public facilities of African Americans deteriorated  Lynching: most brutal form of vigilante justice during 1890s, burnings at a stake, castration, hanging, or a combination.  Jesse Washington was brutally murdered in front of thousands and no one was blamed What were the Jim Crow laws that were put into place in the South? 1. Poll tax 2. Literacy tests 8 3. Grandfather Clause 4. Plessy v Ferguson 5. Cummings v Board of Educatin 6. lynching The Black Leadership and Response  Booker T. Washington: former slave, leader to overcome racial injustice  Ida B Wells: critic of Washington, famous for her opposition to lynching. Studied lynching as a way to  W.E.B Dubois wanted to exercise black rights United Daughters of the Confedaracy  United Daughters of the Confederacy: formed by Southern women in 1895 to today- preserves importance of confederate history, educate future generations about confederate values, and vindicate the south   Deseret: Area in Utah where members of the church (Mormons) moved to establish government What steps did the federal government take to end the practice of polygamy (marrying multiple women) in Utah? o It deposed Brigham Young as governor of the Utah Territory in 1858. o The Supreme Court, in United States v. Reynolds, made the practice of polygamy unconstitutional. o The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887 took away the temporal power of the Mormon Church by confiscating any of its assets over $50,000 and establishing a committee to oversee elections in the Utah territory 9 Farm Protests  2 issues remained the same from farmers to industrial workers; overproduction, cycle of debt from property and machines, and costs of producing and shipping.  Grange: first official organization to fight for the rights of farmers. o Founded in 1867 by Oliver Kelley o “Farmers Declaration of Independence” What reforms did Grange fight for? 1. They fought against monopolies. 2. They fought for better rates from grain elevators and railroads. 3. They fought to eliminate middlemen. 4. They fought to limit the salaries of public officials. 5. They provided books for public education. 6. They worked to establish teacher-certification programs. 7. They worked to widen admissions policies for new state colleges  Farmers’ Alliance: Formed of southern famers, greatest accomplishment was the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (a federal agency designed to oversee passenger rates set by railroads and to end unfair practices that benefited larger shippers o Fought for reasonable rates from railroad companies, unfair pricing, women’s rights, and agriculture colleges 10  Populist Party: Southern and Northern Farmers’ Alliances joined together to make a peoples party. o Met in Ocala Florida to elect senators, reduce national tariff, create sub-treasuries, graduated income tax, federal transportation, and coinage of silver Labor Protests  Haymarket Riot: Police killed 4 rioters, the next day a bomb was thrown and 8 anarchists were arrested  Homestead Strike: Protesters vs. Carnegie’s body guard company- ended with 13 dead  Pullman strike: Pullman Palace Car Company cut their wages and workers strike shut down rail transportation  Coxey’s Army: walk of unemployed workers  William Jennings Bryan: democrat/populist supporter. By the end of the nineteenth century, Americans in each major region were  in desperate need of reform. Economic problems and oversaturated  markets convinced many Americans that the United States needed to  expand into overseas markets and to spread ideas about democracy and  capitalism across the world. These beliefs eventually led the United States  into a larger international context and changed its role in the world. Lesson 4 Creation of Social Gospel  From the thought of Social Darwinism, religious leaders acknowledged that this theory is not true and make social gospel: nurturing belief system that combined scientific 11 belief of social Darwinism with religious beliefs of charity and helpfulness o  Salvation Army: an army of Christians who set out to Christianize the nation and inspire beliefs/behavior Filling the Continental United States  Manifest Destiny: belief that white settlement of the West was inevitable and ordained by God, it was America’s responsibility to spread Christianity  Dawes Act of 1887 gave land to Native Americans and the rest became Oklahoma Land Rush: homesteading of the Indian territory by white settlers o  Western frontier closed Looking Outside the Borders  Imperialism: was a way to benefit the United States economically by expanding its markets to other countries. However, monetary gain was not the only focus of many imperialists. Instead, the prospect of converting larger numbers of "heathens" to Christianity was the most popular reason. What are the “4 P’s” of imperialism? 1. Piety 2. Profits 3. Patriotism 4. Politics or public opinion Spanish-American War  United States vs. Spain for the island of Cuba  Yellow Journalism: newspaper industry helped create a national fervor in support of American imperialist efforts. 12  War between Spain and America started because of an explosion of American ship- even though the explosion was America’s faulty boiler Anti-imperialism  Some said imperialism was immoral and repudiation of America’s commitment to human freedom  Others feared expanding would cause more immigration  Accessing cheap labor of other countries would make wages lower What were the reasons for anti-imperialist sentiments? o immorality of imperialism o pollution of the white race o fear of competition from cheap labor o fear that standing armies and alliances would threaten American liberties o fear of competition from Cuban sugar plantations  Treaty of Paris of 1898: officially ended Spanish-American War- Spain seceded all claims of sovereignty over Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines Southeast Asia  Chinese market led to pressure for open-door policy: allow any country to access to Chinese markets without fear of being hindered from another nation  Imperialism improved military and set fuel for the progressive era Progressive Era  From 1900-1917, movements fought for progress in social relationship became known as the progressive era o Those who fought for reforms; progressives. 13 o Issues from industrialization, immigration, and urbanization  Muckrakers: journalist who exposed corruption in American society o McClure’s: magazine that ran stories exposing major industries as filthy and hazardous to workers “fuel to the new reform” What were the 4 common goals of pregressives? o public solutions to problems o government reform o expanded the role of government o both social justice and social order What problems did progressives face? o contradiction between belief in free markets and government regulation o belief in private property o belief in individualism o Constitutional limitations of the federal government o disorganization of American workers o regional two-party system  Eight characteristics of progressives: 1 Most were white, middle/upper class, native-born Americans 2. Supported industrialization 3. Refused to accept the abuses they saw in society 4. “Environmentalists”: believed that poverty was the result of environmental factors, not genetic 5. saw members of society as interdependent 14 6. interventionists 7. evangelical protestants 8. had faith in science and experts Progressive Success  Best examples are areas of labor and women’s suffrage  Muller v. Oregon: showed harmful effects of women working long hours- women and men are different and should be treated different  Family wage ideal: allow men tot support a family without the financial help of women or children What were some of the reasons in support of women's suffrage? o Women are equal to men and thus should be given equal rights with men. o Women are naturally good and positive influences on men. o Women would help pass temperance laws. o Women would bring about an end to war. o Women's vote would offset immigrant and African American men's votes.  The Nineteenth Amendment allowed women the right to vote. Carrie Chapman Catt worked to create the amendment Conclusion The spread of American ideals through imperialism and Progressivism resulted in a powerful America during the first few decades of the twentieth century. Reform efforts and Protestant Christianity provided optimistic views of the United States to citizens of other nations. Both movements also increased the role of government in people's 15 everyday lives—a process that would continue over most of the twentieth century. Constitutional amendments passed regarding direct elections, alcohol, and women's suffrage. Reforms were obtained in labor, racial justice, and women's roles. However, imperialism and Progressivism also exposed the racism that permeated the American landscape. Future racial conflicts would continue to influence American policies for years to come. 16


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