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UT / Biology / BIOL 160 / How would you describe the composition of atoms?

How would you describe the composition of atoms?

How would you describe the composition of atoms?


School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Biology
Course: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Professor: Ben england
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: Bio 160 England Ch1-2 Learning Objectives
Description: These notes cover approximately half of the information that will be on Quiz 1
Uploaded: 01/27/2016
3 Pages 85 Views 2 Unlocks


How would you describe the composition of atoms?

Five fundamental characteristics shared by all living organisms

1. Acquire and use energy

2. Made up of membrane bound cells

3. Process hereditary information in genes and information from the environment 4. Capable of replication

5. Populations are continually evolving

Describe the 2 components of the cell theory

1. All organisms are made of cells (pattern)

2. All cells came from preexisting cells (process)




Positively charged particle located in the nucleus


What is the correlation between cohesion and adhesion?

If you want to learn more check out What are the intersectionalities of sociological imagination?
Don't forget about the age old question of Whose theory uses the notion of tabula rasa?
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Neutrally charged particle located in the nucleus


Negatively charged particle located in orbitals around the nucleus We also discuss several other topics like What is the main purpose served by the articles of confederation?


Specific place where electrons are located that are grouped into levels called  electron shells


composed of electrons, protons, neutrons (particle of an element that determines  elements properties)


• Substance held together by covalent bonds

• Hydrophobic: uncharged and nonpolar, do not dissolve in water (aka do not like  water)

• Hydrophilic: charged and polar, dissolve in water (aka like water) If you want to learn more check out What is the preponderance of evidence and which side must prove it?


• Atom or molecule that carries a charge [cation(+)bc lost e][anion(-)bc gain e] • Ions are stable because the loss or gain of an electron creates its octet

Does water have a high heat of vaporization?

Covalent Bonds

• A strong attraction where two atoms SHARE one or more electrons to achieve  octet

• Form molecules

• Electronegativity=electrons are not equally shared because some atoms hold  electrons more tightly giving one a partial negative and one a partial positive  charge

Trend: top right is most electronegative If you want to learn more check out What is a practical example of economic growth?

• Non-polar covalent bond=electrons are shared equally

• Polar Covalent Bond=electrons are not shared equally (see electronegativity)

Ionic Bonds

• Electrons are TRANSFERRED from one atom to another either losing or gaining  an electron to achieve and octet

• Resulting attraction between Cation and Anion

• Not as strong as Covalent but stronger than Hydrogen

Hydrogen Bonds

• Forms from the partial positive charge in Hydrogen and a partial negative charge  on an element in a aqueous solution

• H-bonding is usually associated between water molecules  

▪ (Polar covalent bonds for O-H and h-bonds for H2O-H2O)

• They form between water molecules (by itself=weak, together with many=strong) • Makes it possible for almost any charged particle to dissolve in water (explains  why water is an effective solvent)

• Water can make 4 H-Bonds (see “denser than a liquid”)


• Water is a solvent (H-bonding)

▪ See H-bonding

▪ Ions and polar molecules stay in a solution because of attractions to the  partial charges (Hydrophilic)

▪ Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic)

▪ Nonpolar dissolves in nonpolar and polar dissolves in polar

• Cohesion

▪ Attraction between like molecules (stays together because of the H-bonds  that form between the individual molecules)

▪ Results in high surface tension 

o Ex: Results in beading and why light insects/leaves do not fall thru  

the surface

• Adhesion

▪ Attraction between unlike molecules

o Binds to solid surfaces

o Ex: Forms the meniscus in glasses

▪ Water adheres to surfaces that have polar or charged components

• Denser as a Liquid than Solid

▪ Water expands as a solid creating a crystalline structure

▪ H-bonding explains this.

o Normally heating up causes something to expand because  

molecules move faster and collide with greater force.

o For water, heating causes the H-bonds to break causing the  

crystalline structure to collapse

▪ Ex: Explains why ice floats

• High Heat Capacity

▪ Water’s ability to absorb heat and energy well is attributed to H-bonding ▪ Water has a high specific heat (amt of energy required of energy to raise  the temperature of 1 gram by 1degree C)

▪ H-bonds must be broken before heat can be transferred and water  molecules begin moving faster

o Molecules with higher polarity=greater ability to form H

bonds=large amount of energy to change temperature

o Ex: boiling water

▪ Water has a high heat of vaporization (energy it takes to change 1 gram  of it from a liquid to a gas)

o Water’s heat of vaporization is higher than most liquids at room  temperature so water has to absorb a great deal of energy to  


o Ex: sweating or dousing with water to cool off

• Functional Groups

✔ How structure relates to function (FBI)

▪ The composition and properties of six prominent functional groups that  are commonly found in organic molecules contain C, H, N, O, P, S o Amino and Carboxyl

⮚ Acts as a base (Amino) and acts as an acid (Carboxyl)

⮚ Tends to attract a proton (Amino) and tends to lose a proton  


⮚ Compose amino acids

⮚ Participate in H-bonding  

o Carbonyl

⮚ Found on Aldehyde and Ketone (formaldehyde, acetone)  

⮚ Site of reactions that that link molecules into larger more  


o Hydroxyl

⮚ Lose a proton

⮚ Act as weak acids

⮚ Groups are polar so will form H-bonds and dissolve in  


o Phosphate

⮚ Carry two negative charges

⮚ Molecules with more than one P group linked together  

store large amounts of chemical energy  

o Sulfhydryl

⮚ Links to another Sulfhydryl to form S-S bonds that  

contribute to protein structure

▪ In short, functional groups make things happen.

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