PreparED Study Materials

Week 1 - Biology 301 Robert Friedman: Introduction to Evolution and Ecology Flashcards

Author: Student Professor: Dr. April South Term:

These are the definitions from the first powerpoint we went over in class. The title on blackboard is the "Introduction to Ecology and Evolution."

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Evolution

is any change in the genetic makeup of a population

Natural Selection

results in evolutionary change when genetic factors cause differences in fecundity and survival among individuals

Acclimatization

permits adjustment to changing conditions

Ecology

is the science by which we study how organisms interact with the environment

Why study ecology?

to understand nature conservation medicine

How many parts do we have in the ecological system?

5

Organism

smallest unit in biology

Population

many organisms of the same kind living together

Community

may populations of different kinds in the same place

Ecosystem

assemblages of organisms together with their physical environment

Biosphere

the global ecosystem, all of the organisms and environment of the Earth

Plants

capture the energy of sunlight and transform it into chemical form

Animals

depend on organic foods ultimately produced by plants

Fungi

consume dead materials effectively, making nutrients available to others

Protist

lack specialized tissues and organs, yet fill many niches

Bacteria

consists of small, single cells lacking nuclei and chromosomes

What do plants use to absorb light and exchange gas, water and nutrients?

external surface

T or F: plants stay closely attached to their source of water

True

What do animals use for exchange of gases, nutrients, and water

internal surfaces

What are the niches protists fill?

Photosynthetic organisms, predators, decomposers

What transformations do bacteria accomplish?

nitrogen fixation, chemoautotrophic production, metabolism under anaerobic conditions

Symbiosis

each partner provides something the other lacks

What is a habitat characterized by?

1. conspicuous physical features2. dominant plant or animal life

What does a niche of an organism encompass?

1. ranges of tolerable conditions2. role in ecological system

T or F: Two species can have the same niche

False: no two species can have the same niche

What are the two types of temporal variation?

1. cyclical variations2. irregular variations

Spatial variation

occurs at very small and very large scales*the scale variation importance is a function of the organism

What are the 4 general ecology principles?

1. ecological systems are physical entities2. ecological systems exist in dynamic steady states3. the maintenance of living systems requires the expenditure of energy4. ecological systems undergo evolutionary changes through time

Hypothesis

is an idea about how the world works

What does a hypothesis generate?

predictions

What are the best tests of hypotheses?

Experiments

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