Intro to Psychology Notes
Intro to Psychology Notes Psy 112
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alaina White on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 112 at Pace University taught by Keenan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Intro to Psychology: Psychologists get their ideas from the Scientific Method. o The idea is the hypothesis. The hypothesis has to be testable. Experiment: The way to gather data. o 3 Components: 1. Comparison: control group and experimental group. 2. Independent Variable: The feature that distinguishes the difference in an experiment (what makes the group different than the control group). The independent variable is the distinguished character in the experiment. 3. Dependent Variable: Measure of a subject’s performance in an experiment. o In order for an experiment to be confirmed, you need repetition and there needs to be a significant difference which is determined by statistics. o Level of confidence: .05 level = 95% sure that the results of the experiment are true and not due to chance. Flaws: Are there any flaws in the experiment? o 1. Subject Selection: you have to guarantee that the subjects are pretty much the same. For a small number of subjects (1020) you use a matching procedure. For a large number of subjects you use randomization. o 2. Confounding Variables: Confounding variables are variables that are mixed up with the independent variables. The solution is to eliminate them. (In the example above, the confounding variable is in the lectures (the time temp of the room, and the topic of the lecture)). o * lurking variables. 3. Subject Effects: The subject effects are based on the belief, knowledge, bias, state of mind, can influence the results. o Example: the placebo effect. Placebo= something that is medically inert ( does not affect you). o Blind: you need to keep the subjects blind and without knowledge of what is happening. o 4. Experiment Effects: based in the belief/knowledge/bias of the experimenter. The way the experimenter conducts the experiment can affect the experiment. The experimenter must be blind. “Double Blind”: When the experimenter and the subjects are both blind. Field Experiment: An experiment in a real environment/ world. All the same conditions apply. o Minuses: Give up some measure of control o Plusses: Natural Behavior of the subjects. (They don’t think they’re being observed). o Ex. NYC subway system on “helping behavior”. Person to mimic signs of a heart attack. We are testing how long will it take for someone to come help? o Control IV: Business attire, Experimental IV: “Shabby” o DV: The time it will take for someone to come help. When you’re talking about an experiment, you’re talking about a relationship. Cause and Effect: The IV caused the DV to….. Correlational Methods: Can’t make a statement about cause and effect. Can make statements about how things are related. Can you sensibly make a statement about how one thing is related to the other? Correlation= prediction. 101 Positive Correlation: A↑ B↑ or A↓B↓ the variables move in the same direction. Negative Correlation: A↑B↓ or A↓B↑ the variables move in opposite directions. If you have a Correlation of 1 or +1 you have a perfect correlation. You can make statements about relationships, but not using cause and effect. Correlational Techniques: o 1. Naturalistic Observation: A topic that psychologists test is personal space. This is an observation, not an experiment. o Take multiple observations. o You can’t make the statement that culture causes people to stand closer. You can say that there is a relationship or a role. Ex. The observation will be set in NYC and Mexico City. Does culture make a difference (cultural effects)? NYC: Plazzasinstrumentsmeasure distances btw people x: 2 ½ ft. Mex: Plazzasinstrumentsmeasure distances btw people x: 1 ½ ft. Two important elements: Requirements: o 1. In a Naturalistic Observation there is no change (or manipulation) in the environment. (No independent variable). o 2. The observation has to be unobtrusive (the subjects don’t know they are being observed). 2. Questionnaire: =Survey = Poll o Flaws: Lying, Behavior Change (Bored), “Yes” Bias o Sample= a part of the population o Representative Sample= The sample represents the larger population that you are interested in. 3. Archival Study: tapping into Library/ Databases/ Records o Ex. Yankee Stadium Concessions Beer↑ Fights↑, Temperature Archives: x, you can’t make a statement with cause and effect, but you can make a statement about correlation. 4. Case Study: =”oddball” technique o n= the number of subjects o In a case study the n=1 (n+ entity). It could mean 1 person, 1 company, 1 state. No confidence/ trust in the result. o You need a justification on to why you are only studying one subject. It’s a unique study. You need to study it directly. o Case Study examples: o 1. Clinical Psychology the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Most rare psychiatric disorder si MPD ( Multiple Personality Disorder). A person with MPD can seem rational but they are disconnected. o 2. Psychology of creativity: Psychology of “Genius”. Einstein, Darwin, Picasso. o 3. Social Psychology: ex. 343 firefighter deaths on 9/11 = unique. What effects did that have on the NYCFD? What does that do to recruitment? The Brain and the Central Nervous System are what psychologists study today. The Triune Model of the Brain: o Triune= 3 layers. o In the last 40 years there have been imaging techniques to study the living brain. Layer #1: The part of the brain right above the spinal cord. The Central Core of the brain. o We could see this type of brain in the animals that lived 400 million years ago. We could see them in primitive fish/ reptiles (the reptilian brain). o The central core of the brain takes care of the basic biology. Takes care of heartbeat, respiration, things that we do automatically. Keeps you alive. o One of the reasons biologists think the brain evolved is movement. o One of the structures that makes up the central core is the thalamus a switching mechanism in the brain. If you see, touch, or hear something the nerves send it to the thalamus and the thalamus sends it to different parts in layer #3. The exception is for olfaction or for smell. Layer #2: Referred to as the Limbic System which surrounds the central core. Looks like a 3 fingered hand wrapped around the central core. o First appeared in evolution around 100 million years ago. o The reason why biologists think this first arose was to give animals a sense of smell (olfactory sense or olfactory bulb). The idea of evolution is a gradual and changes over time. Evolution is opportunistic. Evolution will take advantage of something that's already there, and give it a new purpose. o Smell goes up your nose and makes contact with the olfactory bulb. Smell does not pass through the thalamus. o Air pollution can destroy the cells in the olfactory bulb to decrease one’s sense of smell. o The sense of smell has the ability to bring back emotions. o Another part of the Limbic System is the amygdala. The amygdala plays a role in fear and/ or aggression. It is the size of an almond. o Another part of the Limbic System is the septal area one of the pleasure centers of the brain. o Another part of the Limbic System is the hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary gland or the “master gland” (a gland that secretes hormones). This plays a major role in (controls) emotions and also is a part of the endocrine system. Layer #3: Cortex the outermost layer of the brain. o Can be found in animals going back to 60 million years ago. o Really good cortices can be found in primates and dolphins/ whales (cetaceans) today. o In human beings the cortex accounts for 85% of the brain. o The thinking part of the brain. o The human brain is not smooth and has “folds” or convolutions. The convolutions increase the surface area. Therefore, this increases our ability to think. And it makes our brain more complex. Some of these folds are very deep. The deepest runs right down the center the longitudinal fissure. There is also a lateral fissure. Allows us to talk about the whereabouts of the brain. There are four lobes of the brain that have been divided by the fissures. o 1. Occipital Lobe primary vision processor. o 2. Temporal Lobe auditory memory + meaning. Wernicke's Aphasia means that there’s a problem with language. There is a problem in the temporal lobe. It is a cognitive disorder when they can’t make sense. This occurs then there is damage to the left side. 1860’s and 1870’s. If there was damage to the temporal lobe, then there would be a problem with processing the language. Uses words in the right pattern but what the person is saying makes no sense. He found this out by doing autopsy. o 3. Parietal Lobe: Integrates sensory information, allows us to pay attention, orient ourselves in space (lets us know where we are), orient objects in space (dyslexia). Somatosensory Cortex responsible for integration the information from your body and from your senses. Synthesia is a cross sense experience. o 4. Frontal Lobe mid front section of the brain. The thinking functions of the brain or the higher cognitive processes our ability to learn. Gives you the ability to construct a plan or future. The left side of the frontal lobe is called the Broca’s area. Broca’s aphasia is strictly a speech disorder. Doesn’t have the normal rhythms of speech (halting gaps). Not a cognitive disorder. Only has a problem with speech production. Motor Cortex In the back of the frontal lobe. (Blue area in pic). Responsible for voluntary movement. The Central Core of the brain is responsible for involuntary movement. The frontal lobe plays a major role in our personality. Ex. Schizophrenia diagnosed with drugs. Thorazine or ECT (electro convulsive therapy) or prefrontal lobotomy developed in 1930’d by Italian doctor. The lobotomy destroyed areas in the frontal lobe. And as a result it changed the person and made them emotionally and intellectually flat. The frontal lobe has control over the Limbic System, which affects emotions. When you turn age 21 then you can control impulses. The Neuron: Association Neurons. Connected to each other and allow us to think. o Sensory Neurons: Controls our muscles. o The anatomy (structure) of the neuron. (Diagram) 1. Cell Body: Tiny structure. Plays two major roles in the life of a neuron. 1) Provides nutrients/ keeps it alive. 2) Manufactures neurotransmitters (chemicals that are naturally produced in the brain that carry messages to and from the brain). 2. Dendrites: (Means Branches) The major role of the dendrite is to receive neural messages. 3. Axon: The size of the axon is variable. The axon is the part of the neuron responsible for sending information. 4. Myelin Sheath: (Sheath= surrounds something else). The job of the axon is to surround the axon. The glia cells give themselves onto the axon. They are made up of fatty materials. Their primary job is to insulate the axon (Insulate = to protect the electrical charge (like plastic or rubber around a wire)). This makes the charge more efficient. At birth the human brain and spine is not well myelinated. Myelination occurs and better insulates the axon. 5. At the end of the axon it splits so it can communicate with more neurons. This is called the terminal buttons. At the end, you see sacks that hold chemicals or neurotransmitters in them. Between the terminal buttons and the dendrites of the next axon, there is a gap or synapse. 6. Synapse: The neural message has to take the physical form of an electrical charge microvolt. The message gets transmitted in the gap by having the terminal buttons spray neurotransmitters into the synapse, where there are receptors to absorb the spray in the next dendrite. Your brain is an electrochemical system. Physical Development: (Maturation). o Development “landmarks”: when parents or people see differences in the brains of young children. 1. Sit Up the child can sit up on their own and maintain posture. Average Age: 8 months. 2. Crawl Average Age: 9 months. 3. Creep (difference between crawling and creeping is that the babies are on their feet/ toes when crawling) Average Age 10 months. 4. Stand Average Age: 11 months. 5. Walk Average Age: 13 months. o Maturation: Under genetic control. Is a timed event. Universal Happens to all human beings (biological process). Sequential Occurs in a well established pattern. Normal in a normal environment. An abnormal environment can affect maturation. o Genes: 1. Structural genes: ex. arms, wings 2. Regulatory genes: Controls the timing of development. o Two terms that biologists use to describe an organism at birth: 1. Altricial: Helpless In relation to movement human 2. Precocial: Competent in relation to movement horse Why are humans born with altricial movement? The human baby is born in an immature state because it is a reflection of what’s going on in its nervous system. o Myelination: Not developed when born. 2 patterns of myelination that are well known: 1. Cephalocaudal Development: (Ceph= “head”, Caudal= “tail”). Myelination occurs from the head to the bottom of the spine. As time goes on, this explains what a baby can do. 2. Proximodistal Development: (Proximo= “Near”, Distal= “far”). Near= trunk of the body, Far= limbs of the body.
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