Study Guide #1
Study Guide #1 BIOL 1020
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robyn Dixon on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. William Heyborne in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Exam #1 STUDY GUIDE Human Biology Chapter 1: 1. Anatomy: structure of a part; Physiology: function of a part a. The structure determines the function 2. Levels of Organization: a. Chemical b. Cellular c. Tissue d. Organs e. Organ Systems f. Organism 3. Directional Terms a. Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal) i. In front of spine/behind spine b. Superior/Inferior i. Towards head/towards feet c. Medial/Lateral i. Toward vertical midline/away from midline d. Proximal/Distal i. Close to midline/away from midline e. Superficial/Deep i. Close to surface/away from surface f. Central/Peripheral i. Nervous Systems g. Ipsilateral/Contralateral i. Same side/Opposite sides 4. Cavities a. Cranial—Brain b. Vertebral—Spinal Cord and brain c. Anterior (Ventral) i. Thoracic 1. Heart, lungs, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, 2. Inside Ribcage ii. Abdominopelvic 1. Superior (abdominal) a. Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, most of intestines 2. Inferior (pelvic) a. Rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and rest of large intestine 5. Homeostasis a. Relative consistency of body’s internal environment b. Negative Feedback: i. Primary homeostatic mechanism ii. Reverses change in the internal environment c. Positive Feedback: i. Sensor continues to be stimulated so a great change in internal environment occurs ii. Examples: Blood clotting, Childbirth Exam #1 STUDY GUIDE Human Biology Chapter 2 1. Ions: number of electrons differs a. Positive Ion: lost electrons b. Negative ion: gained electrons 2. Isotopes: differing number of neutrons in a element 3. Molecules: form when atoms bond to each other 4. Compounds: formed when atoms of different elements bond 5. Ionic bond: electrical attraction between ions a. Bond between Sodium and Chlorine 6. Covalent bond: atoms share electrons; can share one or multiple PAIRS a. Water 7. Water: a. Abundant molecule in organisms b. A polar molecule c. Attraction between positive hydrogen and negative oxygen creates a Hydrogen bond d. Properties of Water: i. Solvent: liquid that dissolves ions ii. Cohesive and Adhesive 1. Water molecules cling together—cohesion 2. Molecules cling to other substances—adhesion a. Other substances must have a slight charge iii. High Specific heat 1. Amount of energy needed to change an object’s temperature by 1°C iv. High Heat of Vaporization 1. Amount of energy needed to turn water into a vapor/gas 8. Acids and Bases a. Acids: substances with excess H+ b. Bases: substances with excess OH- or binds with H+ c. pH scale i. pH 7 = neutral 1. equal H+ and OH- released ii. pH greater than 7 = base 1. more OH- than H+ released iii. pH less than 7 = acid 1. more H+ than OH- released 9. Carbohydrates a. Simple Carbohydrates i. Monosaccharides 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose ii. Disaccharides 1. 2 monosaccharides joined together 2. Sucrose 3. Lactose b. Complex Carbohydrates i. Polysaccharides 1. Starch 2. Glycogen 3. Cellulose 10.Lipids a. Fats and Oils Exam #1 STUDY GUIDE Human Biology i. 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules ii. Fats: 1. Usually from animals 2. Solid a room temperature 3. Long term energy storage, insulation, and cushioning iii. Oils: 1. Usually from plants 2. Liquid at room temperature iv. Saturated and Unsaturated 1. Saturated a. Single covalent bonds b. Lard and butter 2. Unsaturated a. Double bonds b. Vegetable oils v. Phospholipids 1. Contains phosphate group 2. Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic cells 3. Forms cellular membranes 11.Proteins a. Polymer of amino acid monomers i. **Essential amino acids—deprived from body (cannot be produced by body) b. Dipeptide: irreversible changes in shape due to extremes in heat and pH i. Makes protein non-functional c. Enzymatic Reactions i. Metabolism: sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell ii. Enzymes: protein catalysts that enable metabolic reactions 1. Synthesis Reaction: combining proteins 2. Degradation/Decomposition: separating proteins 12.Nucleic Acids a. Polymers composed of nucleotide monomers b. Nucleotides composed of 3 sub-units i. Phosphate ii. Sugar iii. Nitrogen-containing base c. DNA i. Gene make up ii. Nitrogen-containing bases 1. Adenine (A) 2. Thymine (T) 3. Guanine (G) 4. Cytosine (C) iii. Double stranded d. RNA i. Making proteins ii. Nitrogen-containing bases 1. Uracil (U) a. Replaces Thymine (T) iii. Single Stranded
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