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Law 322 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Stephanie Notetaker

Law 322 Exam 1 Study Guide LAW 3220

Marketplace > Clemson University > Law and Legal Studies > LAW 3220 > Law 322 Exam 1 Study Guide
Stephanie Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover exactly what will be on Exam 1.
Legal Environment of Business
Edward R. Claggett
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LAW 3220 at Clemson University taught by Edward R. Claggett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Legal Environment of Business in Law and Legal Studies at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Law  322   Exam  1  Study  Guide     1. Law  is  a  set  of  rules  and  guidelines  that  tell  us  standards  for  business  and   personal  activity,  it  sets  society’s  values   a. If  you  cross  the  line,  here  is  the  punishment   2. Roles  of  law  and  society   a. Define  what  is  acceptable  to  society   b. Encourage  you  to  engage  in  acceptable  behavior   c. Assist  in  resolving  disputes  and  conflicts   d. Has  to  be  flexible  enough  to  change  as  technology  changes   3. Sources  of  law   a. Primary-­‐supreme  law-­‐U.  S  constitution   i. Any  law  that  conflicts  with  it  can  be  ruled  in  valid   b. Created  3  branches  of  government   i. Legislative-­‐congress,  house  and  senate   1. Pass  statutory  law,  the  substantive  law   2. What  is  acceptable  and  what  the  penalties  are   ii. Court  system   1. Issues  decisions  from  a  judge  or  jury   2. Presidential  value   iii. Executive-­‐President   1. Can  issue  executive  orders   4. Different  ways  to  classify  laws   a. Public  versus  private   i. Public-­‐this  is  what  is  acceptable  to  society   ii. Private-­‐if  we  sign  a  contract,  the  terms  in  this  contract  are   private,  they  only  apply  to  two  people  not  the  public   b. Civil  versus  criminal   i. Differences  are  civil  deal  with  less  serious  offenses,  penalties   are  less  severe  maybe  up  to  12  months,  burden  of  proof  is  by   the  preponderance  of  the  evidence   ii. Criminal  are  more  serious,  the  penalties  are  more  severe  can   include  the  death  penalty,  burden  of  proof  is  higher,  you  have   to  prove  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt   c. Substantive-­‐statutory  law,  the  stuff  the  legislature  is  writing   d. Procedural-­‐federal  rules  of  civil  procedural  that  tells  you  how  to   conduct  a  civil  trial,  it’s  the  process  or  the  procedure  for  you  to  get   compensated   5. Court  system   a. Court  of  original  jurisdiction   i. Does  the  court  have  the  ability  to  hear  the  case   b. Appellate  court   i. Where  either  party  has  the  right  to  get  to,  can’t  appeal   questions  of  fact   c. Supreme  Court   i. You  can  request  the  supreme  court,  they  don’t  take  many  cases   only  important  ones   6. Federal  level   a. U.S  district  courts   i. Only  federal  court  that  you  can  get  a  jury  trial   ii. Might  see  magistrates  in  action   1. Someone  that  helps  the  judge  move  the  case  along   2. Can  hear  and  decide  cases     iii. The  court  of  original  jurisdiction  of  the  federal  system   b. U.S  Court  of  appeals   c. Supreme  Court   i. Send  a  writ  of  certioari   1. Have  to  get  at  least  4  of  the  9  justices  to  hear  the  appeal   7. Special  or  limited  jurisdiction   a. Bankruptcy  court   b. US  tax  court   c. U.S  court  of  federal  claims-­‐claims  against  the  government   8. Federal  judges   a. Have  to  be  nominated  by  the  president  of  the  US   b. Have  to  be  confirmed  by  51  or  more  senators   c. Appointed  for  lifetime   d. Given  judicial  immunity-­‐extends  to  anyone  working  for  the  court  like   magistrates     i. The  hope  they  will  base  cases  solely  on  the  law   9. State  Courts   a. 3  tier   b. Municipal  court-­‐traffic  violations   c. Justice  of  the  peace   d. Probate  court     e. Small  claims  court-­‐quicker  and  less  expensive,  just  have  to  make  sure   the  amount  is  lower  than  their  cap   10.State  judges   a. Normally  elected  or  appointed  by  the  governor   b. Not  lifetime  appointments   c. Specific  limited  period  of  years   d. Judicial  immunity   i. cannot  be  sued  for  damages  or  decisions   11.Jurisdiction   a. Does  the  court  have  authority  to  hear  the  case  and  issue  a  binding   decision   b. The  court  has  subject  matter  and  personal  jurisdiction   i. Subject  matter-­‐statutory  law   c. Concurrent-­‐either  court  system  can  take  it,  if  jurisdiction  is  based   upon  diversity  of  citizenship,  the  federal  courts  will  say  they  only  take   jurisdiction  if  the  amount  of  dispute  is  75,000  or  more,  if  it  is  under   than  plaintiff  can  only  file  in  state  system   12.State  long  arm  statues   a. If  it’s  a  business,  they  can  be  sued  in  the  state  of  headquarters,  any   state  they  are  doing  busy  in   b. If  it’s  personal  if  they  do  business,  get  injured,  or  are  traveling  through   the  state   13.Personal  property-­‐in  REM-­‐the  court  where  that  property  is  located  has   jurisdiction,  only  related  to  property   14.Conflict  of  law  or  choice  of  law****   a. If  the  dispute  is  in  the  federal  system,  it  will  almost  always  apply  its   states  rules  of  procedure   b. 2  rules:   i. Historical:  where  the  underlying  dispute  arose,  apply  the  state   substantive  law  where  the  dispute  occurred   ii. Emerging:  apply  the  law  where  the  state  has  the  most   significant  interest  in  resolving  the  dispute,  normally  the  state   where  the  injured  party  resides   15.Plaintiff  gets  to  choose  where  to  file   a. Defendant  has  3  possibilities  to  get  it  moved   i. Motion  for  removal  from  state  court   1. Very  fact  specific,  only  granted  if  the  plaintiff  files  the   complaint  in  his  state  court,  if  the  defendant  is  an  out  of   state  resident,  and  can  only  be  removed  to  the  federal   court  system   ii. Change  of  venue   1. If  in  the  judges  opinion,  there  has  been  a  great  deal  of   publicity   2. Can’t  have  biased  judges  or  jurors   3. State  to  federal,  federal  to  state,  state  to  state,  if  they   have  the  same  jurisdiction   iii. Move  to  the  most  convenient  form-­‐form  of  non  convens   1. Where  the  majority  of  the  parties  that  have  to   participate  in  the  trial  live   2. Judge  will  almost  always  grant   3. Where  the  witnesses  live   16.Trial  Procedures   a. Federal  rules  of  civil  procedure   i. Rules  that  govern  civil  trials  in  the  federal  court  system   ii. 6  potential  steps  of  a  civil  trial-­‐know  the  order   1. Pleading   a. Complaint  filed  by  plaintiff,  defendant  files  an   answer  to  complaint   b. Complaint  has  to  have  why  it  has  jurisdiction,   facts  of  dispute,  what  remedy  the  plaintiff  wants   c. Plaintiff  has  to  make  sure  it  gets  personally   delivered     d. Defendant  has  to  have  an  answer  to  complaint   i. Motion  for  dismiss,   1.  Affirmative  defenses   a. Self-­‐defense,  assumption  of   risk,  contributory   negligence   e. Defendant  might  file  a  counter  claim,  wants   court  to  hear  at  the  same  time,  the  plaintiff  has  to   file  a  reply  if  defendant  does  this   i. Defendant  files  an  answer  to  plaintiffs   complaint,  the  plaintiff  files  a  reply  to  a   defendants  counter-­‐claim   2. Discovery**broadest   a. Designed  to  encourage  settles,  and  preserve   evidence   b. Depositions   c. Written  interrogatories     d. Order  for  production  of  documents   e. Request  for  admissions  of  fact   f. Order  for  mental  or  physical  exams   g. If  you  don’t  want  to  participate  in  discovery   i. Court  can  fine  you  and  put  you  in  jail   ii. The  court  can  enter  a  fault  judgment  for   the  other  party  (the  other  party  wins)   h. Either  party  can  make  a  motion  for  summary   judgment   i. Judge  can  grant  judgment  for  one  party   3. Pre-­‐trial   a. Optional   b. Used  to  clarify  the  courts  calendar,  when  they   are  going  to  have  hearings   c. Judge  can  strongly  encourage  the  parties  to   settle  during  this  stage   4. Trial   st a. 1  step-­‐if  you  have  requested  a  jury   b. Notices  go  out  and  potential  jurors  come  in   c. Attorneys  make  opening  statements   d. Closing  arguments  from  lawyers   e. Either  party  can  make  a  motion  for  the  judge  to   make  a  direct  verdict   f. Judge  instructs  jurors  what  the  law  is,  judge  will   also  explain  what  the  burden  of  proof  is   g. Jury  goes  away  and  comes  back  with  a  verdict   h. Either  party  can  make  a  Motion  for  judgment  not   withstanding  the  verdict   i. Remedies   i. Monetary  or  equitable   1. Monetary     a. Compensatory,  punitive,   nominal   2. Equitable   a. Specific  performance,   injunction   5. Appellate   a. If  either  party  is  not  happy  then  we  go  here   b. You  file  written  brief  and  oral  arguments  to  get   here   c. Appellate  court  will  hear  it  and  issue  a  decision,   if  still  not  happy  you  can  request  a  Supreme   Court  to  hear  it   d. Once  you  have  a  decision,  you  might  have  to  go   to  the  enforcement  stage   6. Enforcement-­‐collect  damages  after  final  judgment   a. Writ  of  execution   i. Allows  you  to  legally  have  parties  assets   b. Garnishment  order   i. If  the  losing  party  has  a  steady  job  you   can  get  up  to  25%  of  their  net  pay  until   you  get  the  full  amount   7. Alternative  disputes   a. Arbitration-­‐most  formal   i. Binding-­‐  can’t  appeal  it  to  the  court   system   ii. Nonbinding-­‐  can  go  to  court   b. Mediation-­‐resolve  labor  disputes   c. Negotiation-­‐least  formal,  least  widely  used,  both   parties  get  in  a  room  and  try  to  reach  a   settlement  and  sign  a  contract,  if  they  cant  reach   one  they  go  to  court   iii. Discovery-­‐use  of  expert  witnesses,  if  one  party  asks  for  trade   secrets  you  should  ask  for  court  protection   b. Constitution     i. 7  articles,  27  amendments   ii. 2/3  of  congress-­‐house  and  senate   iii. ¾  of  states  ratify   iv. Commerce  clause-­‐gives  congress  the  right  to  regulate   interstate  commerce,  states  are  fully  able  to  regulate  intrastate   commerce   v. Necessary  and  proper  clause-­‐gives  congress  the  power  to  pass   all  laws  and  regulations   vi. Taxing  power-­‐gives  congress  the  power  to  raise  taxes   1. States  can  tax  the  profits  of  interstate  businesses   2. Taxes  are  designed  to:   a. Raise  revenue   b. Encourage/discourage  certain  behavior  by   th businesses  and  individuals   vii. 4  amendment-­‐search  and  seizure   1. You  have  to  get  a  search  warrant  issued  by  a  judge,   exception  is  if  you  are  a  highly  regulated  business   viii. 5 -­‐can  the  forced  to  testify  against  yourself  in  a  trial,  only   applies  to  yourself  not  businesses,  government  cant  take   private  property  for  public  use  unless  you  get  compensated   (eminent  domain  laws)   1. **Taking-­‐government  takes  action  on  your  property,   changes  zoning  and  drives  it  to  0  value   th ix. 14 -­‐Due  Process  and  equal  protection   1. If  denied  these,  case  gets  thrown  out   2. Due  Process   a. Rules  and  procedures  need  to  be  followed   3. Equal  Protection   a. Apply  the  law  the  same  to  everybody   c. Criminal  laws   i. Largely  made  up  of  federal  and  states  statutory  laws  plus  court   decisions   ii. Criminal  negligence   1. So  careless  that  it’s  a  disregard  of  the  rights  and  safety   of  others  like  drunk  driving   iii. Felonies  and  misdemeanors   1. Misdemeanors:  Less  serious   2. Felonies:  More  serious  like  violent  crimes  more  harsh   penalties     3. To  be  convicted  of  a  crime  you  have  to  be  beyond  a   reasonable  doubt   a. “Actus  reus”   b. “Mens  rea”   i. State  of  mind   ii. Premeditated  murder   4. Business  can  be  convicted  of  violating  a  criminal  law   a. Have  to  prove  it  was  an  individual   th 5. 5  amendment  Miranda  rights   a. Have  to  be  told  these   b. Right  to  remain  silent   c. Anything  can  be  used  against  you  in  court   d. Right  to  an  attorney,  if  you  cant  find  one,  we  will   for  cheap   6. Statue  of  limitations,  alibi,  affirmative  defenses,  self-­‐ defense,  entrapment,  state  of  mind  (intoxication)   7. Only  the  government  can  bring  a  criminal  action   a. An  arraignment,  the  charges  are  given  to  the   accused,  judge  sets  a  court  date  and  decides   what  to  do  with  the  accused,  trys  to  get  it  off  the   court   b. Discovery**major  difference   i. Comes  just  before  the  trial,  the  day   before,  its  more  limited   ii. Burden  to  find  their  own  evidence   iii. Exculpatory  evidence-­‐any  evidence  that   tends  to  prove  him  evidence   iv. Double  jeopardy     v. White-­‐collar  crimes-­‐be  familiar  with   embezzlement,  bribery,  credit  card  fraud,   etc.   8. Sentencing  Guidelines   a. Only  apply  to  federal  criminal  trials   b. US  Supreme  Court  says  they  are  not  mandatory,   only  there  to  help  


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