Second Test Review
Second Test Review POSC 471
Popular in POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Richmond on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 471 at Towson University taught by Matthew Hoddie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World in Political Science at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Richmond POSC 447 SECOND TEST REVIEW “Why does this factor negatively impact development” - Structure: o Two sections: Multiple choice Lecture material and the books Same questions from the quizzes Chapters from the “Shaping the Developing World” from the syllabus Guest lecture o Main ideas o Overlaps of book and what we have learned in class o Examples o Gender Chapter especially Series of questions, long answer type One drawn from the discussion questions that we did from class - Review: o Domestic factors that we find in the developing countries. And we discussed how domestic issues face internal relations o Diversity Ethnicity: group of people who have a subjective perception of common origins Nationalism: people share a common ethnicity and they have the right to self governance Three Theories: 1. Primordialism (Geertz): Identities are in built; they are in us from birth. People have it in their DNA to look and dislike people who are most similar to them. Doesn’t require explanation, it is the norm. 2. Instrumentalism (Brass): Ethnicity comes from the people who are in the greater (ethnic entrepreneurs) they use the fiction of identities to gain support and to have influence. They are created by the elites seeking power. 3. Constructivism (Anderson): Identities are formed through print capitalism. Identities emerge from a dense web of social interactions. People belong to a broader community from capitalism and ethnic nationalism. Thought has an improvement to what Geertz and Brass had to offer Diverse societies: Public Goods Provisions: schools, roads, health clinics Fragmented Labor Market: Opportunities for economic growth are lost. Economic development will suffer as result Undermines Stable Governance: potential for political leaders to engage in favoritism towards their own ethnic community. Stereotype Threat: potential for violence between different ethnic communities. Negative stereotypes in diverse communities can undermine in the economic potential because those people can be less beneficial. o Governance Democracy: Free and fair elections to select leaders Richmond Protection of human rights Varieties of democracies Presidential System: President and legislator are elected separately. Will see a competition about questions of policy Parliamentary Systems: only one election with one party. Executive and legislative branches are fused together. The leader of the party will become the executive. NonDemocratic States (Authoritarian regimes) Leaders are not chosen by free and fair elections Government does not respect basic human rights o Dominant Party Regime: Ruling by the Communist Party. They are controlled by one party or person. (China, Cuba, Vietnam, North Korea) o Military Regimes: Cout de tat. Small group of actors take over a state to make control of the mess a democratic leader has made. Military leaders believe they are least corrupt. (Myanmar, Egypt, Thailand) o Monarchies: family down ran, where the person in charge is granted the power because of their family’s royalty. (Jordan) o Theocracies: religious based leaders are chosen and have political authority. (Iran) New Institutional Economics Approach (NIEA) Perspective of this idea has been put on the map. Underdevelopment is not simply a function of selecting the wrong development model. Nondemocratic states limit development because they create an environment where any wealth or investments they create will be taken away from the by the government. People worry about these regimes taking their money they are reluctant to invest in the economy Extractive practices: o 1: Expropriation: failure to maintain property rights for the people. Things created by citizens that are taken away from them by the government o 2: Corruption: Petty or Grand corruption. Funds and resources of citizens being taken by the government. o 3: Rent Seeking: government and those close to them (cronies) will enforce policies that benefit them and not the population as a whole. o Violence Political Violence: acts of violence that have a political purpose. Most common forms of political violence are Interstate violence and Intrastate violence Interstate Violence: war between two or more states in the international system Intrastate Violence: War within a country. Often taking the form of either a secessionist conflict or a governmental war. Political Violence that can have a risk for economic development: o 1: Opportunity Costs o 2: Destroyed physical infrastructure (anything that allows for economic commerce to take place) o 3: Loss of Investment, lost of FDI o 4: Destruction and loss of human capital Richmond Internally displaced: Refugees will stay in the country, or will internally displace people seeking safety 5: Increased costs of economic exchange Criminal Violence: violence that has motives those are not for political gain or purpose. Organized Violence: carried out by gangs with a hierarchical organization that exist to profit from illegal activities. (Latin America) Unorganized Violence: not carried out by gangs with a hierarchical organization (Africa) Carries out more homicides then political violence o Homicides are often attributable to the competition of drug cartels seeking access to the US market Criminal violence may harm a states prospects for development: o 1: Increase burdens on the health care system o 2: Increase burdens for law enforcement o 3: Discourage investment o 4: Erode trust and cooperation among citizens o Gender Gender refers to the attitudes, norms, expectations and behaviors that societies construct around being male or female. It captures the cultural stereotypes which give rise to Gender Inequality the extent to which these societal creations around gender grant boys and men advantages in power, resources and health Distinction from sex biological determination of male or female Gender Earnings Gap: Throughout the world women tend to be poorer than men, receiving lower wages and lower returns for their contributions to society Gender Asset Gap men have easier access to economic assets and inputs. Discriminatory institutions grounded in law/culture are often barriers to female acquisition of assets such as land and houses Marriage laws and customs in LDCs treat women as property of their husbands Access to financial capital women often discriminated against in credit markets Burden of NonMarket Activities women perform more uncompensated work than men, ‘domestic work’ DoubleShift of full time market activities and full time non market activities at home Women in the Labor Market women are disproportionally part of the informal sector. Without strong antidiscrimination legal frameworks and familyleave policies, businesses in LDC’s see women as less desirable to hire because they are more likely to request time off due to pregnancy/childcare Female labor force performance rates (FLFPR) percentage of women who work outside the home for monetary compensation are not necessarily lower in LDC’s. (Lowest in Middle East and South Asia) Trends/Improvements: Microfinance services help to narrow the gender asset gap Women in LDC’s birthing fewer children Female labor force participation has increased in most countries since 1980 (result of globalization) Richmond Gender Gap in Education: The formal education of girls and women is a crucial element of female empowerment as it increases job opportunities. In most LDC’s women have less education than men; occurs in primary school, where girls drop out at younger ages than boys. Causes: Discriminatory attitudes of parents (attitudes fed by social norms) Opportunity cost of female education can seem high to parents, girls are expected to do more house work Trends/Improvement: parents are leaving their girls in school longer Majority of LDC’s have experienced gender parity in in primary enrollment. Latin America and East Asia have almost caught up to high income countries Gender Gap in Political Empowerment: women have less of an impact on public policy and political institutions in the developing world. Descriptive Representation on average women made up less than 20% of national legislatures in the developing world (2008) o This does NOT stem from unequal voting rights, women just tend to be less likely to vote than men in LDCs, Illiteracy and low education levels can make women hesitant to vote, women less likely to hold political office because they lack professional background, financial/time resources. Also contributing to this are sexist beliefs held by both elites and masses Women’s Movements Trends/Improvements many countries have adopted gender quotas that require a minimum number of party nominations or legislative seats to be occupied by women Female Health, Physical Security and Fertility Excess Female Mortality (gendercide), death of females because of their sex o SexSelective Abortion of females by parents preferring a son is widely practiced in a few LDCs. Rooted in son preference, a norm that existed in China and South Asia for generations o Comparative Neglect of Daughters o Mortality in Reproductive Years maternal mortality is the death of women due to complications from pregnancy or childbirth. Gender based violence Domestic violence and rape Forced marriage Female Genital Cutting Reproduction Women in the developing world birth more children than those in developed world. The fertility rate is strongly and negatively correlated with GDP per capita Cause of high fertility it’s actually a preference, for economic reasons because more children will help in times of need, cultural influences often portray large families as a sign of status and pride, and lack of contraception o “Different Development Models” Richmond Development Model: policies a state chooses to shape economic activity. The choice of development model is dictated by a governments understand of the appropriate relationship between states and markets. Socialism: states should dominate the market Proponent: Karl Marx Practice: o 1: Agricultural Collectivities: land owned by the state; all crops sold to the state at fixed prices. o 2: Central Planning: State ownership of all firms. Production decisions made by government bureaucrats o 3: Emphasis on Equality: Access to health care and education. Wages relatively equitable. Outcome: Largely a failure. StateLed: states should mainly control the market, have little leeway Proponent: Keynes and RosensteinRodan Practice: o 1: The use of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in strategic sectors of the economy o 2: The adoption of an industrial policy: vision that the government has for the future of its economy. (Japan) o 3: A preference for importsubstitution industrialization (ISI) Outcome: Most countries that tried this resulted in debt and failure Market: no role for the state in promoting the market Proponent: Milton Friedman Practice: o 1: Privatization of stateowned enterprises o 2: Fiscal austerity (cutting back state spending and state employees) o 3: Integration with the global economy Outcome: Most used theory. Is encouraged by the World Bank, IMF and the USA Challenges: o The transition to a market economy often creates hardships for the population o Economic growth rates associated with this strategy have been unimpressive o There has been greater economic volatility in these states as a result of integration with the global economy.
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