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Second Test Review

by: Nick Richmond

Second Test Review POSC 471

Nick Richmond
GPA 3.3

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Second Test Review before the Final. Major information in this review for the course.
POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World
Matthew Hoddie
Study Guide
Posc, 471, POSC471, Politics, underdeveloped
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Richmond on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 471 at Towson University taught by Matthew Hoddie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World in Political Science at Towson University.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Richmond POSC 447 SECOND TEST REVIEW “Why does this factor negatively impact development” - Structure: o Two sections:  Multiple choice  Lecture material and the books  Same questions from the quizzes  Chapters from the “Shaping the Developing World” from the syllabus  Guest lecture o Main ideas o Overlaps of book and what we have learned in class o Examples  o Gender Chapter especially  Series of questions, long answer type  One drawn from the discussion questions that we did from class - Review: o Domestic factors that we find in the developing countries. And we discussed how  domestic issues face internal relations o Diversity  Ethnicity:  group of people who have a subjective perception of common origins  Nationalism: people share a common ethnicity and they have the right to self  governance   Three Theories: 1. Primordialism (Geertz):  Identities are in built; they are in us from  birth. People have it in their DNA to look and dislike people who are  most similar to them. Doesn’t require explanation, it is the norm.  2. Instrumentalism (Brass): Ethnicity comes from the people who are in  the greater (ethnic entrepreneurs) they use the fiction of identities to  gain support and to have influence. They are created by the elites  seeking power. 3. Constructivism (Anderson): Identities are formed through print  capitalism. Identities emerge from a dense web of social interactions.  People belong to a broader community from capitalism and ethnic  nationalism.  Thought has an improvement to what Geertz and Brass had to  offer  Diverse societies:  Public Goods Provisions: schools, roads, health clinics  Fragmented Labor Market: Opportunities for economic growth are lost. Economic development will suffer as result  Undermines Stable Governance: potential for political leaders to  engage in favoritism towards their own ethnic community.   Stereotype Threat: potential for violence between different ethnic  communities. Negative stereotypes in diverse communities can  undermine in the economic potential because those people can be less  beneficial.  o Governance  Democracy:  Free and fair elections to select leaders Richmond  Protection of human rights  Varieties of democracies  Presidential System: President and legislator are elected separately.  Will see a competition about questions of policy  Parliamentary Systems: only one election with one party. Executive  and legislative branches are fused together. The leader of the party will  become the executive.  Non­Democratic States (Authoritarian regimes)  Leaders are not chosen by free and fair elections  Government does not respect basic human rights o Dominant Party Regime: Ruling by the Communist Party.  They are controlled by one party or person. (China, Cuba,  Vietnam, North Korea) o Military Regimes: Cout de tat. Small group of actors take over a state to make control of the mess a democratic leader has  made. Military leaders believe they are least corrupt.  (Myanmar, Egypt, Thailand) o Monarchies: family down ran, where the person in charge is  granted the power because of their family’s royalty. (Jordan) o Theocracies: religious based leaders are chosen and have  political authority. (Iran)  New Institutional Economics Approach (NIEA)  Perspective of this idea has been put on the map.   Underdevelopment is not simply a function of selecting the wrong  development model.   Non­democratic states limit development because they create an  environment where any wealth or investments they create will be taken  away from the by the government. People worry about these regimes  taking their money they are reluctant to invest in the economy  Extractive practices: o 1: Expropriation: failure to maintain property rights for the  people. Things created by citizens that are taken away from  them by the government o 2:  Corruption: Petty or Grand corruption. Funds and resources of citizens being taken by the government.  o 3: Rent Seeking: government and those close to them (cronies) will enforce policies that benefit them and not the population  as a whole.  o Violence  Political Violence: acts of violence that have a political purpose. Most common  forms of political violence are Interstate violence and Intrastate violence  Interstate Violence: war between two or more states in the international system  Intrastate Violence: War within a country. Often taking the form of  either a secessionist conflict or a governmental war.  Political Violence that can have a risk for economic development: o 1: Opportunity Costs o 2: Destroyed physical infrastructure (anything that allows for  economic commerce to take place) o 3: Loss of Investment, lost of FDI o 4:  Destruction and loss of human capital Richmond  Internally displaced: Refugees will stay in the  country, or will internally displace people seeking  safety  5: Increased costs of economic exchange  Criminal Violence: violence that has motives those are not for political gain or  purpose.  Organized Violence: carried out by gangs with a hierarchical  organization that exist to profit from illegal activities. (Latin America)  Unorganized Violence: not carried out by gangs with a hierarchical  organization (Africa)  Carries out more homicides then political violence o Homicides are often attributable to the competition of drug  cartels seeking access to the US market  Criminal violence may harm a states prospects for development: o 1: Increase burdens on the health care system o 2: Increase burdens for law enforcement o 3: Discourage investment o 4: Erode trust and cooperation among citizens o Gender  Gender­ refers to the attitudes, norms, expectations and behaviors that societies  construct around being male or female. It captures the cultural stereotypes which give rise to   Gender Inequality­ the extent to which these societal creations around gender  grant boys and men advantages in power, resources and health   Distinction from sex­ biological determination of male or female  Gender Earnings Gap:  Throughout the world women tend to be poorer than  men, receiving lower wages and lower returns for their contributions to society  Gender Asset Gap­ men have easier access to economic assets and inputs.  Discriminatory institutions grounded in law/culture are often barriers to female  acquisition of assets such as land and houses   Marriage laws and customs in LDCs treat women as property of their  husbands  Access to financial capital­ women often discriminated against in credit markets   Burden of Non­Market Activities­ women perform more uncompensated work  than men, ‘domestic work’  Double­Shift of full time market activities and full time non market  activities at home  Women in the Labor Market­ women are disproportionally part of the informal  sector. Without strong antidiscrimination legal frameworks and family­leave  policies, businesses in LDC’s see women as less desirable to hire because they  are more likely to request time off due to pregnancy/childcare   Female labor force performance rates (FLFPR)­ percentage of  women who work outside the home for monetary compensation are not necessarily lower in LDC’s. (Lowest in Middle East and South Asia)  Trends/Improvements: Microfinance services help to narrow the gender asset  gap  Women in LDC’s birthing fewer children  Female labor force participation has increased in most countries since 1980  (result of globalization) Richmond  Gender Gap in Education: The formal education of girls and women is a crucial  element of female empowerment as it increases job opportunities. In most  LDC’s women have less education than men; occurs in primary school, where  girls drop out at younger ages than boys.   Causes:   Discriminatory attitudes of parents (attitudes fed by social norms)   Opportunity cost of female education can seem high to parents, girls  are expected to do more house work   Trends/Improvement: parents are leaving their girls in school longer  Majority of LDC’s have experienced gender parity in in primary enrollment.  Latin America and East Asia have almost caught up to high income countries   Gender Gap in Political Empowerment: women have less of an impact on public policy and political institutions in the developing world.    Descriptive Representation­ on average women made up less than  20% of national legislatures in the developing world (2008) o This does NOT stem from unequal voting rights, women just  tend to be less likely to vote than men in LDCs, Illiteracy and  low education levels can make women hesitant to vote,  women less likely to hold political office because they lack  professional background, financial/time resources. Also  contributing to this are sexist beliefs held by both elites and  masses  Women’s Movements   Trends/Improvements­ many countries have adopted gender quotas  that require a minimum number of party nominations or legislative  seats to be occupied by women  Female Health, Physical Security and Fertility  Excess Female Mortality (gendercide), death of females because of  their sex o Sex­Selective Abortion­ of females by parents preferring a son is widely practiced in a few LDCs. Rooted in son preference,  a norm that existed in China and South Asia for generations  o Comparative Neglect of Daughters o Mortality in Reproductive Years­ maternal mortality is the  death of women due to complications from pregnancy or  childbirth.   Gender based violence  Domestic violence and rape   Forced marriage   Female Genital Cutting  Reproduction­ Women in the developing world birth more children than those in developed world. The fertility rate is strongly and negatively correlated with  GDP per capita  Cause of high fertility­ it’s actually a preference, for economic reasons because  more children will help in times of need, cultural influences often portray large  families as a sign of status and pride, and lack of contraception o “Different Development Models” Richmond  Development Model: policies a state chooses to shape economic activity.  The choice of development model is dictated by a governments  understand of the appropriate relationship between states and markets.   Socialism: states should dominate the market  Proponent: Karl Marx  Practice:  o 1: Agricultural Collectivities: land owned by the state; all  crops sold to the state at fixed prices. o 2: Central Planning: State ownership of all firms. Production  decisions made by government bureaucrats o 3: Emphasis on Equality: Access to health care and education.  Wages relatively equitable.  Outcome: Largely a failure.   State­Led: states should mainly control the market, have little leeway  Proponent: Keynes and Rosenstein­Rodan  Practice: o 1: The use of state­owned enterprises (SOEs) in strategic  sectors of the economy o 2: The adoption of an industrial policy: vision that the  government has for the future of its economy. (Japan) o 3: A preference for import­substitution industrialization (ISI)  Outcome: Most countries that tried this resulted in debt and failure  Market: no role for the state in promoting the market  Proponent: Milton Friedman  Practice: o 1: Privatization of state­owned enterprises  o 2: Fiscal austerity (cutting back state spending and state  employees) o 3: Integration with the global economy  Outcome: Most used theory. Is encouraged by the World Bank, IMF  and the USA  Challenges: o The transition to a market economy often creates hardships for the population o Economic growth rates associated with this strategy have been unimpressive o There has been greater economic volatility in these states as a  result of integration with the global economy. 


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