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NYU / Psychology / PSY 0002 / How to formulate a hypothesis?

How to formulate a hypothesis?

How to formulate a hypothesis?

Description

School: NYU School of Medicine
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology and Its Principles
Professor: Adina schick
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Intro To Psychology, Chapter 2 notes
Description: These notes are on what was covered in lecture on Wednesday, January 27th.
Uploaded: 01/28/2016
5 Pages 108 Views 3 Unlocks
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Kaela (Rating: )

I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER



Chapter 2 - Research Methods


How to formulate a hypothesis?



The Scientific Method 

     -    To describe and measure any phenomenon and behavior in the environment - To understand or predict the behavior or phenomenon

- To apply

1. To formulate a Hypotheses-translate a theory into something that can be tested a. Theory: a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observation b. Hypotheses: some kind of testable prediction, Usually derived from a theory

c.

Operational Definition: describe the actions or operation that will be used to  control the variable. Establish what you mean by each oft the variable in the  context of your study  

2. Design the Study -

3.

Collect the Data- Gather the information, choose from a number of options (Survey,  data,) - kind of data researcher is looking for


What is descriptive research?



4.

Analyze the Data - Usually statistical, but there are different ways to analyze  (Qualitative V.  Analytical)

5. Disseminate Findings - Share with the general public in peer review journals Descriptive Research 

Always start by describing when beginning research - collected and analyzed  objectively and systematically  

• Case Studies - In-depth investigations of one individual or a small group of people • Naturalistic observations- observe behaviors as they naturally unfold • Surveys & Interviews - Gather Information about background, beliefs & behaviors  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of internal problems?

Naturalistic Observation 

• Researchers observe  

• Do not engage in any way at all with the individuals they are observing ○ If you know someone is watching you, you will be reactive to the situation.  • Used as a starting point  to research  


Naturalistic observation means what?



Don't forget about the age old question of Can you have an empire be successful that is not outwardly aggressive?

• Advantage

Allows researchers to observe phenomenon as  it unfolds - very accurate,  

realistic  

○ Offers a snapshot of every day life • Disadvantage

          • Advantage

Allows researchers to observe phenomenon as  it unfolds - very accurate,  

realistic  

○ Offers a snapshot of every day life

• Disadvantage

Participants will become reactive if they know they are being observed  There is no control over the factors that might influence behavior (you do not  see a factor that  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hominids?

causes your findings to be inaccurate/unnaturalistic)  

Surveys & Interviews 

Questionnaires or interviews used by researchers to gather information about  participants  

○ Backgrounds, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors  

• Advantages  

○ Gathering information about things that are difficult to observe  ○ Gathering information from large samples (computer surveys)  • Disadvantage  

○ Based on self-report data  

○ People tend to want to present themselves in a positive way  ▪ ex. asking someone if they are racist

Correlational Research  

  The goal of correlational research is to explore whether a relation exists between  variables  

• A correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together  • Correlations can be positive or negative  

Positive correlation

(same direction)Negative correlation

(opposite direction)

• The direction of the relation is determined by the sign  Don't forget about the age old question of Where can you get omega 3 fatty acids?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of photosynthesis in plants?

• The strength of the correlation is measured by the correlational coefficient  ○ Can range from -1 to +1

○ A 0 indicates that there is no relation between variables  If you want to learn more check out What orbitals correspond to each energy level/shell?

○ The closer the number is to 1 (-/+), the stronger the relation • Correlations do not indicate causation 

• The strength of the correlation is measured by the correlational coefficient  ○ Can range from -1 to +1

○ A 0 indicates that there is no relation between variables  

○ The closer the number is to 1 (-/+), the stronger the relation • Correlations do not indicate causation 

Experimental Research 

Looking at whether changes in the independent variable result in changes In the  Dependent Variable  

○ Independent Variable - an experiment/event that is manipulated to

Dependent Variable- thought to be influenced by the changed in the  

independent variable  

• Two groups of participates

○ Experimental Group  

▪ Receiving special treatment to effect the individual variable  □ Ex. Parents receive  no training

○ Control Group  

▪ Receives no special treatment (business as usual group)  □ Ex. Parents receive  no training

The two groups cannot vary in any other way; otherwise they are  

confounding variable  

Confounding Variable: precluded you from drawing any cause and  effect variable.  

• Advantage  

The children in Control  group 1 are 2yrs old, The children in  Control group 2 are 3yrs old

○ Allows researchers to draw conclusion about cause and effect relations  • Disadvantages  

Many research questions cannot be answered through a true experimental  

design - cannot assign a group of people smoking, gender, culture. Sometimes seen as being artificial - with so much control, often have to  

remove situation from natural world, take to control lab

Case Studies

• Focus is on describing behaviors  

Generally researchers will analyze a group of case studies to look for  patters

• Most effective as a starting point

• Suggest directions for future research - perhaps larger studies • Advantages

○ Can be very revealing  

              

patters

• Most effective as a starting point

• Suggest directions for future research - perhaps larger studies • Advantages

○ Can be very revealing  

• Disadvantages

Can be Highly subjective - scientist is spending so much time with  

the subject that they become blind

○ Can be misleading

Research Ethics 

• The use of deception is a highly debated issue in psychology  

Philosophers see this as a black and white issue, if you can lie to do your own  

research why can't you lie to say your butt? Who is to say when lying is okay?

○ Is deception lying?

• The key ethical guidelines as set by the American Psychological Association: ○ Avoid coercion  

○ Participants must understand they can withdraw at any time  

○ Participants need legal permission  

○ Cannot be subjected to harmful conditions  

○ If deception is used, participants must be debriefed

○ Maintain the confidentiality of the participants - not the same as anonymity  

Potential Pitfalls 

• Common methodological problems that can impact the findings of studies include  

Sampling Bias: The sample of participants is not representative of the population  

from which it was drawn

▪ Sample taken from general population scientist wants to study ▪ Sometimes not representative of whole population

Placebo Effect: Participants expectations lead them to experience  some change, even  through they did not receive (effective) treatment

Social-Desirability Effect: Participants' provide what they see as socially desirable  responses, to present themselves positively  

Halo effect: Our perception of one trait of a person, object, or institution influences how  we view it in its entirety.  

Ex. Donald trump saying he could stab someone and his supporters will not turn  

against him  

Experimenter Bias: a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a  study influence  the results obtained  

Double-Blind Study: the conductor of the research nor the control groups know wh

are in the experiment/in groups

agans m  

Experimenter Bias: a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a  study influence  the results obtained  

Double-Blind Study: the conductor of the research nor the control groups know wh

are in the experiment/in groups

Animal Research

• Why do psychologists study animals?

○ To understand how different species learn, think and behaviors ○ To learn about people

○ To test treatments that might pose risks to people

A basic issue is whether it is right to place the well-being of humans about that of  animals

Only 7-8% of psychology involves animals - usually includes birds and  

rodents, nearly never involves pain  

• Ethical guidelines include:

○ Avoid harmful or painful procedures at all cost ○ Decent living conditions

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