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UK / Political Science / POLS 101 / What is the meaning of external threats?

What is the meaning of external threats?

What is the meaning of external threats?

Description

School: University of Kentucky
Department: Political Science
Course: American Government
Professor: Stephen voss
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Politcal Science, Voss, and PS101
Cost: 25
Name: Political Science Class Notes 1
Description: Covers everything discussed in lecture from 1/20 to 1/27.
Uploaded: 01/28/2016
10 Pages 49 Views 1 Unlocks
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Wednesday, January 20, 2016


What is the meaning of external threats?



The Founding  

 Declaration of Independence signed: July 4, 1776

Constitution ratified: 1787

The time period between the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the  Constitution was arguably the most important 11 years in U.S. history.

Founders vs. Framers

External Threats - threats outside of the country

On every side of the new country were threats. In the North, the British were still  trying to move southward in hopes on encroaching on the new country.

In the South, the Spanish, who had taken advantage of the war to stake claims. To the  West, the french was still trying to take claims in the New Worlds, with no promises that  they would not invade. The indigenous people has been pushed West as well, and there  was always a threat that they would attack. To the east, they were still open to the  Atlantic, leaving them open to the British as well as pirates.


What is the meaning of internal problems?



Internal Problems - conducting affairs inside a new country

Problems with the Articles of Confederation: the original plan, a loose national  government consisting of all of the states (colonies). They did not at first see  themselves as joining a larger country, but rather as a collection of separate states  joining a union or committee.  If you want to learn more check out Does the united states win because the united states out-produces the other side?

The Articles did not have an executive branch.

Congress often lacked quorum, unanimity. Lack of attendance to meetings lead  to an inability to pass laws.

Financial weakness: NO source of capital. It could not impose taxes. The  government did send bills to the states, but they did not often receive payment. They  were vastly underfunded, not even able to pay back revolution debt.

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What are military weaknesses?



Military weakness: NO real army, navy. They had to power to draft a military. The  only military they had were state militias, controlled by the state, who were not always  cooperative.

International Weakness: No foreign policy. There was no one clear voice, rather a  bunch of people (states) chattering.

Internal disputes over taxes, borders. The government had no way to control the  states.

Annapolis Convention - A meeting held in an effort to amend the Articles, so many  states didn’t show up that they could only make plans for another meeting.

Shays Rebellion (1786-1787) - Just fought a war against a european power, taxes  increases to pay for it, Economic hardship at the time, angry with the financial interests  (banks), those paying poorly represented, rebellion far from the seat of power. Very  threatening to the national government. Held “conventions” nullifying laws, gathered a  western Massachusetts militia, seized weapons from state armories, harassed public  officials, took over court houses, occupied land illegally, marched on state legislature.  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hominids?

Protests gaining support in other states (most notably Rogue Island) Here’s how some ex-rebels responded to Shays Rebellion: We also discuss several other topics like What is the leading cause of kidney failure?

Sam Adams - who had previously been involved in the Boston Tea Party, allows public  flogging of rebels.

John Hancock - Who has the largest signature on the constitution, did not approve, put  together mercenaries and sent them for Shay’s rebellion and gunned them down.

Nathaniel Gorham - Head of Congress under the Articles of Confederation, sent a letter  to a German Prince asking for help.

Ultimately: The Constitutional Convention

The Framers carried out a counterrevolution.

Internal Threats - threats inside of the union.

Breakdown of the 55 Framers

They were not a random sample, there was a process by which they were selected.  They were the people that had problems with the Articles.

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They were suffering from selection bias because they were all people who  wanted a stronger national government. They bulk of the U.S. citizens were not really  represented, instead they were represetenb by a higher class.  

9/10 Americans were yeoman farmers, but none of the framers were farmers. 40/55 Framers were national government bondholders If you want to learn more check out What is the scientific study of plants and "plant-like" organisms?

They went into the hall with an idea that they would create a government that  could pay their money back to them. Don't forget about the age old question of What orbitals correspond to each energy level/shell?

24/55 were money lenders 

They want a government that can defend contracts.  

15/55 were plantation owners 

They wanted to protect their property (slaves)

14/55 were land speculators (people who own a lot of property to sell) 

They wanted a government that had a military that could protect their land and  run off the Natives, and build canals, that would up their property values.  

11/55 were merchants 

They wanted a government that could provide a larger market to them, that can  ensure the free flow of products across state lines.

27/55 were members of the Society of Cincinnati (secret society) 

Either had to be a military officer or through blood, the head was George  Washington. They want a government that can pay their pensions. They also wanted a  government that had a strong military.  

The Constitutional Convention was an Assembly of demigods - coined by Thomas  Jefferson; completely unrepresentative of the american people. We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 economic goals?

The real George Washington was not a hero who could not tell a lie, he walked around  with a mouth of fake teeth made from the teeth of his slaves. Congress reprimanded  him for the beating of his soldiers. These people were not gods, they were just like the  leaders of today.

When drafting the Consitution, they needed one that could be accepted by the states,  they wanted to politicians.

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They had to:

1. Attract political support for holding a constitutional convention,

1. Gathered under false pretenses, they did not talk about what they were going to  do when they actually got to Philly. They were sent to amend the Articles, not  write an entirely new government.

2. Madison brought a draft go the new charter, the Virginia Plan

3. Agreed early on to start from scratch

4. Ignored the law

1. Articles contained rules for how to amend them BUT…

2. Ignored unanimity rule: required 9 states

3. Ignored requirements to get state legislatures on board: ratification  conventions.

2. Keep outsiders from interfering with the convention while it was in progress, They hid what they were doing from the others: gag rule

Integrity and respect and trust meant a lot more than it does today, reputation was an  important currency.  

3. Keep the convention delegates unified enough to agree on a proposal, Famous series of compromises among different sorts of states

Connecticut (or Great) Compromise: Large vs Small States

They had to make this look attractive to states, some way to reconcile this compromise  in representation between large and small states.

They were okay with a government that moved slowly.

Presidential election systen: Electoral College  

The point of it was to support voters who wanted to be more involved in the  election. It was so confusing that nobody really knows who gets the better end of the  deal by the Electoral College.

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3/5 Compromise: North vs. South

South - People who owned slaves wanted them represented, except for when it  came to taxes.

North - Does not want them represented, but want them to have to pay taxes. They count them 3/5 of both.  

4. Write a document with the right balance between what the Framers wanted and  what other Americans could accept, and

The framers knew that the common people were not going to just give in to the new  government, so they would have to compromise their wants and needs.

They knew that they would not get everything that they wanted, so they anticipated  when they thought they could get.

So they wrote a constitution that was pretty vague, something that could be filled in  later.

Supremacy Clause makes constitution the “Supreme” law of the land Supreme to what? Does it rule out state law?

Elastic Clause: can pass laws “necessary and proper”

Where is necessary and proper defined?

Commerce Clause: to regulate interstate trade.

What exactly is interstate trade defined?

Spending Clause: tax/spend and borrow for general welfare

Can they use it to bribe citizens?  

President has the “executive power” with checks

What executive powers?

Voting qualifications permitted to the states

Who can vote? People with land? People with money?

Electoral College

So complicated that nobody could figure out who was benefitting from it. 5

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5. Roll out the proposal in a way that would convince the American states to ratify  it.

Ratification Controversy 

During the ratification conventions there were three groups of people: Supporters (federalists)

• Replaced the confederalists.

• Just about everyone in the convention

• Wanted strong national government, executive branch, independent judiciary,  insulated senate.

• In the original plan, the states would pick there senators.

Opponents (Anti-Federalists)

• Wanted a government that was highly responsive.

• Mostly older men who still conformed to the original plan

• Feared threat to state governments, that the government would suck all of the power  from the states to the national government.

• Wanted a large, powerful House of Representatives (The People’s House)

• Wanted descriptive representation (people being represented by people like them,  the people representing the people).

Conditional Supporters (e.g. Jefferson)

• Wanted a Bill of Rights, this was the deal breaker to them, George Mason, governor of  Virginia, spoke to a Bill of Rights.

• Thomas Jefferson, who was in France, was writing to the Americans telling them that  they needed a Bill of Rights to limit the governments power.

• Swing voters

• During the ratification battle, the conditional voters won the battle. The Framers promised the Bill of Rights and is was ends up getting it ratified. Delaware - Dec. 1787 - 100%

Pennsylvania - Dec. 1987 - 66.7%

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They had a real problem getting pennsylvania to ratify the Constitution, which  they did not anticipate because it was home to Benjamin Franklin. They actually had to  drag the positions back into the hall, and did not record their debate. They put together  a pamphlet to oppose the constitution, and sent it around to the states.

New Jersey - Dec. 1787 - 100%

Georgia - Jan 1788 - 100%

Conn. - Jan. 1788 - 76.2%

Massachusetts - Feb. 1788 - 52.7%

Big political powerhouse in the North. They needed the approval of Mass. John  Hancock was one of the Delegates who made a promise to add a Bill of Rights as soon  as it was ratified.

Maryland - Apr. 1788 - 85.1%

S. Carolina - May 1788 - 67.1

N. Hampshire - June 1788 - 54.8%

Virginia - June 1788 - 53%

Must have state of the South. Patrick Henry is there fighting it. James Madison  flip flops saying that he opposes the Bill of Rights, then realizes that it will fail without  one, so he promises one anyway.

New York - July 1788 - 52.6%

New Yorkers are fighting the Constitution, Alexander Hamilton promises a Bill of  Rights. In trying to convince New York to vote yes, The Federalist Papers are written are  “Publius” who was actually Alexander Hamilton (the only New Yorker to sign the  Constitution), John Jay, James Madison

N. Carolina - Nov 1788 - 71.6%

Rhode Island - May 1970 - 51.5%

Recommendations of the Pennsylvania Minority 

Liberty in religion - 1st Amendment

Civil trail by Jury - 7th Amendment  

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Fair trial guarantees - 5th and 6th Amendments

No excessive bail - 8th Amendment  

No Cruel and unusual punishment - 8th amendment  

Certain search and seizure forbidden - 4th Amendment

Freedom of speech, press - 1st Amendment

Right to bear arms - 2nd Amendment

Meant the people were allowed to have guns, whether thats what Madison meant  or not.

No standing army - Sorta 3rd

The Constitution does not allow a standing army, so they come up with reasons  to have one.

Fowl, fishing and hunting rights - No.

Limit on congressional revenue to tariffs and postage - N/a

State regulate elections - no

House of Representatives - no

States organize militia - no

Strict separation of powers - no

Treated cannot violate state constitutions - no

Sharp limits on judicial review - 11th

James Madison wanted a Constitution that was for the people, not for the states, which  explains why the ones that were not added were not approved. Individual rights were  added to the Constitution.

The Constitution was set up so that over time, the vague language in the Constitution  would allow the government to grow. NO amendments protecting state’s rights when it  comes to power.

Supremacy Clause and the Elastic Clause - McCulloch v. Maryland Any bank not based in Maryland would be taxed (aka the National Bank).  Commerce Clause - used to let congress regulate almost any type of commerce

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Wickard v. Filburn

Man is caught growing more wheat than allowed, even though he was not selling  it. But because he was not buying wheat because he was growing it himself, he was  effecting the nation wide economy when it comes to wheat.

Congress can use this on any economical case.

This is what Congress used to oppose opposers of the ACA, because the sale of Health  Insurance effects the price of all health insurance, the people can be made to buy it.  

A Story of Federalism at Work

Clarence William Busch, who got into a car drunk, drove off the road and hit 13  year old Cari Lightner.

He already had two drunken-driving convictions, and one in the works.

Candy Lightner, a Sacramento real-estate agent begins a political crusade called  Mothers Against Drunk Driving.  

It went crazy, and there are 258 chapters all over the United States with 300K members.

She wants consequences to be harsher, and the acceptable BAC to be lower, and she  succeeds.

She then goes on to want the drinking age to be 21.

In 1984 only 23 states approved.

19 had killed the bill, actively rejecting it, including Louisiana.  

When New York rejected it, the bordering states had not, so kids would just go to New  York, get drunk, and drive home and wreck.

They wanted congress to be involved, but they had already had problems with  Prohibition, which was a mess. So they could not get involved because of the 21st  Amendment.

Spending Clause - congress can withhold federal highway funds from non-compliant  states (which had already been done when they lowered the speed limit to 55)

Louisiana did not put the limit on the sellers, just on the buyers. Congress said no. So  Louisiana says that underage drinkers can drink in private establishments with a cover  charge. They were shut down again.

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The National Government had won, however they still could not enforce it because its  not like Bill Clinton is standing there checking IDs.  

Washington Post Interviewing people about buying booze, a 17 year old said that he  never had a problem buying Booze on Bourbon Street.

Just because the National Government wins the legal battle, doesn't mean that the law  gets enforced.

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