CLA 2810 general notes for VLA's
CLA 2810 general notes for VLA's CLA2810
Popular in Ancient Science for non-science majors
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Aranya on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA2810 at Florida State University taught by Svetla Slaveva-Griffin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Ancient Science for non-science majors in Humanities and Social Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Science Now and Then (What, When, How) NOW “science” according to textbook: science is organized, systematic knowledge of the material world. We are looking for structure, order Material world= our environment, physical world, façade Science is material world and its causes!! BACK THEN Used same definition/ Latin: scio (to know), scīre- scientia (knowledge) Science doesn’t mean abstract, theoretical but simply means knowledge. Greek: epistamai (to know) episteme (noun) Epistemology= branch of philosophy, what we can/ can’t know. Etymology= true meaning of things (look up the words’ etymology) “Every human being by nature desires to learn.”- Aristotle **We want knowledge, that’s why we’re rational** STAGES OF KNOWLEDGE 1. Experience: empeiria (hands on knowledge on how to do things) 2. Art or Craft: ars, technē (technical) –combined knowledge about a specific thing 3. Knowledge: episteme 4. Wisdom: Sophia ORALITY vs. LITERACY Orality Offers us a fluid way of communication Required people to memorize things (travelers, singers in social events) Repetition of stories Doesn’t have critical thinking (evaluating stories) Literacy A stable way of communication Ability to refer back to sources Access to more information YES critical thinking Greeks are all about going out and learning (Fluid communication) Greek civilization is an open environment Written sources bodies of knowledge we need libraries Critically we form judgements whether we find it true or not ?? Where do we do/ learn science today?? University, Institutes, research center Etymology: universitas University: gathering of people, coming up with a goal to learn something and doing the work it requires. Puts us on the map. 2 Structure of the university: colleges/faculties departments/institutes/cathedrals ?? Where did they do/ learn science back then?? Technical education: through apprenticeship Attending one of the leading and philosophical schools in Antiquity ATHENS leading philosophical schools Academy Founder: Plato Lyceum Founder: Aristotle the place where we started the information about modern science Stoa Founder: Zeno Stoics are the philosophers, lobby of library Epicurus’ Garden the world is made of atoms, material, breakable units, material view of the world. ** Athens is the birthplace of science** Alexandria known for British library Big philosophers, astronomers came here to work Birthplace of medicine (Johns Hopkins of that time) Ephesus Syracuse first physicians 1. Bologna first university 3 2. Paris 3. Oxford 4. Cambridge 5. Salerno first med school in middle ages Science today Curriculum: set of courses we are taking for a common goal, preliminary understanding of studies. Etymology: curro curriculum Liberal Arts: pay greek tutors, teaches how to think. Technical arts, social arts, law, medicine Science back then Curriculum Trivium Quadrivium First 3 years, discipline Hard sciences, of reading, writing, critical 7 disciplines thinking Analytic/ scientific thinking what/how/why things are 4 7 liberal arts what are the modern day interpretation What is the value of liberal arts? Progress, diversity, thinking critically/different than what society expects you to think. Lays the foundation of knowledge “ I think, therefore I exist.” Immortality of the soul. Soul is the activator of the body Scientific Method T oday Observation hypothesis (leading stage) experiment Science is progress because it improves and moves forward from the past and builds upon previous knowledge. Strabo’s theory shape of the earth Origin of the Scientific Method Ancient natural philosophers: physikoi < physis First scientists. They come up with that scientific method; they traveled (knowledge is seeing many places) ex: Egypt Founders of the modern scientific method th Presocratis (6 BCE): Thales from Miletus Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Stagira (small village) Coast of Asia: Thales: what is the beginning of this world? WATER 5 Heraclitus: known with “one can’t step in the same river twice” physical reality changes, everything is in a flaw. CHANGE. Pythagoras: legendary character who studied relationship of numbers Galem Father of modern medicine Homer every knowledge comes back to him ARISTOTLE Northerner He put together doing science in written forms Studied with Plato Traveled, gathered information and wrote about everything He had a lab of traveling scientists Had a real library- changed hands 1. Observation & data collection 2. Experimentation 3. Analysis & explanation Geography Etymology: gē+graphō = ge-o-graphy (gē= mother earth) Description of earth Who are we? Where are we? Where do we come from? Planet earth is our data base, explains what a planet includes Planets astronomy, geography, cultural anthropology Definition: the study of diverse environments, places and spaces of the earth’s surface and their interactions. Where are things? Why are things the way they are? Branches of geography: 6 Physical geography/Geology Human geography/Cultural anthropology Mathematical geography (more abstract- measuring the earth, spaces) Ecology/Environmental science Scientific Method of Geography 1. Observation: Through travel we learn about differences by getting exposed to new/different resources, languages. The more we learn about other cultures, the more we learn about ourselves. 2. Theory: Back then the assumption was if they don’t know about a place, it doesn’t exist. 3. Experimentation: Mesopotamia connected to economical reasons 4. Data Analysis: Ability to how to distill knowledge from facts. Pre-Greek Origin of Geography Earliest civilizations, writing system Egypt (the east) Mesopotamia between 2 rivers Uruk earliest civilization Greeks were in touch with Persians and Assyrians Mesopotamians earliest world map. It has the right shape and mountains. 7 The world is surrounded by water, the world is a shape of a boat (gufa) Ancient Babylon – Imago mundi (image of the world) Identified as the first center of the world If you wanna see, go to Berlin The world is in a circular shape Image/shape/form of the world? Who became a geographer in Antiquity (Greece)? What is the purpose of geography? What did the Greeks think about the origin of Earth (astrophysics)? Strabo’s definition of Geography Very much like any other science. He associates it with philosophy because it teaches you how to think and analyze the world. Any scientist is a philosopher Maps +travel +resources (population) They are credible, they know how to observe and think. They have a wide learning (they traveled through Egypt) and a lot of knowledge. HOMER Odyssey and Iliad (about Troy) Western civilizations (Greek and Roman), he was considered the fountainhead of knowledge He was the Wikipedia of 800 B.C. Strabo says that Homer is the founder of the science of geography Associated with the island Samos 8 8 century B.C. map physical world/geography is in the center (starts, sun, moon) then sea and sky Mathematical term zero or nothingness was not known th until 12 century If you assume that zero exists or the world does not have a limit, then what we know would be considered insufficient. mythological foundation of the later development of the later finding that the world is spherical. Spherical representation of the world world does have a limit, it has a beginning and an end. Limit Greeks are afraid of emptiness and empty spaces. The vase: the center design represents a funeral possession. Center of the world is mankind/humanity. The world is full it is never empty, there is always something. The world is limited(contained) th Homer lived in 8 century (All that matter to Greeks that the places existed). We need to have options to doubt the scientific proof. They were not in a position to distinguish between beliefs and scientific evidence. Hesiod Wrote poems - Theogony First big name which comes from a land in Greece. Chasm can be translated as chaos. It simply means existence of things but just not in an order. For the Greeks the world is eternal. The world is arranging all the elements in some kind of order Said the earth was created by god and humankind 9 Earth is the central of the world and there is darkness (erebos) Air and light heaven and then sea Cosmogony: the birth of order Geography in Rome – The Heights of Ancient Geography o Strabo was the product of the Roman Empire PERIODS OF ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY th o Greeks learned about world outside the eagean sea 6 BCE o Hellenistic times o Roman Empire took a picture of the state of the art for the geographical knowledge o All connected with political and military expansion geography is the product. ORIGINS OF CARTOGRAPHY o The idea that in order for us to space we have to look from above. It was a major intellectual abstract idea back in time. o Greeks worked it the hard way; they were able to make it by thinking about nature as physical objects that all in relation to each other. o Greeks were not interested in the places that nobody lived in. In order for places to exist, they need people to live in it. We are the center of the world. Different lands exist because they have different tribes, people, culture. But if no one lives in a particular land how do we know it exists? their idea 10 o Oikoumēnē (inhabited earth) = discipline of economics. This mattered in Greeks. They were not interested in the global (blue) earth. The earth serves us, it is populated with people o The Greeks were not in our position; not only because they didn’t have technology but culturally they were not able to think about emptiness = places without people. The global earth for them was only the inhabited world. ANAXIMANDER’S MAP o Was the result of the Greek colonization in the 6th century o North is Europe, south is Asia o The earth was flat. However, by visual knowledge he agreed that the earth was surrounded by the sea. Extremely geocentric view of the world. ERATOSTHENES’ MAP o He did not travel. He went to the library in Alexandria and he never left the library where he made his map o He came up with a way to measure distances. He thought by getting to two points you can come up with a coordination idea to put into maps o Mathematically calculated map o He did not travel around but speculated o Latitude (north/south) and longitude (west/east) of the earth o Greeks worked with what they had (without knowledge of the gravity) o He’s the first one interested in calculating the circumference of the earth. He calculated because it is the scientifically correct way to do. o He came up with 35,000 miles 11 PTOLEMY’S MAP o Most detailed o The continent of Africa is appearing for the first time o This is the newest version. 12
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