Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide
Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide NTDT 20403
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jazmine Morales on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 20403 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Exam Review Nutrition 20403 Spring 2016 1 What are the DRIs? Know the components and what they mean DRI- A set of values for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy people Are used for assessing and planning diets Goal is to protect against nutrient deficiencies and chronic diseases Include: Estimated average requirements Recommended dietary allowance Adequate intakes Tolerable upper intake levels EAR= the amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in ½ the people of a given age and gender group RDA= the average amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the needs of ALL healthy people. About 98% of the population AI= the average amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain health UL= the maximum amount of a nutrient that appears safe and beyond which there is a risk of adverse health effects To prevent overdose What does organic/inorganic mean? Which nutrients are organic/inorganic? Organic= contains carbon; Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and vitamins Inorganic= no carbon; Minerals & water What are the macronutrients and micronutrients? Macronutrients= carbohydrates, proteins & lipids Micronutrients= vitamins & minerals ** Water is neither What are the different types of experiments/know research terms? Epidemiological studies→ observational & cross sectional→ Case-controlled & Cohort ** researchers compare those with & without a certain condition→ EX: goiter, iron deficiency Cohort= tracking a group of individuals who eat low-fat diets every 6 months over a 2 year time frame Experimental→ lab based animal studies, lab based – in vitro studies, human intervention- clinical trials blind= researchers but not the subjects know the makeup of the test and control groups during the actual course of the experiments. double blind= used to ensure impartiality, and avoid errors arising from bias. Neither the participants nor the researchers know which participants belong to the control group, nor the test group. Placebo= where they put something in front of something & the person doesn’t know if it’s the real or fake one. Usually the fake one. It’s given to the person that has no physical effect on that person, even though they may think that it does. Used in blind trials & to test the effectiveness of true medical treatments. Experimental/Control group= the experimental group receives the variable being tested and the control group does NOT receive the test variable used to find answers in an experiment Correlation (positive/negative) = relationship between 2 variables strong or weak **Used to gather information about a topic or in situations where performing an experiment is NOT possible. Peer review= the findings from a research study are submitted to a board of reviewers composed of other scientists who rigorously evaluate the study to ensure that the scientific method was followed. Validity= conclusions to be well supported by the evidence reviewers endorse the work for publication in a scientific journal where others can read it. EX: peer reviewed journals, accredited colleges/universities & degreed professionals Replication= repeating a study using the same methods but with different subjects & experimenters **used to assure that results are reliable & valid; to apply previous results to new situations What are the energy yielding nutrients? Carbohydrates CHO, proteins, and fats (lipids) Used to fuel all activities in the body Excess storage (glycogen/fat) Metabolism= the process by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or are rearranged into body structures Be able to calculate % fat/Kcals To calculate Kcals you take the number of grams for carbs, proteins, and lipids and multiply carbs by 4, proteins by 4, and lipids by 9. You then add all 3 answers, which gives you the # of Kcals. To calculate % fat you take the answer to each energy yielding unit and divide it by the total # of Kcals. What is a fortified/enriched/functional food? Fortified foods= addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts EX: ready to eat breakfast cereal, eggs, OJ Enriched foods= addition to a food of specific nutrients to replace losses that occur during processing so that the food will meet a specific standard EX: Iron, folate Functional foods= contain bioactive components that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions. Offer a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels. EX: eggs, orange juice, tomato products Refined= process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed EX: loss of nutrients during processing; white bread & white flour What are phytonutrients? Nonnutrient compounds found in plants. Some have biological activity in the body Know serving sizes of USDA food patterns Grain= 1 oz about 80 kcals Vegetables= 1 cupabout 25 kcals Fruit= 1 cupabout 60 kcals Dairy= 1 cup about 100 kcals Protein= 1 oz about 75 kcals Oils= 1 tbsp about 45 kcals What is the difference between nutrient density and energy density? Energy density= More calories per gram. Measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food (kcal/gram) EX: breakfast with 2 chocolate donuts & coffee is more energy dense than a nutrient dense breakfast with variety of food Nutrient density= More nutrients per calories. Measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides What is a whole grain? Know sources Whole grain= grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starch endosperm, germ, & bran as the original (all but the husk); not refined The protective coating of bran around the kernel of grain is rich in nutrients and fiber The endosperm contains starch & proteins main center of grain The germ is the seed that grows into a wheat plant, so it’s especially rich in vitamins & minerals to support new life seed inside of endosperm The outer husk layer (or chaff) is the inedible part of a grain EX: quinoa, barley, corn & popcorn, oats & oatmeal, brown rice, millet, buckwheat, bulgur Know components of the food label → Quantities & Daily Values Required information: Total food energy; food energy from fat Total fat; saturated fat; trans-fat; cholesterol Sodium Total carbohydrate; dietary fiber; sugars Protein Vitamins A& C; Iron; calcium ** Most foods are required to have food labels; exceptions to those with few nutrients (tea, coffee, spices), those produced by small businesses, those prepared & sold in the same establishment ** Restaurants with > 20 locations must provide kcals, sat fat g, & Na mg Claims on Food labels Nutrient claims= statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food-→ EX: “fat free” or “less sodium” Health claims= statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food & a disease or health-related condition→ EX: “a diet low in total fat may reduce the risk of some cancers Structure-function claims= statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food & a structure/body function. No reference to disease or health-related condition→ EX: “calcium builds strong bones” or “supports immunity & digestive health” What are daily values? Reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels Expressed as a percentage%%% Relationship to health Based on 2,000 Kcals per day “Ballpark” estimate of contribution to total diet How are ingredients listed? Ingredients are listed in descending order of predominance by weight Know the organs involved in the digestive system Salivary glands= secrete saliva & digestive enzyme (salivary amylase) Breaks down some carbohydrates; begins carbohydrate digestion Stomach= carbohydrate amylase stops acid production; fluid mixes with bolus; hydrochloric acid uncoils proteins; enzymes break down proteins; mucus protects stomach cells Pancreas= manufactures enzymes to digest all macronutrients & releases biocarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the SI Pancreatic duct conducts pancreatic juice Liver= manufactures bile salts, detergent like substances, to help digest fats Bile is produced Gallbladder= stores bile until needed bile emulsifies fats into suspension with water so that enzymes can have access to break it down Small intestine= common bile duct opens into SI allowing secretions from pancreas & gallbladder to release into SI cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood & lymph Intestinal enzymes break down all macronutrients Major site of nutrient absorption!!!! Epiglottis= The cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid of food from entering it when a person swallow What are the different valves/sphincters and what do they do? Upper esophageal sphincter→ opens during swallow Cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter (LES)→ prevents reflux (backward flow of content) Ileocecal valve= separates small & large intestine Pyloric sphincter= opens about 3 x per minute to allow small amounts of chyme to enter the duodenum Where do the enzymes come from and what do they do? Enzymes are proteins that facilitate a chemical reaction; making a molecule; breaking a molecule apart. They remain unchanged and act as a catalyst → In digestion, enzymes facilitate hydrolysis, which is the addition of H & OH to break a molecule into smaller pieces→ water is formed → Digestive enzymes end in “-ase” including lipase, carbohydrase & protease **Pancreatic & small intestine enzymes function in an alkaline environment ** Stomach protease in acidic environment Know the GI hormones/what they do/what they act on Gastrin=responds to food in the stomach, is secreted from the stomach, stimulates the stomach glands & has a response with hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach to maintain an acidic pH Secretin= responds to acidic chyme in the SI, is secreted from the duodenal wall, stimulates the pancreas & has a response to biocarbonate- rich juices secreted into the small intestine to maintain a slightly alkaline pH (neutralizes acid) Cholecystokinin (CCK)= responds to fat or protein in the SI, is secreted from the intestinal wall, stimulates the gallbladder & pancreas & has a response to bile being secreted into duodenum to emulsify fats, biocarbonate- & enzyme-rich juices are secreted into the SI to maintain a slightly alkaline pH, digests fats & proteins, & slow GI tract motility What are the parts of the GI tract in order? ie where does food go next? GI tract= flexible muscular tube from Mouth→ esophagus→ stomach→ small intestine→ large intestine→ rectum→ anus Where are different macronutrients digested/absorbed? Gastric juice acts primarily in protein digestion mixture of water, enzymes, & hydrochloric acid Salivary glands digest carbohydrate Most fat breakdown occurs in the SI via gallbladder Pancreatic juice & intestinal juice digest ALL macronutrients Carbohydrate= enzymes on the surfaces of the small intestinal cells complete the process of breaking down starch into small fragments that can be absorbed through the intestinal cell walls & into the hepatic portal vein ** Small, finger-like projections called villi, absorb carbohydrates, then they are transferred to the bloodstream directly & carried to muscles & the liver. Fat= pancreatic & intestinal lipases can begin to break down the fat to smaller fragments that can be absorbed through the cells of the small intestinal wall & into the lymph **After digestion, broken- down fat particles called fatty acids combine with cholesterol & bile to move into your cells’ mucosa where they are reconverted into large molecules, passing into vessels (lymphatics). These vessels transport fat to the veins of your chest, & the blood carries fat to be stored in adipose tissue Protein= digestion depends on the pancreatic & intestinal proteases **Large molecules of protein must be digested by enzymes into small molecules called amino acids. Digestion continues in the SI. From there, amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream & transported throughout the body What does fiber do? → Pass through the large intestine & are excreted as feces Indigestible & not broken down ** Some fats, cholesterol & minerals bind to fiber & are also excreted Once absorbed, where do macronutrients go next? **PRO & CHO fragments & small lipid particles enter the bloodstream directly through hepatic portal vein **Larger lipids(monoglycerides & long-chain fatty acids) & fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed/transported into the lymphatic system first **Lymph collects in the thoracic duct & drains into the subclavian vein, where it enters the bloodstream **Lymphatic system provides a one-way route for fluid from the tissue spaces to enter the blood What is the difference between probiotics and prebiotics-give examples Probiotics= living microorganisms found in foods & dietary supplements that, when consumed in sufficient quantities are beneficial to health→ EX: greek yogurt, Lactobacillus, kefir, sauerkraut, dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles Prebiotics= food components that are NOT digested by the human body but are used as food by the GI bacteria to promote growth & activity→ EX: type of fiber, raw garlic, onion, asparagus, inulin
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