CRMJ 254 Exam #1 Study Guide
CRMJ 254 Exam #1 Study Guide CRMJ 254
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Potter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRMJ 254 at Towson University taught by Hahn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
CRMJ 254 Exam 1 Review Criminal Justice as an institution for social control- Family, School, Organized religion Misdemeanor- Less serious crime Juvenile Offenses- Offenses committed by juveniles who are charged as adults The Police- Maintain order,Arrest Perps, Provide Emergency Service. Enforce Criminal Law The Courts- Convict guilty, Seek truth, Obtain Justice, Provide fair trial, Sentence Corrections- Responsible for the punishment and Rehab of the offender, now an inmate Plea Bargain-At arraignment, Pleas guilty to lessen sentence/ charge No Plea Bargain- Gets Trial Arrest & Booking- Seizing and detaining a person and administrative recording of an arrest Court Process- FirstAppearance, Preliminary Hearing, Info/Indictment,Arraignment Punishments in the US- Fines, Probation, Intermediate Punishments, Imprisonment, Death Victimless Crimes- Gambling, Prostitution b/w consenting legal parties, use of marijuana Over-Criminalization- Prohibition of some behaviors that should not be prohibited Elements of a Crime: • Harm- Thinking about committing the crime but not acting on it • Legality- Harm must be legally forbidden • Actus Reus- The guilty act. act happened • Mens Rea- State of mind that accompanies criminal act... Criminal mind • Causation- Relationship b/w the forbidden crime and the actus rea • Concurrence- Criminal conduct & criminal intent must happen at same time • Punishment - Fines, Probation, Intermediate Punishments, Imprisonment, Death Ex post facto Law- Cant be punished for actions committed before law made it illegal 1st Degree Murder- Killing w/ intent to kill 2nd Degree Murder- Killing w/ intent to do harm but not kill 3rd Degree Murder- Killing resulting from indifference or negligence (manslaughter) 4th Degree Murder- Felony committed by an accomplice Mala in se- Crimes that are wrong in themselves, wrong everywhere Mala Prohibita- Offense that are illegal because law define them as such (Trespassing) Legal Defenses for Criminal Responsibility: • Duress- Force or Coercion as an excuse for committing a crime • Entrapment- Induced by law enforcement to commit a crime • Self Defense-Amount of force reasonable to defend themselves against apparent threat • Insanity- Mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against criminal charge • Underage or Juvenile Delinquency- Category of defense for the young b/w 7-18 • M’Naughten Rule- Did you know right from wrong? Irresistible Impulse Standard- Could you control your actions Labeling Theory-Accepting the criminal label & committing other crimes Cesare Baccaria- Classical View, wrote on crime and punishment Classical School-Have free will & some choose to commit crime. Focus on crime & punishment. Embraces deterrence.Advocates prison Specific Deterrence- Prevention of a individuals future commission of crime General Deterrence- Prevention of people in a society from engaging in crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them Rational Choice Theory- People choose to commit crimes after weighing the benefits. If profit is big and chance of being caught is minimal then chance is taken Cesare Lombroso- father of the positive school of criminology, atavism Positivist World View- You are a product of your environment Physiognomy- The uglier the more likely to commit crime Biological Theories of Crime-Sheldon (Somototype), twin studies, DNA- Link b/w body type and crime Strain Theory (Anomie)- crimes are committed because of strong pressure and weak restraints Social Disorganization Theory- Amount of crime increased as one moved towards center Social Learning Theory- Criminal behavior is learned through interaction with others Social Control Theory- The stronger the bond a individual has with society the less likely to commit a crime Conflict Theory- Society is based on conflict b/w competing interest groups (rich vs poor) Psychological Theories: • Criminals are morally insane?? • They don’t know their actions are wrong • Childhood development was poor and their personality did not develop • Personality flaws are so bad the person has little or no control over his actions Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs- Humans are motivated by hierarchy of needs • Food,water, Sex Safety, Securtiy, freedom from fear • • Belongingness • Esteem • Being True to ones nature Exoneration and DNA- 302 post- conviction DNAexonerations . won in 36 states Due Process Model- Protecting the innocent and convicting the guilty Crime Control Model- Control of criminal behavior Dark figure of Crime- Number of crimes officially not counted by police Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)- Best and most widely cited source of aggregate criminal stats • Part 1- number of reported offenses • Part 2- mala prohibita crime Crime Index- Estimate of crimes committed National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS)- method for collecting crime better than UCR National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)- Method for assessing Victimization in US Self Report Studies- Ask people to reveal own law violations, gets rid of dark figure
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