Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide
Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts) at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Thomas Roberts in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Exam 1 Study Guide List of Researchers in Chronological Order Hooke 1st to describe microbes (fungi) illustrate fruiting of molds Leewenhoke 1st to view bacteria created simple microscope Pasteur 1st to recognize optical isomers (2 forms of the Same compounds...hands) disproves spontaneous generation developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies Cohn discovered endospores started using classification system developed aseptic technique(flaming the loop) Koch postulate led to identifying link between microbes and disease ... Not used anymore because not all organisms are able to grow on the postulates created pure cultures through streaking developed techniques for obtaining pure cultures Winogtadsky chemilotrophy~used inorganic compounds as energy source Beijernick enrichment culture technique isolating microbes by manipulating nutrition and incursion conditions (nitrogen fixation) discovered viruses The standard type of microscope is bright field microscope, which has two lenses. Electron microscopes are used to view viruses. Microbiology revolves around the understanding basic life processes and applying that knowledge to the benefit of humans. The four things that all cells have: DNA, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. Properties of ALL cells: compartmentalization/metabolism, growth, & evolution Properties of SOME cells: motility, differentiation, communication, & genetic exchange Microbiology have two directions applied and basic (studying characteristics of organism Chemolitrotrophy: oxidation of inorganic compounds linked to energy conservation Red wavelength is the longest, while blue is the shortest. The shorter the wavelength, the better/ the higher the numerical aperture, the better. Limit of resolution for light microscope is 0.2micrometers. Resolution for CSLM (Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope) is 0.1micrometers. Steps for Gram Staining: 1. flood heat fixed smear with crystal violet stain for 1 minute. (All cells should be purple) 2. Add iodine solution & let sit for 1 minute. (All cells should be purple) 3. Decolorize with alcohol briefly for 20 seconds. (G+ cells are purple and G- cells are colorless) 4. Counterstain with safranin for 1 to 2 minutes. (G+ cells are purple and G- cells are pink/red) Three things that kill cells: staining, burning, & allowing the cell to dry (cells can’t dry if they are in water but the water makes it harder to view the cell). Staining helps you see the shape, size, and whether the cells are G+ or G- while improving the contrast. Phase Contrast Microscopy -improves contrast without the use of a stain -phase ring amplifies differences in refractive index of cell & surrounding -visualizes live cells Dark Field Microscopy -light image on a dark background -used to observe motility Fluorescence Microscopy -cells are not alive -glows under UV light -reads the light that is being emitted DIC (Differential Interference Contrast) Microscopy -uses a polarizer to create two distinct beams of polarized light -gives structures a 3D appearance CSLM (Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy) -uses computerized microscope coupled with laser source to make 3D image -higher resolution TEM (Transmission electron microscopes) -gives you a 2D image -electromagnets function as lenses -higher magnification & resolution (0.2nm) SEM (Scanning electron microscope) -coated with gold particles to generate 3D image Electrons must be present in a vacuum in order to transfer through the sample. The larger the surface to volume ratio, the smaller the cell. Major Cell Shapes: coccus (spherical), rod (cylindrical), spirillum (spiral). Forces involved in setting the morphology: -optimization for nutrient uptake -swimming motility in viscous environments or near surfaces -gliding motility Size range from prokaryotes: 0.2micrometers to >700 micrometers. Size range for eukaryotic cells: 10 to > 200 micrometers. The major difference between G+ & G- is the composition of the cell wall. G- cell walls have a very thing peptidoglycan layer while G+ have a thicker peptidoglycan layer. Koch’s postulates the suspected pathogen must be present in all cases of the disease & absent from healthy animals; the suspected pathogen must be grown in pure culture; cells from a pure culture of the suspected pathogen must cause disease in a healthy animal; the suspected pathogen must be reisolated & shown to be the same as the original. Review your notes, read the book (Chapter 1 & 2), and review the questions in the back of each chapter. Good luck!
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