History Study Guide – Midterm
Yam: Mongol system of communication that connected them with the far west. Messengers would ride very fast (200-300 km per day) and then give information to the next messenger waiting at the station (stations spread through the yam rout), then that messenger would rest. Very efficient and speedy communication. Genghis Khan used it and expanded it but Kublai Khan used it too.
Dhimmi: In Arabic this word means “protected person.” A Dhimmi was a person living in the Islamic Ottoman Empire who was a non-Muslim but got protection from the state and wasn’t forced into Islam. Initially, only people of the book could get this status (Christians, Jews, monotheistic religions). Had to pay capital tax to get this status. Ensured safety from Islamic law.
Zheng He: (1371-1433), Was a eunuch, known for his naval explorations. Established Chinese impression in the world and gain imperial control over trade in the Indian sea, had a fleet of 317 vessels of which there were 7 dragon ships. Explored all the way to the African coast, stopped in many places along the way, made the Kandnido map (map of what he explored). Brought back gifts from other lands.
Dragon Ship: Giant ships in Zheng He’s fleet. More a representation of ability than of actual usefulness. So large they could break on large waves. Truly massive and grand, would make a large impression on foreigners. If you want to learn more check out political science uri
Janissary: Began in the 14th century, numbers grew in 15th and 16th centuries. Special infantry for the Ottoman Empire. Began as Christian slaves that were kidnapped from home, actually wound up providing life opportunity for them. Known for their extreme discipline and ability to make it through hardships. Acted as policemen, palace guards, and military, very humble people.
Bartolomeu Dias: Noble Portuguese guy, first to sail around the southern tip of Africa and prove that was possible. Goal was to find a route to trade with eastern countries without going through the Mediterranean because of the Ottoman domination.
Vasco de Gama: After Dias had already sailed around the cape of Good Hope, de Gama (another Portuguese guy) sailed around the cape
and set out to try and get to India to set up trade. Made many stops along the way but eventually made it to Calcutta, India in 1498
The India Act: The British government decided to take full control over the East India Company in 1784.
Battle of Plassey: 1757, battle between great Britain and Bengal. 4,000 british troops and 50,000 bengal troops. Commander Robert Clive of Great Britain won because he paid off most of the Bengal troops.
The Triangle Trade: New World sent crops and raw materials to Europe, Europe sent manufactured goods that they made with the raw materials to Africa, and Africa sent slaves to the New World to provide labor for the crops, formed a triangle. Don't forget about the age old question of pacing in surveying
Virgin Soil Epidemics: The whole concept of how groups of people who have never been exposed to certain diseases have no immunities, so when explorers come in to their lands carrying disease, the indigenous people would experience a disease epidemic. Like when Europeans brought smallpox and measles to the New World with them and many people died.
The Black Death: 1348, Crazy epidemic of the bubonic plague that devastated much of Europe and Asia. Initially the Mongols brought it around with them where they went (brought on collapse of Mongols),
but spread all throughout Europe and killed most of the population wherever it spread.
Tlaxcalans: Tribe that lived near Tenochtitlan, Aztec empire would sacrifice their people to the Gods, they didn’t like this. When Cortes came to central America, the Tlaxcalans teamed up with the Spaniards in invading Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital. If you want to learn more check out skeletal system key terms
The Potato: Crop that was discovered in the New World, main food of the Incans. Brought to Europe, Spain and Portugal new how to eat them and liked them a lot, the rest of Europe didn’t know what to do with it at first. Chinese population and European population wound up going up because of it.
V.O.C: (Dutch East India Company) 1602, have 21 year spice trade monopoly.
Trading company meant to protect the Dutch trade in the Indian ocean and to help the Dutch in gaining independence from Spain.
Sakaku: 1639, Shogunate of Japan banned visits by Europeans, nobody allowed to leave country, punishable by death. Period of national isolation. Christianity forbidden and trade only done with Dutch and Chinese. We also discuss several other topics like dna strand with introns and exons labeled
The Grand Embassy: 1697-98, journey of the Russian Peter the Great to Europe. Wanted to be more like western Europe because he saw how civilized they were. Meets with different people in different countries in Europe, hires some. Builds vessels, paints, hires people from different
Omai: On James Cook’s voyage to the Nootka sound in 1778, he first stopped in Tahiti where he met Omai, or Mai. Omai served as a translator of Spanish to Cook on the journey. Cook brought him back to Europe with him, he became famous because people were thrilled by his intelligence and good looks. People previously assumed that indigenous people were dumb and this was pretty cool. When he went back home he brought a bunch of stuff with him (armor, guns). Did people like him because of actual scientific curiosity or was he just a sideshow? Little of both.
The Enlightenment: A European shift in thinking in the 17th and 18th centuries. Meant to reform society through the use of reason and scientific method. Promotes skepticism of learnt knowledge (books), science, and intellectual interchange (people talking about what they know). Rejects faith and tradition as an explanation (still promotes religion though), intolerance, and superstition. Don't forget about the age old question of What ccll junctions mean?
1. Why did the nomadic threat to sedentary peoples recede in Central Asia?
2. How did Ottomans build a land empire that lasted 450 years?
3. Why did China mount, then abandon its 15th century maritime exploration? We also discuss several other topics like jhu applied math,0,12020-10-12,https://studysoup.com/guide/2801549/math-120,math 120 unlv
4. Why did Spain and Portugal pioneer western expansion, and then lose influence?
5. How did tiny England take over India from the Mughal Empire?
6. Why did the Europeans colonize the new world, and not the other way around?
7. What were some of the consequences of the Columbian exchange between Eurasia and the new world?
8. What were the factors that led to the development and spread of the early modern slave trade?
9. Why did Russia become part of Europe while Spanish did not? Readings and what Big Questions they pertain to: Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, The Turkish Letters – Big Question #2 Kristof “1492: The Prequel” – Big Question #3
Levathes “The Strange Kingdoms of Malacca and Ceylon” – Big Question #3
Olaudah Equiano “Equiano’s Travels” – Big Question #8? 7? Paul Erdmann Isert “Eleventh Letter” – Big Qeustion #8? 7? Charles Mann “1491” – Big Question #6?