BIOL 120 Ecology Exam Study Guide
BIOL 120 Ecology Exam Study Guide BIOL 120
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Potter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 120 at Towson University taught by Christa. Partain in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
BIOL120 EcologyReview Climate How does the earth’s curvature and tilt produce seasons and climate Above and below the equator the suns rays are less intense, oblique. Season in higher and lower latitudes occur due to tilt of Earths on its axis and the orbit of the earth around the sun. Solar irradiance: the amount of light energy per unit area Thermal momentum Biomes Aquatic: 1. Freshwater (lakes, rivers, streams): Low salt, few plants 2. Wetlands: High nutrient level, slows water, reduces floods, helps absorb pollution, plants are submerged and emerged 3. Estuary: Where salt water meets fresh water, prevents erosion, salt marsh, a lot of fish 4. Marine (open ocean): high salt, 50% of oxygen is made by phytoplankton, 2/3 of earths surface , phytoplankton are basis of food chain, coral reefs - Intertidal: under during high tide, above during low tide, harsh environment plants and animals must be able to anchor - Open ocean: heavily exploited, species diversity declined 50% in past 50yrs Abyssal plain: deep dark ocean, cold, rich in life, energy from hydrogen sulfide from volcanic vents Terrestrial: 1. Tundra: permaforst, cold and dry, plants grow in cushions, animals store fat, hibernate, migrate, have extra fur 2. Desert: hot sometimes cold, dry, cactus and snakes. plants and animals adapt to retain water 3. Grassland: dry, grass, tall grass prairies and short grass stepes, animals eat top grass, height of grass depends on precipitation, maintained by fires, special chamber, fiber digesting bacteria 4. Savannah: dry, grass, wet season is summer, dry season is winter, scattered trees, huge herds of mammals and predators 5. Taiga: Largest biome, very cold, long and often snowy winters and short moist summers, plants evergreen conifers, moose, photosynthesis right after thawing, large mammals and summer resident birds 6. Temperate deciduous forest:Alot of water during growing season, cold winter temps. limit photosynthesis, moderate temps, oak trees and deer 7. Tropical forest: Hot, moist, biomass in tree canopy, plants and animals live in canopy, decompose quickly, poor soil, deforestation due to slash/burn and cattle grazing. Eutrophication: high nutrient levels from fertilizer runoff lead to blooms of algae grow which depletes oxygen and causes fish kills Population What is the major differences between K-selected and r-selected species? They are complete opposites K: pop. size limited by carrying capacity, stable, organisms are larger, long living r: pop. size limited by reproductive rate, unstable, organisms are smaller, short living Population- all the individuals of a species in an area Carrying capacity- amount of organisms a area can support Demographic momentum Community Why does species diversity contributes to community stability. Acommunities ability to resist adverse environmental conditions increases with species richness. Therefore the long term stability of communities depends on the diversity Different types of species interactions: Mutualism: increases growth or pop size of both Predation and Parasitism: consumption of one by another Competition: causes decrease or limits in pop size of both species Adaptations prey have evolved to evade predators: Camouflage: body shapes colors or patterns to blend in w/ environment Warning coloration: warn predators that they produce toxic substances Chemical warfare: produce distasteful or toxic substance that kills or harms predators Mimicry: evolution of similar appearances in two or more species. all protected Difference between a food web and food chain: Food chain is just one member from each level where as food web is many members from each level Energy pyramids: 10% of energy taken is available How does a forested community changes over time? Succession -> Pioneer-> Transition(intermediate)->Climax Regrowth > special colonizing after fire > establish at particular site > most stable community Autotroph: Producer Hetertroph: Consumer Keystone species: dominant role in shaping community structure Resource Partitioning: using diff parts of resources to avoid or reduce competition What are the effects of climate change brought about by increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide? Water wars, floods, droughts, acidification, increase contagious disease Energy Flow What is the function of mitochondria & chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is needed in photosynthesis which occurs in the chloroplast and Mitochondria is where respiration occurs. 2 Laws of Thermodynamics: 1. Law of conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one kind to another 2. Entropy: When energy is changed from one kind to another energy is lost as heat and cant be recovered Contemporary Issues Which chemical is associated with the following phenomena: Bioaccumulation- methylmercury Acid rain- sulfur Smog- VOCs, NOx Ozone depletion- CFC Leading causes of species endangerment: Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Harvesting, Disease, Global Warming (climate change) How does desertification happen? Cutting down forests and they turn into deserts What’s “fishing down the food chain” mean? Fishing for the smaller forage fish ex. sardines What are the causes of the global water crisis? Pollution, deforestation, desertification, increased population, intensive irrigation
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