Psychology Test 1
Psychology Test 1 Psych 364
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Maute on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 364 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Study Guide Industrial Psychology Exam 1 People • Hofstede o conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. § found 5 dimensions by which cultures differ and how they make sense of the world • 1. Individualism vs Collectivism • 2. Power Distance • 3. Masculinity vs femininity • 4. Uncertainty Avoidance • 5. Time Orientation • James McKeen Cattell o U.S. psychologist who oriented U.S. psychology toward use of objective experimental methods, mental testing, and application of psychology to the fields of education, business, industry, and advertising. Concepts Chapter 1 • What do I-O psychologists study o The industrial side of industrial and organizational psychology generally focuses on the individual's and their relationship to the workplace. o The organizational side of industrial and organizational psychology, on the other hand, focuses on the organization and workplace as a whole § Definition of I-O Psychology: The application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting. • Personnel psychology: find or fit the best person to the job o field of psychology that addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination. § the approach assumes that people are consistently different in their attributes and work behaviors and that information about these differences can be used to predict, maintain, and influence work performance and satisfaction. • Human Factors psychology: the human engineer is to develop an environment that is compatible with the characteristics of the worker o the study of the capacities and limitations of humans with respect to a particular environment. § almost the opposite of the personnel approach • SIOP: Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology o an association to which many I-O Psychologist, both practitioners and researchers, belong. Designated as Division 14 of the American Psychological Association (APA) o considered the single best resource for anyone interested in I-O Psychology • Army Alpha/Army Beta o purpose of these studies: measure cognitive abilities, match people with a job, and predict their performance *think of Personnel Psychology* • Hawthorne Studies o research done at the Hawthorne, Illinois, plant of the Western Electric Company that began as attempts to increase productivity by manipulating lighting, rest breaks, and work hours. § this research showed the important role that workers’ attitudes played in productivity • Civil Rights Act of 1964 o created due to the influx of tests created for selection of jobs o written in sections, called “titles” with each title addressing a specific area of possible discrimination, such as voting, education, or housing. • Title VII of Civil Rights Act: the section dealing with employment discrimination that required employers to justify the use of tests for selection o Federal Legislation that prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, which define what are known as protected groups § prohibits not only internal discrimination but also practices that have the unintentional effect of discrimination against individuals because of their race, color, national origin, religion, or sex. • Time and Motion Studies o studies that broke every action down into its constituent parts, times those movements with a stopwatch, and developed new and more efficient movements that would reduce fatigue and increase productivity § scientific management was based on the principles of time and motion study • Culture o a system in which individuals share meanings and common ways of viewing events and objects • Hofstede’s 5 factors o power distance: the degree to which less powerful members of an organization accept and expect an unequal distribution of power (how you see power) o individualism vs. collectivism: the degree to which individuals are expected to look after themselves (what you get out of a task) vs. remaining integrated into groups (what everyone else gets out of a task) o masculinity vs. femininity: the distribution of emotional roles between the genders, with the masculine role being seen as “tough” and the feminine role seen as “tender” o uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which members of a culture feel comfortable in unstructured situations o long-term vs. short-term orientation: the extent to which members of a culture expect immediate vs. delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs. Chapter 2 • Disinterestedness: characteristic of scientists who should be objective and uninfluenced by biases or prejudices when conducting research • Research design types in I-O psychology o definition of research design: provides overall structure or architecture for the research study allowing investigators to conduct scientific research on a phenomenon of interest o types: § experimental: participants are randomly assigned to different conditions § quasi-experimental: participants are assigned to different conditions, but random assignment to conditions isn't possible § nonexperimental: does not include any “treatment” or assignment to different conditions • observation: the researcher observes employee behavior and systematically records what is observed • survey: research strategy in which participants are asked to complete a questionnaire or survey • Independent variable: “the cause” o term used to describe the treatment or antecedent condition • Observational design: o the researcher observes employee behavior and systematically records what is observed • Introspection o early scientific method in which the participant was also the experimenter, recording his or her experiences in completing an experimental task: considered very subjective by modern standards • Triangulation o approach in which researchers seek converging information from different sources § the key is in combining information from multiple sources to develop that theory • Job analysis o the process used by I-O psychologists to gain understanding of a job. § determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks • Generalizability o to apply the results from one study or sample to other participants or situations § one of the most important issues in conducting research is how widely the results can be generalized • Experimental control o characteristic of research in which possible confounding influences that might make results less reliable or harder to interpret are eliminated: often easier to establish in laboratory studies than in field studies. § the primary reason why psychologists do laboratory studies, or experiments, is to eliminate distracting variables § by using this form of control you eliminate possible confounding influences that might make your results less reliable or harder to interpret • ex. studying problem-solving in an industrial workers, workplace o at the workplace there may be interruptions of phone calls, machine breakdowns, missing team members, etc. o in the lab, none of these problems would occur • Histogram • Measures of central tendency: statistic that indicates where the center of a distribution is located. o mean: arithmetic average of the scores o median: the middle score o mode: the most frequently occurring score • Standard deviation o variability • Calculate mean of a set of data • Example of inferential statistics o definition: statistics used to aid the researcher in testing hypotheses and making inferences from sample data to a larger sample or population § ex. people with higher scores on a test of mental ability perform their jobs better than those with lower scores, or that team members in small teams are happier with their work than team members in a large teams • testing an hypothesis or theory • Correlation coefficient o statistic assessing the bivariate, linear association between two variables. provides information about both the magnitude (numerical value) and the direction (+ or -) of the relationship between two variables § the stronger the association between the two variables, the better the prediction we are able to make from one variable to another • ex. interested in the association between an individual's cognitive ability and training success, we can calculate the association between those two variables for a group of participants. • Reliability o goal of I-O psychology: describe, explain, predict, o consistency or stability of a measure § if a measure is unreliable we would get different values each time we sampled the behavior • ex. measuring integrity on two occasions and hope that the scores for each person have the same end result o not realistic but the likelihood of it happening is dependent upon the time between the two test • Test-retest reliability o a type of reliability calculated by correlating measurements taken at time 1 with measurements taken at time 2 § a way to determine reliability • pitfalls: the amount of time between administrations of the test o the less time you have, the less likely you are measuring other things than consistency • Predictor/criterion o predictor: the test chosen or developed to assess attributes (ex. abilities) identified as important for successful job performance o criterion: an outcome variable that describes important aspects or demands of the job § the variable that we predict when evaluating the validity of the predictor • Predictive validity o criterion-related validity design in which there is a time lag between collection of the test data and the criterion data § enables the employer to predict what would have happened had they used the test scores to make the hiring decision • if the test scores were related to performance scores, you might conclude that you should not have hired some people (performance poor= poor test scores) • Concurrent validity o criterion-related validity design in which there is no time lag between gathering the test scores and the performance data § used on current employees and not applicants • Construct validity o validity approach in which investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs § often begins with investigators demonstrating that a test designed to measure a particular construct correlates with other tests in the predicted manner § ways of gathering evidence that will increase the confidence of our decisions or inferences
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