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# Test One Study Guide 2070

Clemson

GPA 3.88

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2070 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Puneet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Physics 1 in Physics 2 at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/28/16

Chapter One Useful Unit Conversions 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 0.305 m 1 mile = 1.609 km 1 mph = 0.447 m/s 1 m = 39.37 in 1 km = 0.621 mile 1 m/s = 2.24 mph the number of significant figures after multiplication or division is equal to the number of significant figures of the least accurately known quantity the number of decimal places after addition or subtraction is equal to the smallest number of decimal places Chapter Three dimensions refer to the quality ([L]], [M], [T], etc…) units refer to the quantity don’t say “the length of the table is 6 ft” instead say “the measure of the length of the table is 6 ft” scalar: has magnitude (number with units) vector: quantity with magnitude and direction vectors are written in boldface or with an arrow on top displacement has to do with your initial and final position moving along the x-axis can be represented with x or i moving along the y-axis can be represented with y or j moving along the z-axis can be represented with z or k A = B only if A and B have the same magnitude and direction we can move vectors around as long as you don’t change orientation or length it is common practice to measure the angle from the positive x-axis and to measure it in a counterclockwise (ccw) direction adding vectors geographically: place the tail of the second vector at the tip of the first (tip to tail method) o you can do this with as many vectors as you want the negative of a vector has the same magnitude but is pointing in the other direction (flip it 180 degrees on its tip) Adding vectors using components (quantitative method) o Find the x and y components of each vector to be added o Add all the x and all the y components separately o Find the magnitude of the resultant vector Chapter Two mechanics is the study of how objects move, how they respond to external forces, and how other factors such as size, mass, and mass distribution affect their motion kinematics is the description of motion dynamics is the study of the cause of motion we must set up a coordinate system (origin and positive direction) in order to define motion if an object is in the air, its acceleration is a constant 9.81 m/s^2 o this is the only acceleration acting on it average speed is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time the trip took average velocity is displacement divided by time speed is always positive as it is a scalar quantity velocity can be positive or negative based on the direction of displacement because it is a vector quantity a speedometer measures speed, not velocity in a position vs. time graph, the slope is the average velocity o it is a motion diagram put as a graph in a velocity vs. time graph, the slope is the average acceleration in a position vs. time graph, the line tangent to a point is the instantaneous velocity at that point between any two times on a position vs. time graph, draw a line between the two points and that slope is the average velocity uniform velocity is constant velocity motion when velocity is constant, the average velocity over any interval is equal to the instantaneous velocity at any point the magnitude of the average velocity is only equal to speed when it is a straight line acceleration and deceleration should not be confused with the direction of velocity and acceleration if you are slowing down, your acceleration and velocity will be in opposite directions freefall is the motion of an object subject only to the influence of gravity once you release something from your hand, it is in freefall when you throw something up, at its peak the velocity is zero but the acceleration is still a constant g air resistance only has a big effect if the object is light like a feather or a piece of paper mass doesn’t cause the effect of air resistance (surface area does) on the earth’s surface, the acceleration on the y-axis is never zero when you throw something, its trajectory has a symmetric shape and velocity (parabola shaped) g is always 9.8 but your acceleration can be -g (you will never have g = -9.8) Three Main Equations of Motion Chapter Four two dimensional motion is when an object is moving in two dimensions at the same time (x and y) make sure you break these vectors down into x and y components x component = dcos(theta) y component = dsin(theta) motion in the x and y directions should be solved separately ignore air resistance gravity always acts downward if the y axis points up, acceleration in the x direction is zero and acceleration in the y direction is -9.81 m/s^2 solve x and y independently; the only thing they have in common is time acceleration is independent of direction in projectile motion, x velocity is constant and x acceleration is zero launch angle: direction of initial velocity with respect to the horizontal horizontal launch is a zero launch angle; there is only an x component of initial velocity if your launch angle is not zero, you need to look at both the x and y components range: horizontal distance an object travels if the final and initial elevation are the same, you can use R = (V 0g)sin(2theta) range is a maximum when theta = 45 degrees if you have two complementary angles (add up to 90 degrees) they have the same range if final and initial elevation are the same and you’re solving for range, you don’t have to break it into x and y components the least speed is found at the highest point in the trajectory if all projectiles reach the same height, they are in the air the same amount of time (time in the air is determined by height reached, not the distance traveled!)

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