Anatomy and Physiology I
Anatomy and Physiology I Anatomy and Physiology
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lyndsey Wenzel on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anatomy and Physiology at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Giovanni Cassotti in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Science in Science at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
1 What are the four basic tissue types Epithelium Covering amp lining Glandular Connec ve Connective tissue proper 0 Loose o Dense 0 Fatty 0 Bone Cartilage Vascular blood Muscular Nervous 2 How do you classify epithelium tissue Number of cells 0 Simple one layer Strati ed many layers Shape of cells Squamous at Cuboidal cubed Columnar tall skinny Cell shape in strati ed epithelium use shape of outermost layer 3 What are the functions and characteristics of of covering and lining epithelium Interface between 2 different enviroments o Skinair Gut tube gut lumen o Trachea air Func ons 0 Protection Secretion and absorption 0 Excretion Sensory reception 4 Where do you nd speci c examples of covering and lining epithelium ie simple squamous strati ed columnar etc Simple squamousinterlining of blood vessels and all body cavities help interphase exchange gas oxygen C02 nutrients Simple cuboidal tubules found in kidneys secretionamp ltering Simple columnar digestive tract Simple ciliated columnar falsely strati ed uterine tube ovaries Pseudostrati ed ciliated columnar Strati ed squamous vagina skin lining of mouth Strati ed columnar esophagus lining of ducts Transitional as gets larger walls stretch cells atter gets smaller cells get thicker bladder What are some special characteristics of covering and lining epithelium what are the functions of the characteristics Apical specializations face other environment 0 Microvilli little ngers o lmmotile don t move 0 Common in cells that absorb o Advantage bc increases surface area to absorb without increasing size of cell bigger cell would be harder to maintain Rate of absorption is proportion to surface area Found in areas of the body covered by mucus 0 Hold mucus in place on vertical surfaces so they don t slide down 0 Supported by micro laments to keep from collapsing o Cilia 0 Mobile do more Not random move together back and forth Any liquids propelled across surface by cilia Made up of microtubules arranged in pairs called doublets 9 doublets surround microtubule with two in the center 92 arrangement Slide up and down next to eachother to make cilia move Junctions hold epithelial cells together 0 Junctional complex band that goes around cell 0 Functions Cell to cell adhesion Prevent molecular traffic from switching between epithelial cells 0 Gap junctions portals that go between cells 0 Function lon ow cell to cell communication Basement membrane basal lamina Found on base of all epithelial cells only bottom layer A cellular layer Separates epithelium from all other tissues Diffusion through basal lamina for nutrients and waste Regulate traffic 0 All simple are attached but not strati ed What are the two types of glands in glandular epithelium How are they similar how are they different Glandular some cells specialized to create and produce products found in groups clusters of cells called glands CO 000 00000 7 Exocrine Glands deliver products on to body surface or into lumen of hollow organs mucus perspiration digestive Unicellular o Goblet cells in humans only line digestive system produce and secrete mucus o Multicellular 0 Simple single duct 0 Compound branched duct Duct tube that connects gland to the surface made of epithelium tissue Endocrine Glands secrete products into blood rather than through a duct let circulatory system deliver pituitary adrenal thyroid expose all cells in body their products What are the common characteristics of Connective Tissue 0 Extensive intercellular matrix lots of material between cells 0 Derived from mesenchyme embryonic tissue only have as baby What are the different types of connective tissue Connective tissue proper glue holds all tissue together heterogenous a lot of physical variation 0 Location 0 0 000000 all other tissues embedded in it underlies all epithelium basal lamina sits on bed of connective tissue proper surrounds all muscles lies within muscles connects muscle bers surrounds blood vessels surrounds nerves that lie outside of CNS surrounds and penetrates all glands 0 Function 0 O O 0 Support bers Convey body uids holds tissue uid Defense Holds things in place blood vessels nerves glands 0 Loose connective tissue proper 0 Structures used for support Collagen bers resist tension when pulled apart Reticular bers add support to nerves and vessels Elastic bers go back to original shape allow give Fibroblasts cells that produce all bers 0 Structures used to convey body uids Ground substance absorbs and holds all uids 0 Structures used for defense Histiocytes macrophage big eaters phagocytosis Plasma cells antibodies involved in targeting foreign cells Mast cells heparin and histamine dilute infection produce and secrete 2 products 0 Heparin prevents blood from clotting Histamine makes capaaries more permeable Eosinophils amp neutrophils white blood cells come out of vascular system during infection phagocytosis destroy with ysosomes Puss pool of dead neutrophils Neutrohphils die when ingest bacteria 0 Dense connective tissue proper o rreguar orientation of bers More collagen bers in dense than loose Collagen bers only resis tension in the direction their aligned Found in areas of the body where a lot of tension 0 Regular all collagen bers are aligned 0 Fatty connective tissue proper o Adipose Tissue fat cells act as container for lipid droplet act as storage for lipids accumulate in breasts and thighs in women abs in men signs taking in more energy than using carbs o Cartilage and bone 0 Specialized to bear weight 0 Both have rm intercellular matrix 0 Cartilage more exible Firm intercellular matrix solid Chondrocytes cartilage cells embedded in matrix Lacunae physical space cells occupy quotlittle housequot Perichondrium dense brous layer covers cells Avascular lack of blood vessels No nerves doesn t hurt Move by diffusion bc avascular chondrocytes need to be close to surface which is why the cells are so small Hyaline cartilage Most common different locations depending on age Converted to bone as you get older Glass bc of uniform appearance Remnants found in wall of trchea ribs aranx bone surfaces Elastic cartilage Adding elastic bers to matrix makes it elastic Able to deform but return to original shape Outer ear Fibrocartilage Increase collagen bers allows cartilage to resist compression quotshock absorberquot vertebrae column intervertebral disk pubic bone 0 Bone more strength Matrix 65 inorganic crystals give strength 35 organic material give exibility Gross structure Compact bone dense outer wall Spongy bone light but strong undergo stress organic material found inside made up of Articular cartilage cover articulating surfaces Medullary cavity hollow area inside bone Periosteum dense brous layer doesn t effect strength Endosteum dense brous layer on inside Microscopic structure Osteocytes bone cells Lacunae quotlittle housesquot home for osteocytes Canaliculi little canals for communication Osteoblasts matrix forming cells located on surface Osteoclasts cells that break down and destroy matrix located on surface Bone development Ossi cation formation of bone lntramembranous ossi cation simple process 0 Membrane bone 0 Mesenchyme o Woven bone while being constructed 0 Lamellar bone Endochondrial ossification complex process more common 0 O O O Hyaline cartilage mold from mesenchyme Perichondriumouter layer of cartilage Bone collar forms cells become osteoblasts blood vessels form breakdown cartilage matrix Spongy bone is formed primary ossi cation center turns to bone osteoblasts migrate from bone collar to lay down bone Epiphyseal blood vessels form at ends mandibullary cavity forms Zone of erosion hollows out spongy bone Bone forms on ends secondary ossi ction Epiphyseal plate cartilage forms to bone epiphyseal line Zone of cartilage deposit cartilge continuously added and forms to bone lnside slowly hollows out as process goes on and epiphyseal bones are lled with spongy bone Vascular tissue blood Extensive intercellular matrix plasma Cells in plasmamatrix are formed elements 0 O Erythrocytes red donut cells not true cells bc lack nucleus function as gas exchange and deliver oxygen Leucocytes true white blood cells part of immune system defend against invasion of foreign organisms eat bacteria and die Thrombocytes platelets not true cells fragments of a cell help to stop leaking repair pipes cuts Bone growth Ossify mineralize cartilage bone Zone of cartilage deposit 0 O O Separates diaphysis and epiphysis Add more cartilage to thicken epiphyseal plate Add cartilage at same rate that it converts to bone o Epiphyseal plates move apart and form bone between to lengthen diaphysis Zone of calci cation 0 Where osteocytes sit inside the medullary cavity rich in calcium 0 Zone of erosion o Hollows out spongy bone to form medullary cavity 9 Describe the differentiation process of embryonic development zygote starts out as one cell embryonic extraembyronic supports embryo ectoderm mesoderm l endoderm tissues nervous system integument CNS l PNS Brain l spinal cord Fetus Embryonic period basic body plan is established rst 8 weeks Fetal period grow and mature Newewwe 10 Describe the structure of the adult body plan Body Tube 0 Skin Coelom space inside Serous membrane squamous epithelium 0 Body wall epithelial layer Gut tube 0 goes through coelom of body tube 0 internal organs derived from this digestive system Serous membrane Dorsal Body Wall Midline vertebral column encloses nerve cord 0 Vertebrae o Nerve cord 0 Lateral o Kidneys embedded in dorsal body wall 0 Retroperitoneal behind peritoneal cavity not in coelum Limbs skin 0 muscle 0 bone 11 Describe the early events of fertilization leading to embryonic development Early events 0 Ovulation egg is released 0 Ovum largest cell in human 0 Blister pops on ovary egg is released ovaduct fallopian tube catches egg goes through fallopian tube to uterus o Fertilization sperm meets egg in fallopian tubes must be first third 0 Sperm smallest cell in human cant see or hear 300 million 23 chromosomes Head DNA Tail agellum o Zygote fertilized egg 0 Cleavage division of cells in early embryo 0 Early cleavage Zygote 2 cell 4 cell 8 cell etc stay same size daughter cells become smaller 0 Late Cleavage Morula embryo solid ball of 3264 cells seen on day 4 Blastocyst hollow ball lled with small cells embryo Trophoblast single layer of cells surrounding blastocyst contributes to development of placenta Blastocoel space inside enclosed by trophoblasts ICM ball of cells inside blastocyst contributes to development of embryo o lmplantation egg implants itself in the uterus o Blastocyst burrows into wall of uterus 0 Sets up placenta for exchange of nutrients from mom 0 ICM is only part that contributes to development of embryo 12 What makes up the embryonic disc What are the three derivative germ layers Embryonic Disk 2 spaces in ICM o Bilaminar Disk double layer of cells where spaces come togehter o Amniotic sac top space surrounded by single layer 0 Extra amniotic cells support development of embryo o Yolk sac bottom space surrounded by single layer 0 No yolk bc we are mammals but there are yolk cells o Ectoderm epithelial cells that surround amniotic sac on bilaminar disk primary germ layer 0 Endoderm epithelial cells that surround yolk sac on bilaminar disk primary germ layer 0 Primitive Streak groove formed on ectoderm runs from head to tail 0 Henson s node moundslight swelling of cells that determines the head end of the embryo o Mesoderm layer forms between ectoderm and endoderm primary germ layer 0 Mesenchyme freely migrating embryonic cells type of cellular organization 0 Trilaminar Disk 3 layers 0 Ectoderm amniotic sac gives rise to skin glands and epidermis o Endoderm yolk sac gives rise to gut and all internal organs 0 Mesoderm gives rise to skeletal and muscular system Mesoderm germ layer between ecto and endoderm o Notochord mesoderm condenses to form this solid rod and mesoderm is now separated left and right eventually replaced by vertebral column 0 Scaffold acts as temporary scaffold rigid support 0 lntervertebral disks only remnant we have from notochord cells Differentiation of Mesoderm o Somites blocks formed line of blocks from mesoderm o Somatic mesoderm 0 Intermediate mesoderm when mesoderm thins out to very thin sheet most is lost 0 Lateral plate mesoderm goes from midline out laterally undergoes further differentiation separates into 2 parts 0 Somatic mesoderm part of mesoderm pressed up against ectoderm o Spanchnic mesoderm mesoderm gets pressed up against endoderm o Coelom space created between endoderm and ectoderm Nervous System come from ectoderm o Neural Crest cells small peaks become sensory neurons 0 form mesenchyme o skeletal elements 0 all sensory nerve cells 0 Neural Groove formed when crests come closer o Neural Tube formed when groove closes completely epithelial cells mid line of embryo gives rise to CNS brain and spinal cord Body Shape 0 Lateral body wall 0 Tube with in a tube forms cylander o Aneterior and posterior body wall 0 Closes in each end forms ends of cylander Ultimate Fates Ectoderm wrapped around outside 0 Epidermis of skin 0 Skin glands Ultimate Fates Endoderm tube inside of tube 0 Digestive system 0 Lungs Ultimate Fates Mesoderm o Somites segmentally arranged blocks 0 Dermatome cells read somite and migrate to spread out under ectoderm Give rise to dermis o Myotome cells spread out in body wall Give rise to muscles 0 Sclerotome cells migrate to center join and surround nueral tube Give rise to vertebrae 0 Intermediate mesoderm o Kidneys developed in body wall retroperitineal o Gonads developed in body wall retroperitineal 0 Lateral plate mesoderm o Splanchnic mesoderm give rise to Gut muscles Serous lining of gut o Somatic mesoderm give rise to Serous lining of body wall 0 Coelom give rise to Ventral body cavity Limb Buds outpocket o Ectoderm give rise to o epidermis o Mesoderm cells migrate to pockets give rise to o Dermis o Muscles 0 Bones Limb Development 0 40 days hands are paddle like 0 54 days hands are recognizable with ngers 13 What is the difference between the epidermis and the dermis What are their functions lntegument Epidermis outer layer 0 Epithelial layer derived from ectoderm Dermis o mesoderm Hypodermis 0 Not part of integument layer of fatty connective tissue that integument sits on FuncUons 0 Protection from water loss and absorbance mechanical damage friction direct blows when body is struck disperse energy causes bruise cells are not killed nut damaged 0 Tempurature regulation Too much heat sweat Evaporative cooler Loose heat more blood ow open capallaries More heat less blood ow constrict capallaries ATP heat 986 vitamin D production presence of sun protection from UV excretion nitrogenous waste sweat helps secrete waste 0 sensory reception COO Epidermis outermost layer 0 O O O O O stratum corneum closely packed dead cells stratum lucidum cells are clear ghost stratum granulosum acquire protein called keratohyaline cells die at this layer stratum spinosum cells are spine shaped stratum basal base layer cells are produced at the base layer and slowly pushed to the surface going through all layers cornification accumulation of keratin Dermis dense irregular connective tissue proper lots of collagen bers dermal ridges are what cause ngerprints which increase friction o Layers o papillary layer intertwines with epidermis o reticular layer has stuff in it hair follicles glands vessels 0 Muscles o Arrector pili smooth muscle do not have conscious control over bottom of hair follicle makes hair stand up goosebumps o Striated muscles do not have control when they contract your skin moves dermal muscles are found in face Epidermal Derivitives 0 Hair follicle o Epidermal tube in dermis o Melanin produces pigments for skin and hair no melanin hair turns grey o Sebaceous gland o Sebum is produced Oily substance secreted into hair follicle and works its way to the surface keeps hair nd skin from drying Up 0 Sweat gland o Epidermal tube 0 Perspiration involved in secretion and evaporative cooling 0 Nails highly modi ed area of outer 2 layers 0 Strateum corneum heavily corni ed lots of keratin o Strateum lucidum heavily corni ed lots of keratin 14 What is an articulation Articulations 0 Any place where two or more bones meet 0 May be freely movable slightly movable or immovable o Classi cations 0 Functional no movement little movement no movement 0 Structural Fibrous joint held together with bers Sutures interock articulating elements and bers hold together no movement skull Syndesmosis band of bers ligament bular notch little movement ankle Cartilaginous joint held together with cartilage Synchondrosis hyaline cartalage ribs Symphysis brocartilage shock absorber vertebrae Synovial joint any freely movable joint presence of a cavity 0 Non axial gliding anytime u have a facet ribsspine 0 Axial o Unixial movement in a single axis elbow o Biaxial movent in 2 axis ngers wrist sholder Circumdation movement of both at same time o Triaxial movement in 3 axis femurpelvis humerusscapula Structure of Synovial Joints 0 Joint capsule continuation of periosteum outside of bone not on dead bone adds strength to articulation o Articular cartilage covers articular surfaces 0 Synovial membrane epithelial tissue 0 Synovial uid lls open areas thick and viscous keeps bones from making contact Synovial Joints 0 Articular disksrings knee 0 Ligaments continuous with joint capsule o Ligaments separate from joint capsule 0 External 0 internal 0 Blood and Nerve Supply rich supply bc if u get hurt u still have partial use 0 Proprioreception largets sensory input to brain keeps track of body parts and what they are up to o Bursae put between areas that rub to reduce friction lots of pressure bc of pressure points 0 Bursitis when bursae are in ammed 15 Are muscles organs What is their function Muscles are organs that either 0 Move bones and are found lying alongside and attached to bones 0 Move hollow organs and are found embedded in the walls of hollow organs Muscles consist of o Connective tissue 0 Blood vessels 0 Nerves 0 Muscle tissue Muscles 0 Muscle bers muscle cells make up a fascicle 0 Shape elongated cells can contract more 0 Contractile shorten as they contract 0 Conductive Myo brils make up muscle ber 0 Myo laments make up myo brils myosin and actin interact and cause contraction 0 Thick laments myosin 0 Thin laments actin o Sarcolemma membrane 0 Sarcoplasm uid cytoplasm in muscle ber 16 What are the different muscle types and where are they found Muscle Types 0 StriatedSkeletal Muscle 0 Structure Cylindrical bers not spindle long and narrow O Many nuclei per cell bc cells fuse together 35 nuclei per millimeter located periferally right underneath cell membrane 140 mm in length 140 micrometers in diameter Sarcomeres functional unit of contraction made up of myo laments chain of sarcomeres makes a myo bril Zline separates sarcomeres l band light bc lack of myosin thin lament split between 2 sarcomeres A band single sarcomere dark bands contains myosin and actin thick and thin laments Contraction o l band shortens bc is overlapped thin laments move towards center of sarcomere Sarcoplasmic Reticulum smooth ER found in muscle bers Storage area stores Calcium ions Calcium ions act as chemical trigger to initiate contraction Transverse tubules extension of membrane that goes deep into the cell to regulate calcium Lateral sacs on each side of T tubule store calcium Triad arrangement of t tubule with lateral sacs on each side Nervous system initiates release of calcium ions send signal to membrane to allow calcium to diffuse and contact muscles active transport uses energy to pump calcium back into sarcoplasmic reticulum so that muscle can relax Rigamorous when muscles contract when you are dead 0 Arrangement of bers Fascicles bundle of bers Connective tissue Endomysium connective tissue that surrounds musce ber provides isolation Perimysium connective tissue that surrounds fascicle Epimysium connective tissue that surrounds muscle organ o Contraction and Organization Voluntary controlled Contracts more rapidly and consumes more energy Can fatigue Half to 23 of resting length when contracted Tendon continuation of connective tissue with no muscle allows a lot of force to small area with no muscle uses muscle from another area ngers tendons forearm muscles 0 Cardiac Muscle Only found in the wall of the heart Striated bers tell us there are sarcomeres same build up Involuntary no control One nucleus that is centrally located String of cells welded together lntercalated disks where cells attach Branched bers Contraction 0 0000000 Each ber has its own rate Contract cell to cell group of bers will contract together at frequency with the fastest rate Nervous impulses can speedslow contraction Purkinje bers cardiac muscle bers that are specialized for controlling and coordinating contraction between different chambers of the heart Slow rate but resistant to fatigue 0 Smooth Muscle 0 Structure Involuntary no control Spindle shape wide in center and thin at ends Nucleus is centrally located and is elongated o Arrangement of bers Fascicles bundle of bers Sheets bers are perpendicular to eachother o Contraction Nervous system Slowly contract can be maintained
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