COMM 210 Midterm
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 210 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review1 Comm. 210 Fall 2015 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 17 & 11 75 questions multiple choice You will have 1 hour and 30 minutes to take the exam Chapter 1 What are the different levels of communication? 1. Intrapersonal Communication a. Communication you have with yourself. 2. Interpersonal Communication a. Communication between 2 people. 3. Group Communication a. Communication occurs between 3 or more people 4. Public Communication a. Person communicating facetoface with an audience. 5. Massmediated Communication a. Communication takes place over some sort of technology. Explain the two models of communication and why each is important. 1. Dance’s Helical Model a. Communication starts with small examples and grows with more detail based off the past. 2. Berlo’s S.M.C.R. Model a. S ource i. Transmits a message through a channel to a receiver. b. M essage i. Includes verbal elements (content) and nonverbal elements (delivery) what speakers say and the way they say it c. C hannel i. Refers to the means by which the message gets from the sender to the receiver. d. R eceiver i. Brings the communication situation all of his or her communications skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, and culture. Explain the fundamental principles of communication and their importance. 1. Communication in circular a. Sender and receiver encode and decode simultaneously through feedback in an ongoing process. 2. Communication is based on our perception Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review2 a. Individual’s way of understanding reality. b. Perception depends on a variety of influences: attention, selectivity, and memory. 3. Communication is irreversible a. You cannot take back what you already said. b. Be sure you know what you are talking about before you say it. What is communication apprehension? Define CA and Types 1. A broadbased fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. 2. The four types of CA a. Traitlike b. Contextbased c. Audiencebased d. Situational What are ways to overcome CA? Tips and Focused Treatment 1. Different reactions to CA a. Behavior b. Affect c. Sensation d. Imagery e. Cognition f. Stress 2. Focused treatments a. Cognitive restructuring i. Coping statements b. Systematic desensitization i. Slow exposure c. Visualization i. Mental rehearsal script d. Physical i. Exercise and stress reduction e. Interpersonal support f. Skills training g. Deep abdominal breathing i. Focus on your breathing Chapter 2 What are the intrapersonal processes? 1. Individuals frame of reference a. The way you view your world. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review3 2. Creativity a. Visualizing something in an innovative, new, or unique but useful way. 3. Imagined a. Talk to someone else or themselves as if they were another person; takes place in their mind. 4. Risk a. Taking behaviors necessary for growth and development. 5. Cognitive patterns a. Thinking patterns. What is the difference between listening and hearing? 1. Listening is attaching meaning to sound. 2. Hearing is the psychological process or detecting frequencies, duration, and volume of sound waves. Explain the process of listening. Is to receive and interpret a speaker’s message appropriately. What are the different types of listening? 1. Passive Listening a. You don’t exert effort in the listening processes. 2. Selective Listening a. Choose to pay attention to something while ignoring others. 3. Listening for Pleasure a. Listening for fun and pleasure. 4. Listening for Therapy a. Help solve a problem. 5. Listening for Comprehension a. Kind of listening you do in class while you listen seriously to a professor’s lecture. 6. Listening for Evaluation a. Evaluate the truth or falsity of the message. How do we improve our listening? 1. Notetaking 2. Previewreview 3. Concentration 4. Interaction 5. Consider the context 6. Observe nonverbal cues 7. Listen for ideas Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review4 How can we nonverbally display that we are listening? 1. Pay closer attention to the actual psychological and physiological processes 2. Avoid details as barriers and avoid distractions 3. Listen actively and responsively if you want more effective information. Chapter 3 What are the three types of audience analysis? What are the benefits and limitations to the different types of analysis? 1. Psychological audience analysis a. Considering the impact of beliefs, attitudes, and values on the behavior of listeners. b. Beliefattitudevalue (BAV) system accounts for the way we think, feel, and behave. 2. Demographic analysis a. Provides statistics about the composition of the audience in terms of a variety of social categories. b. Baseline information about the audience. 3. Analysis of the situation and occasion a. Situational. b. Speaker needs to take into account the size of the audience, the characteristic of the physical environment, and the nature of the speaking occasion. What are some ways to conduct an audience analysis and why you would use each? 1. Analysis during a speaking event a. Check out the environment to identify any lastminute adjustments. b. Use audience feedback to continue to adjust your approach. c. Avoid panic. 2. Analysis after the speaking event a. Use feedback to identify your stronger and weaker points as a speaker. b. Use audio to identify elements of your presentation to see what worked well and what didn’t work well. c. Always focus on the positive and potential for your speech. Explain the different types of audiences? 1. The speaker should adopt the knowledge, interests, beliefs, attitudes, and values of the audience that pertain to the subject and the speech purpose. 2. The purpose of the audience in regards to the purpose of the speech provides a useful classification of audiences. a. Friendly audience Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review5 i. Positively disposed towards the speaker’s purpose. b. Hostile audience i. Opposed to the speaker’s purpose. c. Neutral audience i. One that is undecided about the speaker’s purpose. d. Apathetic audience i. Has no knowledge of or interest in the speaker’s purpose. 3. Speaker may have a mixed audience a. Harder to identify the targeted audience. What is the difference between a selfcentered and audiencecentered speaker? 1. Selfcentered a. Ineffective speakers. b. Focus only issues on issues that are important to them. c. Act as though everyone has had the same experiences. d. Focus on their speaking performances. 2. Audiencecentered a. Effective speakers. b. Look at their goals in terms of the goals of the audience. c. Try to understand the experience of the listeners. d. Respect diversity among individuals. e. Focus on feedback they receive from the audience. Chapter 4 What are the five patterns of organization and when should you use each pattern? 1. Topical order a. Categorical order arranges ideas into appropriate categories. i. Aesthetic ii. Economic iii. Educational iv. Environmental v. Personal or psychological vi. Political or legal vii. Religious or moral viii. Social 2. Chronological a. Ideas over a time period. 3. Spatial order a. Arranges ideas according to location or geography. 4. Causal order a. Examines the causes and effects or a phenomenon or a problem. 5. Problemsolution order Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review6 a. Arrangement explains the nature of a problem and the way to solve it. b. Persuasive speech. 6. Motivated sequence a. Takes a different approach to organization than the first 5 methods. b. Organizes the entire speech. c. Useful when your purpose is persuasive and or informative. i. Attention ii. Need iii. Satisfaction iv. Visualization v. Action Explain the components of a speech. 1. Introduction (write second) a. Attract the attention of the listener. b. Establish relationship of the topic to the audience. c. Build speaker credibility. d. Give purpose/ thesis statement. 2. Body (write first) a. Give first main point. b. Give second main point. c. Give third main point. d. Give final main point. 3. Conclusion (write last) a. Summarize key ideas. b. Use interest device to make memorable. c. Make final appeal. How do you relate support to ideas? 1. Didactic method a. Teaching or an instructive approach. b. Helps your audience to grasp your point immediately, to follow our approach in developing it, and to remember your idea. c. Useful when you are trying to inform our audience regarding a point. 2. Inductive method a. Method of implication. b. Presents the support first and then draws a conclusion from it. c. Helpful in persuasive situations when the audience is likely to oppose our idea. Understand the types of transitions and when you should use them. 1. Signposts a. Alert the listener to a new idea or point. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review7 b. Indicate exactly where the speaker is in the presentation. 2. Internal summaries a. Speaker stops to repeat/ emphasize the major ideas already presented. 3. Internal previews a. Speaker may follow up on an internal summary with a statement indicating why he or she will approach the next part of the speech. 4. Interjections a. Emphasize the important ideas by drawing attention to a point the speaker does not want the listeners to miss. 5. Special devices a. Signal the audience to movement in ideas i. Use of theme. ii. Use of key phrase. iii. Use of memory aid. Chapter 5 What are the different methods of delivery? 1. Extemporaneous speaking a. Carefully prepared speech in a conversational manner. 2. Impromptu speaking a. Talk “offthetopofyourhead” b. Impromptu delivery 3. Speaking from manuscript a. Write out your speech b. Delivery wordforword 4. Speaking from memory a. Memorize you speech Explain the vocal elements of delivery and be able to define each. 1. Volume a. Need to talk loudly for your audience to be heard without being overbearing. 2. Articulation a. Manner in which an individual uses lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate to produce the vowel and constant sounds and language. b. Help listeners to grasp your words easily. 3. Quality a. Vocal quality refers to the unique characterization of a speaker’s voice caused by a variety of elements including one’s manner of breathing, level of tension in the throat, use of the soft palate to close and open the nasal passages, and condition of the sinuses and their effect on resonating cavities. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review8 Explain the bodily elements of delivery and be able to define each. 1. Posture a. The way you stand or sit before, during, and after a presentation will influence the perceptions of your audience. 2. Movement a. Purposeful movement during a presentation can help you to hold an audience’s attention 3. Gestures a. Reinforce your message 4. Facial expressions a. Reflect the meaning of the message and help establish and appropriate relationship with the audience. 5. Eye contact a. Effective eye contact an important assert in presentation b. Enhances your ability to create a more favorable image but also provides important feedback. Explain the environmental/situational elements of delivery and be able to define each. 1. Personal appearance a. Audience will come to a conclusion about you by simply based on your appearance. 2. Time a. Adherence to a known schedule for starting and ending 3. Amplification: a. Must be prepared for the use of a microphone. 4. Physical environment a. Location of where you are giving the speech and how it influences you presentation Why do we practice for our speeches? 1. You will feel more comfortable with the material. 2. You will have a chance to visualize the audience and speaking situation. 3. Be able to test you plans for the use of visual aids. 4. Find out how long your speech will take to present. Chapter 6 Why do we outline? 1. Provides a concrete tool to plan and deliver an effective presentation. a. Organize your ideas to achieve you desired results. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review9 b. Refining the phrasing of your key ideas to promote clarity and retention. c. Identify where you need to develop and support your ideas. d. Identify where you need to help the listener by providing transitions. e. Prepare useful speaking notes. 2. Gives the public speaking instructor a method for previewing and analyzing the student’s speech. a. Understand your thinking process and offer suggestions for improvement. b. Analyze the nature and assess the quality of your preparation. What are the elements of an outline? Each item should contain one idea or piece of information and the relationship of ideas should be expressed using symbols in a consistent manner What are the different types of outlines? 1. Word outline a. Contains the key topics contained in a speech. b. Helping in planning overall organization pattern for the speech. c. Visual aid for the listeners. 2. Phase outline a. Uses sentence fragments for an outline. b. Provides slightly more information than the word outline. c. Has uses and weaknesses similar to those of the word outline. d. Best type of outline for delivering your speech on notecards. 3. Sentence outline a. Complete sentences for each point in the outline. b. Provides a sound planning tool for speaking. c. Helps you prepare and test the key ideas in your presentation. d. Best for planning your speech. 4. Complete content outline a. Manuscript of a speech written in outline form. b. Symbols help you quickly identify relationships during the planning and speaking phase. What types of outlines work best for the formal/preparation outline? Sentence outline What types of outlines work best for the speaking outline/speaking notes/ notecards? Phrase outline What are the steps in preparing an effective outline? 1. Write the topic, general purpose, and specific purpose of your presentation. 2. Sharpen and clarify your ideas. 3. Select the key ideas and identify your central ideas or thesis. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review10 4. Select an appropriate organizational pattern for the main points of the speech. 5. Arrange the main ideas in your chosen pattern. 6. Identify the main points that must be developed with subpoints. 7. Arrange the sets of subpoints in appropriate organizational patterns and rephrase these ideas until from reading them alone you can phrase the idea each set develops. 8. Choose forms of support to develop the ideas that you have not developed with other ideas. 9. Identify the best way to introduce and conclude the body of the message. 10. Add necessary transitional devices. 11. Prepare the reference list or bibliography and note citations. 12. Examine and adjust the outline to meet any special requirements. How do you construct effective speaking notes? 1. Make sure you can read your notes easily. 2. Number your notecards. 3. Highlight delivery cues or content you wish to emphasize. 4. Using the indentation developed in your preparation outline will help you remember where transitions are needed. Chapter 7 Explain the importance of the introduction and conclusion. 1. Introduction a. Helps a speaker accomplish the specific purpose of his/ her presentation. b. Should avoid introducing the topic directly and straightforward in the introduction. 2. Conclusion a. May provide your last chance to have an effect on the audience How much speaking time should be used for the introduction and conclusion? 1. Introduction a. Requires no more than 20% of your speaking time. 2. Conclusion a. Rarely exceed 510% of your speaking time. What are the components of effective intros/ conclusions? I.N.T.R.O. 1. Interest 2. Need 3. Topic 4. Reliability Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review11 5. Overview D.O.N.E. 1. Direction 2. Overview 3. Need 4. Excitement How can you build in interest into your speech? 1. Involve the listeners mentally by showing the way the topic affects them. a. Make your purpose clear b. Let your listeners know how they will benefit from your presentation. 2. Involve the listeners indirectly by explaining and demonstrating your interest in the topic. 3. Involve the listeners physically by having them do something with the speaker. How do you establish credibility? 1. Establish their knowledge of the subject early in the message. 2. Speakers do nothing to bring into question their honesty and trustworthiness. 3. Showing goodwill toward the audience can increase a speakers overall credibility. What are some tips for creating effective introductions and conclusions? 1. Be succinct in not adding too much information 2. Adapt to the event; using emotions and expectations of the event; think about attitudes of the audience. Chapter 11 What are the principles of informing? 1. Simplicity a. Simple material is easier to understand and remember than is complex material. 2. Clarity a. To inform an audience effectively and efficiently, we must phrase our ideas clearly and select appropriate forms of support. i. Use language appropriate for the level of knowledge of the audience. ii. Select forms of support the promote comprehension and retention among the audience. iii. Avoid jargon. 3. Credibility a. A listener is more likely to pay attention to and learn from a source with high credibility. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review12 b. Demonstrate knowledge and interest in the subject. c. Audience should perceive the speaker as trustworthy. 4. Interest a. Listeners learn more from presentations that interest them. b. Increase interest by showing them ways the presentation will benefit them, incorporating factors of attention, and having the listeners participate in the presentation. What is the order of Informative speech preparation? 1. Introduction a. Secure attention of the audience b. Use subtle ways to build your credibility. c. Emphasize the relevance and importance of the topic to the audience so as to increase the listener’s motivation to earn new material. d. Clearly preview the main point of your presentation. 2. Body a. Should contain clearly phrased main points arranged in an appropriate pattern of organization. b. Internal previews and internal summaries. c. Didactic method. 3. Conclusion a. Provides a final opportunity to restate key ideas and encourage the audience to use the material. Describe the effective use and purpose of visual aids 1. Particularly appropriate in informative situations. a. Listeners learn best when they use more than one of their senses. b. Visual aid can serve as a real example of the ideas you present. c. Visual aids can promote retention. Fall 2015- 210 Midterm Review13
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