Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide HUN1201
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HUN1201 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Bahram Arjmandi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see The Science of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
HUN1201 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 1, 2, 13, 13.5 AND 4.5 1. What are macro and micronutrients? Know the categories for each. Macronutrients: the body requires these in large amounts to support normal function and health o Carbs energy- capacity to do work o lipids insoluble in water; another source of energy o proteins contain nitrogen and are made of amino acids that make up muscles and blood not an energy source Micronutrients: nutrients we need in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions o Vitamins (Which of the vitamins are considered water soluble and which one are fat soluble?) fat-soluble: only soluble in fat, not water; vitamins A, D, E, and K Adipose = Donuts...Eat Kale! water-soluble: only soluble in water, not fat; vitamins C and all B-vitamins H20 = 2 vitamins = C+ B o Minerals already exist in the smallest, broken down state major minerals: need to consume at least 100mg per day to maintain a total body amount equal to 5g trace minerals: need <100mg per day and <5g total 2. How many kcal/g do CHO, protein, fat and alcohol provide? Carbs (CHO) = 4kcal/g Protein = 4kcal/g Fat = 9kcal/g Alcohol = 7kcal/g If you consume 142kcal of oatmeal that contains 6g protein, 25g carbs, and 2g fat, how many kcal of each nutrient makes up the total amount of kcal in the oatmeal? 6g P x 4kcal/g = 24kcal P 25g CHO x 4kcal/g = 100g CHO TOTAL = 142kcal oatmeal 2g F x 9kcal/g = 18kcal F 3. What is a dietary reference intake? What are the categories? Know their definition. Dietary Reference Intake: set of nutritional reference values; DRI = EAR + RDA + AI + UL HUN1201 Estimated Average Requirement: average daily nutrient intake level to meet the requirement of half of the healthy people in a particular life stage or gender group Recommended Dietary Allowance: meets the need of 97% of healthy people in particular stage/ group Adequate Intake: based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by health people tolerable Upper intake Level: highest average likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all people in some group 4. What are the techniques in assessing the nutrients and energy intake? Diet history: weight (current and goals); appetite and food intake; patterns of eating; living, cooking food verses purchasing; physical activity; probes patient for information causing causal reaction 24-hour recall: all food and drink within the last day; includes serving sizes and preparation methods, brand names; may not be typical intake; relies on memory and ability to predict portion sizes Food-frequency questionnaire: typical dietary patterns; lists of foods with number of times they are eaten Dietary record: all food and beverages consumed overa specific time period (3-7 days); improved accuracy if food is weighed 5. What is the definition of secondary deficiency? Secondary deficiency: occurs when a person.... o cannot absorb enough of a nutrient o excretes too much of a nutrient o cannot utilize a nutrient efficiently 6. What should be included on the nutrition label of foods? 1) Serving size & servings per container o in household measurements (cups, grams, etc) o no national standard definition for serving size exists 2) Calories and calories from fat o If 320kcal total in food, with 90kcal from fat, then 28% of the food is fat (90/320). 3) List of nutrients o Total fat Also: Fiber o Saturated fat Vitamins o Trans fat Calcium o Cholesterol Iron o Sodium 4) Percent Daily Values (What is %DV?) o identifies how much of a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of nutrients based on the label 5) Footnotes o %DV based on 2,000kcal diet that may vary person to person 7. What are health claims and structural claims? Health Claims: must be approved by the FDA o "low in sodium" classified by <140mg of sodium Structural Claims: claims not approved by the FDA o "improves memory" is not able to be classified 8. What is “Healthy People 2020” and what are their goals? (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion) Identify nationwide health improvement priorities. HUN1201 Increase public awareness and understanding of the determinants of health, disease, and disability and the opportunities for progress. Provide measurable objectives and goals that are applicable at the national, State, and local levels. Engage multiple sectors to take actions to strengthen policies and improve practices that are driven by the best available evidence and knowledge. Identify critical research, evaluation, and data collection needs. Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. 9. What is “Myplate”? (USDA) MyPlate: a visual representation of USDA Food Patterns o emphasizes moderation, variety, proportion, personalization, physical activity, and goals better than my pyramid because it's easier to understand 10. What is BMI and what are the ranges for it? 2 2 BMI: Body Mass Index; ratio of weight to height (kg/m ; [lb/in ]x 703) o Underweight: too little fat to maintain health <18.5kg/m 2 o Overweight: moderate2excess body fat 25-29.9kg/m o Obese: excess body fat that adversely affects health 30-39.9kg/m 2 o Morbidly obese: exceeds body fat of 100% the normal value; at risk for severe health consequences >40kg/m 2 11. What are the different methods of measurements of body composition? Underwater weighing: gold standard because it has the lowest percentage of error Skin-fold measurements Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA) Dual-Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DXA) o bone mineral density; convenient, not gold standard Bod-Pod 12. What are the different components of total energy expenditure? Total energy expenditure: expending kcal for basic functions and performance 1) Energy cost of physical activity: energy expended on body movement and muscular work above basal levels o 15-35% total output each day o sitting. standing, walking, running, lifting, biking o spontaneous physical activity (fidgeting) 2) Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): metabolism that burns 1,500-2,000kcal/ day depending on the person o 60-75% total output 3) Thermic Effect of Food (TEF): readily absorbed without expending much energy o 5-10% total output to break down foods HUN1201 o alcohol is not a nutrient, but still contains energy and needs to be broken down 13. What are the different hormones responsible for decreasing/increasing appetite? Protein hormones affect regulation of appetite and fat storage Leptin: reduces food intake; helps fight obesity Ghrelin: stimulates appetite by activating neuropeptide-Y Peptide-YY: (PYY) decreases appetite Cholecystokinin: (CKK) stimulated digestion of fat and protein 14. What is anorexia nervosa? What is bulimia and what is the female athlete triad? Anorexia nervosa: self-starvation leading to severe nutrient deficiency Bulimia nervosa: recurrent episodes of extreme overeating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain Female athlete triad: low-energy availability, not necessarily from an eating disorder, that can lead to amenorrhea (low body fat) and/ or osteoporosis (stress fractures) o Involves menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability, and low bone density 15. What are the different stages that happen as a result of excessive amount of alcohol drinking? 1) Fatty liver: early and reversible stage of liver disease often found in people who abuse alcohol, characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat within the liver and cells (alcoholic steatosis) 2) Alcoholic hepatitis: serious condition of inflammation in the liver 3) Cirrhosis of the liver: end-stage liver disease characterized by significant abnormalities in liver structure and function; may lead to complete liver failure ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Don't bring a calculator Bring FSU ID for check in at the door Leave bags up front Anything on the slides or in the book is fair game...look at my bundle of notes for the highlights that will probably be more likely to be on the exam GOOD LUCK! (:
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