Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide BSCI - 10002 - 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelyn Rinella on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI - 10002 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Walter R Hoeh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see LIFE ON PLANET EARTH in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
LOPE Notes 1/21/16 Biology- the scientific study of life The study of biology encompasses - A wide scale of size - A huge variety of life, both past and present Properties of life - Order: (entropy= disorder) - Regulates: (Ex. body tempter) - Growth and development: (10 trillion cells in an adult human) - Energy process: (energy is contain in the molecules in our food) - Response to the environment: (Ex. pulling your hand away from something hot) - Reproduction: (all lifeforms reproduce in some way) - Evolution: (scientific reality) Hierarchical nature 1. Biosphere (all life occurs here) 2. Ecosystems 3. Communities 4. Populations 5. Organisms 6. Organ systems and organs 7. Tissues 8. Cells 9. Organelles 10.Molecules and atoms Biosphere- the entire portion of earth inhabited by life Ecosystems- a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment Community-a group of interdependent organisms growing or living together in a specified habitat Population-all the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country Organisms- an individual living thing Organ system/organ- collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function Tissues- a group similar cells that carry out a specific function Cells- basic structural functional and biological unit of all know living organisms (Smallest unit of life) Organelle- any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell. Molecule- a group of atoms bonded together Atom- the basic unit of a chemical element. The structure of DNA: nucleotides - DNA is composed of nucleotides - Made up of sugar, base, phosphates LOPE Notes Week 2 Part B What is Science? (Continued) Scientific method 1. All science starts with an observation= anecdotal evidence 2. Formulate a question 3. Study previous research (Peer review journal= review of an article by experts before publication) 4. Forming scientific hypotheses (better if you have more than one hypothesis = a testable and falsifiable explanation for a scientific observation or question) - Testable- supported or rejected by carefully designed experiments or non-experimental studies - Falsifiable- can be ruled out by data - Hypotheses can never be proven once and for all *Science does NOT prove anything* 5. Experimentation- a carefully designed test (results either supports or reject hypothesis) Randomized clinical trials- subjects are randomly chosen to receive treatment or a placebo, are used to measure the effects of a variable under controlled conditions. Experimental group- experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation Control group- experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation Independent variable- one scientist manipulate Dependent variable- variable measured in the experiment Placebo- fake treatment that mimics the experience of the experimental group 6. Drawing conclusions *sample size- number of subjects (start experiments with smaller numbers)* Statistical significance- measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real,” rather than due to random chance Definitive= found proof (NOT SCIENCE) X axis- independent Y axis- dependent P value- Between 0 and 1 (never exactly 0 or 1) (smaller than 0.05 = statistical significance) (higher p value= chance) 7. Publication Scientific theory- never been disproved even after being tested multiple times Prospective study- looking forward in time Retrospective studies- looking backwards in time (looking for a correlation for evidence that’s already there) Epidemiology- study of patterns of disease in populations Correlation- consistent relationship between variables (positive correlation goes up, negative goes down) correlation is not causation! LOPE Notes Week 2 Community’s fit into an ecosystem, ecosystem consist on living an Abiotic things Abiotic- non-living things (water, soil) Structure of DNA: nucleotides Nucleotides have one of four bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine *Each organism continuously interacts with its environment* The dynamics of ecosystem depend on two main processes - Flow of energy - Recycling of chemical nutrients Within ecosystems *Energy is never created or destroyed * *Nutrients cycle* The cell is the level at which the properties of life emerge All life on earth uses DNA Cells are the lowest level of structure that can do all of the activities required for life. *All organisms are composed of cells* *viruses are not alive, they cannot reproduce, viruses don’t have cells* The prokaryotic cells- (bacteria, smaller, don’t have nuclei) Eukaryotic cells- most body mass is made of this, 10 times larger than prokaryotic cells most of the time. *Mature Red blood cells don’t have a nucleus* *Viruses use RNA or DNA* All cells use DNA as the chemical material of genes Genes- the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring *Genetic engineering has transformed the pharmaceutical industry and extended lives.* The entire “book” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits= Genome Taxonomy= the branch of biology that names and classifies species (Formalizes hierarchal order) Three domains of life - Bacteria - Archaea - Eukarya- kingdom plantae, fungi, Animalia Life evolves evolutionary view came into focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published “ On the origin of species by means of natural selection” (not completely true, evolution was being talked about before Darwin) evolution- when things change natural selection- causes things to change
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