Notes/ Study Guide for Exam 1
Notes/ Study Guide for Exam 1 FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chance Bell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 265 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
FAD223O Read Syllabus Quiz due Friday extra credit 23 increase overall APA Quiz next Friday What is a family Lega de nition two or more people living together who are related by birth marriage or adoption religious de nitions follow this Social science de nition a relationship by blood marriage or affection in which members may cooperate economically may care for children and may consider their identity to be immediately connected by the larger group family of orientation family you are born into family of procreation family you create ctive kin people who are not related by birth or marriage but rather a close bond Do you follow the legal de nition or the social science de nition Why is it important to have both It de nes what types of families we have and the legalities of having a de nition are vital in a court of law People also look at families in medical scenarios it is important to de ne who is relatedclosest to us Legal de nition is more structured and provides a little more security than the social science de nition What might be some questions that would help us get to know you as the professor From Recksburg Everyone has a certain bias we might like to think that some sources of information are without bias Religion is a big factor He is a Christian His studies have helped shape his household Middle child one older brother and two younger sisters not too close with his immediate family because of age but really close with parents and other secondlevel relatives What is the key factor to making a family Not sure exactlylove clich maybe John Lee came up with difference styles of love 6 of them love of care and concern with commitment Pet peeves people who tailgate when driving texting while driving He likes hiking Molly Kitchen FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES 18 WHY WE STUDY FAMILIES AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS Describe the functions of families recognize micro and macro perspectives and describe Why families are always changing Legal and religious vs social science de nitions 0 family orientation born into 0 family of procreation choose to make through marriage cohabitationsame sex is included in social science de nitions 0 ctive kin close relationships Nuclear parents and their children Extended grandparents etc FUNCTIONS OF FAMILIES NHOOOO PS Time and place Marriage public permanence sexual union obligations to spouse and children Marriage norms eligibility age who gender ceremony behaviors loyalty Six Functions Regulate sexual behavior adultery is bad Reproduce and socialize children raise them to grow and live in culture as quotgoodquot people Property and inheritance distribution of family goods Economic cooperation families working together farms to run a household man provides wife takes care of the home Social placement status and roles born into a certain situation class aids in how we behave who we surround ourselves with and what we do overall Care warmth protection and intimacy IMAJOR THEMES OF TEXT Linking macro and micro level perspectives change in families over time importance of social science theory MACROMICRO PERSPECTIVES micro personal choices behaviors feelings communication decisions constraints values macro culture history power and inequality social institutions economy political system dominant religion social status sex race ethnicity social class social movements and social change Molly Kitchen If a person is born into a low social class he or she automatically associates themselves with a certain stigma which may make him or her show feelings of resentment toward upper social classes The opposite could also occur an upper class individual may feel entitled to a certain level of respect that he or she does not believe the lower class deserves or he or she may feel pity for the lower class resulting in more friction between the two classes creating even more resentment and misunderstanding The media controls how many situations are perceived my different classes of individuals race affects how people interact with one another and how different cultures interact Selfactualization gives individuals con dence to interact FAMILIES ARE ALWAYS CHANGING 0 Marriage patterns monogamy or polygamy polygyny multiple wives polyandry multiple husbands 0 Authority patterns patriarchy men ruling the house matriarchy women ruling the house more theoretical egalitarian equal also not quite the case in the US yet 0 HISTORY OF FAMILY LIFE 0 Colonial America families businesses ran the family farm schools homeschooling was the norm churches may have been too far away so the family did devotions together institutions correctional the welltodo families that were strict housed criminals in order to try and reform them welfare families helped other families out health the women would function as nurses 0 African Americans and slavery indentured servants lead to slavery because of unjust rules and actions on the part of the land owners slave trade resilient broken families this would obviously affect family formation 0 Family life industrialization technology made family tasks able to be done by fewer persons urbanization entire families began to live closer to other families and towns and therefore not rely on the immediate family as much immigration many immigrants worked their entire lives in horrible conditions to raise money for their families either to live in America as a family or to work for a time until enough money was raised in order for the rest of the family members to come also Molly Kitchen 1112015 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES FAMILIES ARE ALWAYS CHANGING CONT o The poor working class 0 work conditions no regulations 0 housing bad areas and crappy buildings 0 family strain stress at work taken out at home everyone works a lot so nobody sees each other 0 Middle and upper class 0 breadwinner o childrearing 0 children and work 0 Rise of the modern family HISTORICALLY o WWamp ll Great Depression lead to women working 0 women and work factories men39s jobs 0 technology allowed for city work to expand to suburbs when the car was invented and fridges washers irons etc created possibility for housework at home more free time to spend together with more efficient workplace strategies 0 companionate family housewife that creates a clean home and good kids amp the men worked and supported the family 0 domesticity of women 0 Families Today 0 married women are working 0 economic disparity o undesirable jobs type of work and hours of work at least one parent that works overnight statistically causes issues in the family structure 0 affordable housing recent decline in the housing market puts strain on buying and renting alike STATS In 1960 there was a 65 rate of only the father being employed whereas in 2012 this number is at 22 Married parents both employed went from 18 to 34 and never married working mothers went from 0 to 12 THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCAIL SCIENCE THEORY AND RESEARCH Goals of family research 1 Describe all phenomena examples include family dynamics in relation to location divorce patterns living conditions socioeconomic status in uences on decisions rolls of family members cohabitation before after marriage substance use violence dating alcohol etc 39 HAN Methods of social science research 0 survey usually quick and easy 0 indepth interview takes a long time 0 experiments scienti c method is important Molly Kitchen 1112015 0 focus group small group of people that are asked questions and then talk about it o observational study just watching and taking notes 0 secondary analysis information from any of the above methods that is reviewed from a different perspective analyzing the work of someone else Theories help us make sense of the world general framework explanation or tool used to understand and describe the real world ex Theory of Evolution Big Bang Theory Theory of Relativity etc Covered in this course 0 Rational Choice and Social Exchange Framework 0 Symbolic Framework 0 LifeCourse Development Framework 0 Systems Framework Are families on the decline Surveyamp Discussion Families are on the decline according to the Biblical standard not as much Christianreligious involvement that was family centered the de nition seems to be changing with cultural norms homosexuality cohabitation professionalismfocus etc Families are not on the decline because people continue to have children as population increases the de nition is broadening to include a wider scope of people than the stricter de nition previously aowed divorce is on the incline so people can get remarried and form more families more easily 0 concerns include the neglect of marriage lack of commitment loss of child centeredness rise of cohabitation fatherless families 0 worries include that Americans are rejecting traditional marriage and family life that family members are not adhering to roles in families and that many social and moral problems result from the changes in family Are we rejecting marriage and family relationships 0 attitudes changing as per surveys from the 6039s to now 0 behaviors desire to have children grow a family postponed in modern times because of nancial reasons SUMMARY 0 de nition of family 0 functions of families 0 link between micro and macro level family perspectives families are always changing O importance of family theory and research Molly Kitchen 1132016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES FAMILY SOCIAL STATUS SEX GENDER RACE ETHNICITY AND SOCIAL CLASS 0 Sex biological difference between men and women and their role in reproduction Gender culturally and socially constructed differences between males and females found in the meanings beliefs practices associated with femininity and masculinity Men greater physical illness variety mathematical reasoning testosterone Women greater emotional illnesses precision tasks estrogen and progesterone Gender socialization teaching of cultural norms associated with being male or female 0 Agents of socialization parents chores divided based on girl or boy clothing they buy for them schools stories that are read lend themselves to gender differences toys boys get trucks and girls get dolls toughness vs caring and nurturing at a young age media video games vs chick icks peers pressure to do certain activities with girlfriends vs guy friends HOW DO RACE ETHNICITY AND CLASS SHAPE GENDER SOCIALIZATION Gender equality is most common among middleclass blacks Body satisfaction is most common among black women and girls Successful Marriage Graph in the division of household labor wives do more 0 Social Class social position based primarily on income and wealth nit also includes occupation prestige 0 upper 35 earning greater than 1000000 as executives and politicians o uppermiddle 1520 earning 100k200k as highly educated professionals 0 middle 40 earning 40k 100k as teachers nurses construction etc 0 working lowermiddle 20 earning 20k0k as factory workers semiskilled labor workers lowerjob satisfaction 0 working poor 15 earning less than 20k as fast food retail workers non standard schedule where unemployment is common and mothers and children are overrepresented o underclass 35 earning nearly nothing or unemployed disability mental issues lack of education and job skills welfare The social security administration developed the poverty threshold or poverty line 13 of income spent of food poor 0 15 of the population is poor and 22 of children are poor at 65 most live in poverty for one year 0 leads to antisocial behavior dropping out of school teenage pregnancy depression kids amp more sickness lower life expectancy less likely to marry marital con ict stress ad depression adults Molly Kitchen 1152016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES FAMILY SOCIAL STATUS SEX GENDER RACE ETHNICITY AND SOCIAL CLASS Race a category used to describe a group of people who share real or perceived physical traits that society deems socially signi cant such as skin color Ethnicity shared cultural characteristics such as language place of origin dress food religion and other values Prejudice negative attitude toward speci c racial or ethnic groups Stereotypes oversimpli es set of beliefs about a group of people Discrimination behaviors actions or practices based on racial or ethnic preferences All occur on the macro and micro level individual people or larger institutions governments EHISPANIC FAMILIES 16 of the population largest group of ethnic minorities grouped by ancestry and language 0 largest and fastest growing used to be immigration but now they have the highest birth rate among all ethnic groups 0 2nd generation compare to the American average on income homeownership and educa on o where are Hispanic families from 0 doesn39t really make sense to have them grouped all together as one group EAFRICAN AMERICAN OR BLACK FAMILIES 13 of the population black family size larger than average extended family 1 in 5 aunts uncles cousins double the average for a white family single mother 48 well above the averages for other ethnic groups EASIAN AMERICAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER FAMILIES 5 of the population 0 great diversity large area of the world is in this category 0 model minority o stable family 0 highly educated 0 high incomes o divorce is least like among other ethnic groups Molly Kitchen 1152016 0 Vietnam Cambodia Laos came as refugees so there is a higher poverty rate among this subcategory ENATIVE AMERICAN AND ALASKAN NATIVE FAMILIES 15 of the population 0 34 identify with a Tribe from the Western states 0 family stresses higher rates of suicide violence alcoholism higher infant mortality etc households 34 families not just single people or widows etc 0 extended families about half of the grandparents live with their grandchildren EINTERRACIAL AND INTERETHNIC FAMILIES 0 multiple racial ethnic groups 0 white parents spouses Molly Kitchen 1202016 FAD3022 LECTURE NOTES ISOCAIL CLASS SEX GENDER RACE ETHNICITY AND SOCIAL STATUS Questions to consider before watching video When you think of Nigerians what comes to mind What does it mean to stereotype a group of people How can stereotypes have negative consequences How can you and overcome the stereotypes we hold about people of differing sec and gender ethnicity social class and religion VIDEO NOTES TED TALKS Nigerian woman presenting Early reader and writer Wrote about the people she read about white people in conditions she was not familiar to as a child Demonstrates impressionability particularly as kids Later on she realized that people like her stereotypically could still exist in literature showing diversity in literature o Grew up with domestic help whom she felt pity toward 0 College experience ipped this pity roommate felt pity toward her 0 People assumed she knew about Africa as a whole simply because of how she looked 0 Western literature affects these stereotypes signi cantly Locke39s descriptions of quotbeastsheadess Africanshalfdevil halfchildetcquot She wrote a novel that a professor told her quotlacked African authenticityquot o Visited Mexico and experienced the outsider39s position on their stereotypes Howe stories are told who tells them where they are told how many are told in one sitting etc all affect the way people perceive the story39s content c Eventually during her childhood a normalized political fear invaded her writing Stereotypes are not always false just incomplete The consequence of a single story is that is robs people of their dignity in completing the whole story 0 Stories can break but also repair DISCUSSION Ask yourself the questions at the beginning again Sometimes we think we know someone group of people but in reality we don39t We can overcome this by coming into relationships conversations by exposing ourselves to change and concepts of rethinking our opinions We should become aware of our own biases and thoughts toward against other people or groups of individuals I learned that even when you think you39re being considerate by asking questions or inquiring about the other person39s past future general information that they may see it as prying me feeling pity toward them or being rude her roommate in college Molly Kitchen 1202016 probably had good intentions sometimes it is better to remain quiet and let them tell you in their own way Or to just simply sit back and observe things that would give you inclinations toward de ning a new opinion of the person group 0 Learn from them don39t judge them 0 Don39t write a culture offjust because of what you have hear over and over again educate yourself about the subject matter 0 Being aware of other people39s stereotypes toward you sometimes clouds your realization of feeling stereotypes toward others and even vice versa Empathy is key in understanding other39s thoughts and actions Molly Kitchen 1222016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES IQUESTIONS TO CONSIDER How does spirituality affect family life Is spirituality bene cial to family functioning Not in the textbook how spirituality is important to the family SPIRITUALITY A DIMENSION OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE religion organized institutional faith system with shared traditions doctrine practices and a community of followers spirituality broad overarching construct refers to transcendent beliefs and practices lived out in the daily life 85 of Americans feel religion is important Christian 75 roman catholic 23 mainline protestant 14 evangelical born again or fundamentalists Non Christian 15 Jewish 2 Buddhists Muslims and Hindus about 1 others native American Sikh Shinto and Tao ancient atheist 6 agnostic 7 belong to church 62 attend weekly 38 mostly older women 27 never or seldom attend 500000 churches etc Belief in God higher power Conceptions og God force that maintains nature to a personal God being who watches over and judges individuals guides in decision making Common beliefs feel closer to God makes you feel better about yourself solve problems respect oneself and others help those in needs helps refrain from doing wrong virtue and sin reward or punishment in afterlife according to variations in heaven or hell 90 of American homes have a Bible in the home 10 of Americans though Joan of Arc was Noah39s wife Almost half of teens thought that Moses ws one of the 12 apostles Most research done with couples Positive bene ts include family functioning child development quality and stable relationships Family process research has found that transcendent vaues ahs foster healthy family function A share belief system that transcends the limits of family members39 Molly Kitchen 1222016 experience enable better acceptance of inevitable risks and losses of living an loving fully Meaningful spiritual beliefs an practices can strengthen family units their members and their bonds Marital and commitment vows inherently spiritual Believe marriage is vital in search for the sacred Couple relationship enhances when meaningful practices and rituals are share strong religious bonds can help the family stay together even when times get tough Interfaith marriage was once prohibited now about 40 of marriages disapproval can have longlasting impacts on relationships discords superiority of one religion issues raising children choose one allow kids to decide what is unimportant at rst can become important later Divorce and remarriage can cause complications in religion Jewish need a quotgetquot for a women to be remarried basically permission to get remarried after the divorce Catholic marriage is a sacrament and annulment difficult and can be painful for family members strong in the faith lnterfaith control custodial vs noncustodial parent Faith shaped from early childhood Bene cial role for highly religious families parents live what they preach children internalize beliefs and values when parents teach and follow spiritual practices youth are interested in discussing the meaning of life and making moral decisions Vulnerable and distressed families religion can support positive parenting involvement in the community can be good for the family Young adults may drift away from a religious upbringing Middle to later life adults spirituality tends to increase as people deal with illness and face death of loved ones confront own vulnerabilities and mortality Older adults later in life there is a striving for meaning connections and continuity with multigenerational family Spirituality can weigh heavily in lifedeath situations Multiple losses occur person and their role in the family Relationships continue spiritual connections via memory rituals etc Spirit39s in uence may haunt or harm may bless and protect Spiritual beliefs practices and community can facilitate coping adaptation and resilience Starts in the home 90 of Americans pray weekly 75amp pray daily Why For courageforgivenessmakes them feel better Nearly all report prayers being answered Discontinuation of prayer out of habit loss of belief Meditation mindfulness activities yoga or other Eastern traditions sacred or inspiration music or text shared meditative experiences for couples and families produce genuine and epithetic reasoning Faith communities sense of belonging to a home or family programs to meet may needs scripture study guides choir community service distressed individuals often turn to clergy for help gain sense of interdependence with other individuals with shared values Deep connection found with nature whether religious or not Community service and social activism strengthens social bonds focusing on others as a family helps strengthens family bonds Molly Kitchen 1222016 soulmates caring bonds can nourish spiritual wellbeing IQUESTIONS TO RECONSIDER o How is your spirituality impacting your life and your family39s life Molly Kitchen 1252016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES DYNAMIC NATURE OF SPIRITUALITY OVER THE FMAILY LIFE CYCLE 0 Long tradition o Patriarchy at its worst 0 Women subjugation and abuse should they divorce or stay together Listen to convictions or not Some stay because of faith some leave in spite of it relationships skewed with power control and privilege some remain in relationship because of conviction 0 children harsh corporeal punishment divorceseparation ostracized by faith community SEXUAL ORIENTATION Source of anguish 0 Positions and effects 0 quothate the sin and love the sinnerquot o acceptance of persons and relationships 0 family impact of heterosexual religiosity o con ict and cutoff 0 Where to turn 0 spirituality remains important 0 personal relationship with god unconditional love 0 LGBT inclusive communities 0 Earthspirited personal vs institutional authority Molly Kitchen 1272016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES IQUESTIONS TO CONSIDER How can we explain human behavior using the Rational Choice and Social Exchange framework If people are selfinterested how is social order possible How can family members cooperate live in harmony and invest themselves in each other s welfare based on the Rational Choice and Social Exchange framework By understanding other people39s motivation and what they consider a reward you can also bene t through exchanging goods capital Why do people form social groups ie families People who understand each other39s choices and motivation behind them form connections and bonds and people can exchange things love mutual happiness for other feeHngs RATIONAL CHOICE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE FRAMEWORK Pro po siti on Concepts Assumptions ASSUMPTIONS o Utilitarianism rationally weigh rewards and costs of behavioral choices Molly Kitchen 1272016 Motivation central focus humans are motivated by selfinterest 0 Understand humans by their interests and values money religion relationships etc The individual is real Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual and his or her motivation if we understand why they do what they do then we create empathy for the other person and his or her situation Actors are motivated by selfinterest Actors are rational CONCEPTS Social Rewards what you get and costs what you give up more complicated than just considering those two options because not everything is going to balance easily Pro t or maximizing utility helps determine reasons for decisions ratio of rewards and costs Comparison Level CL compared to someone else in a similar situation and Comparison Level for Alternatives CL compared to someone else in an alternative situation 0 comparing yourself to someone who is also in college and looking for a job CL verses comparing yourself to someone who has already graduated and is employed CL o couple who is thinking about having children would compare themselves to other couples who don39t have kids but may want them CL or to couples who already have kids CL Rationality 0 time and situation 0 importance or weight of alternatives Exchange and equity 0 not necessarily equal or uniform dating relationship would involve exchange of kindness respect care etc but would be unequal if one member of the relationship feels that the other member s not putting in effort Human capital what one person has to offer to another person humor skills income etc Social capital network of human capital different qualities of each person that they can offer to multiple people forming connections for different reasons between various people Need for generalizability Sources of general rewards Social roval Personal Attraction Autonom Predictabili Ambi ui Secun reement ui Love Status Sen ces Goods Information Mone roval Social acce tance Instrumental services Res ect Power E Molly Kitchen 1272016 PORPOSITIONS Actors in a situation will choose whichever behavior maximizes pro t 0 Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards seek to minimize costs principle of least costs 0 When immediate pro ts are equal then actors choose according to which alternative provides the most pro t in the long term 0 When long term pro ts are equal then one chooses the alternative that provides the most pro t in the short term 0 Actors will prefer stable structures where rational calculation of pro t are possible and hence will support structural norms enhancing stable structures 0 Social structures and networks produce varying amounts of social capital depending on the properties of the network structure eg closure membership etc Molly Kitchen 1292016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES SYM BO LIC INTERACTION Theory is focused on the meaning people make of events and situations Primary focus acquisition and generation of meaning symbols shared meaning signs symbols words language etc humans are motivated to create meaning to help make sense of the world 0 Chevy verses BMW symbolism of status class maybe decision to spend money on something other than a car symbolizing where they place value Pro po siti on Concepts Assumptions ASSUMPTIONS Human behavior must be understood by the meanings of the individuals 0 Individuals describe the meaning of context and situation 0 Individuals have minds that perceive reason sense and imagine Society preceded the individual CONCEPTS Selfand mind land ME 0 I can re ect on myselfMe How I perceive how other39s perceive me Socialization 0 Process of acquiring the symbols beliefs and attitudes of our culture Molly Kitchen 1292016 0 Mead39s 2 stages Play and Game 0 throughout life we play different roles student then we acquire more and more throughout life 0 Role the place an individual takes within a situation group family or in society 0 Expectations within the role depending on what it is 0 We expect a teacher to grade inform etc 0 Students are expected to read learn take the tests etc o The more we understand and share what the expectations are for these roles we experience CLARITY 0 Lack of clarity leads to confusion 0 Role strain so many roles that it is hard for the person to meet all the expectations for the roles at the same time 0 Identity formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays 0 Society provides the social roles and their meanings that are organized in a hierarchy o StudentsEmployeeSister gt I am all three but when I am at work my employee role comes rst when I am at home my sister role comes rst to be responsible for my younger brother 0 De nition of the situation real consequences 0 if someone perceives something as real they will act and also experience the consequences of those actions PROPOSITIONS o The quality of an individual39s role enactment in a relationship positively affects the individual39s satisfaction with the relationship 0 If you take good notes study and prepare for the exam do well and graduate the quality of your relationship with the university will be good 0 The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations the higher the quality of role enactment o The better we understand what we are supposed to do in our role the better we will perform 0 The more the individual perceive consensus in the expectations about a role they occupy the less their role strain 0 If everyone else also understands what role you play then there will be less role strain for you c The greater the diversi cation of a person39s roles the less consensus the person will perceive in the expectations about these roles o If you do a lot of things at once it is harder to understand what you are supposed to actually do 0 The great the perceived role strain that results from performing a role the less the ease on making a transition into the role and the greater the ease in making a transition out of the role 0 If there is a new job in which your roles as an employee are unclear it would be easier to not accept the position than it would to accept the job
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