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General Psych Study Guide 2

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by: PaulaO

General Psych Study Guide 2 Psych 155

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These notes cover what's going to be on the second exam
General Psychology
Mrs. Burr
Study Guide
50 ?




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1 review
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"Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class."

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by PaulaO on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 155 at Pittsburgh State University taught by Mrs. Burr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.



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Date Created: 01/28/16
Test Review 2 CH. 5  Gender: physical, social, and behavioral characteristic that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity.  Gender differences: females compared to males: - Start puberty 2 years sooner - Are more vulnerable to anxiety - Live 5 years longer and depression - Have 70% more fat - Are less prone to autism, - Have 40% less muscle alcohol dependence, adhd, - Are 5 inches shorter antisocial personality, and - Express more emotion suicide. - Men: - Behave more aggressively - When play they focus on the - Have more social power activity and not in the (positions controlling more connection or conversation people and resources) - Are more competitive - Dominate more - Dictate how the playtime will be - Speak opinions rather offer - Plays are less social support - Don’t invite feedback - Woman: - Change - -ties to friends & - involved in roommates family religion  In terms of Aggression: men behave more aggressively than women. They’re more likely to behave in ways that harm others. (this applies to physical aggression not verbal) rd  Sex chromosomes: 23 pair of chromosomes involved in determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds. XX: FEMALE. XY: MALE.  Testosterone: male sex hormone that guide the physical development of sex characteristics and behaviors. Low levels can reduce sexual motivation.  Primary sex characteristics: reproductive organs  Secondary sex characteristics: body, hair, changing  Puberty: time of sexual maturation (becoming physically able to reproduce)  Role: set of expectations about the ways in which people are supposed to behave in different situations. The characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual.  Gender role: behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and women.  Gender identity: one’s sense of whether the one is male and female, including a sense of what it means to be that gender.  Gender typing: the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender roles.  Sexual response cycle: observations about sexual arousal and orgasm to learn about the typical pattern of human response to sexual stimulation. 4 phases 1- Excitement: genitals fill with blood and lubricate, ready for intercourse; breathing and pulse become rapid. 2- Plateau: changes related to excitement reach a peak 3- Orgasm: contractions all over the body; sexual release 4- Resolution: enlarged genitals release blood; males goes through refractory phase, women resolve slower.  Sexual orientation: one’s preferences as an object of sexual attraction. (in the form of desires, interests, fantasies, etc)   CH. 6   Perception: process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.  Sensation: process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. (the brain receives input from the sensory organs)  Bottom-up processing: What I’m seeing? Taking sensory info and then assembling and integrating it.  Top-down processing: Is that sth I’ve seen before? Using models ideas and expectations to interpret sensory information.  Transduction and sensory systems - Transduction: 2 nd step of the process of sensation (from sensory organs to the brain). Transforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses.  Absolute threshold: The minimum level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus half the time. Anything below this threshold is considered “subliminal”  Just noticeable difference - Difference threshold: the minimum difference (in color, pitch, weight, temperature, etc) for a person to be able to detect the difference half the time. - Weber’s law: principle that for 2 stimuli to be perceived as different, they must differ by a minimum percentage: 2% of weight, 8% of light intensity, 0.3% of sound wave frequency to notice a diff in pitch  The pupil: The opening of the iris. The pupil is merely the absence of iris. It determines how much light is let into the eye.  The blind spot: an area of missing information in our field of vision. This occurs bc the eye has no receptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the eye.  Hearing is known as: audition  The cochlea: the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.   CH. 7   Learning: Process of acquiring new and relatively enduring info or behaviors.  Classical conditioning: learning to link 2 stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction.  A stimulus: a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue. An incentive.  Associative learning and classical conditioning (who): Ivan Pavlov or John B. Watson  Who was a behaviorist: BF Skinner or Edward Thorndike  Neutral stimulus: A stimulus which doesn’t trigger a response.  Unconditioned response: a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning.  Extinction: diminishing of a conditioned response. (if the US stops appearing with the CS, the CR decreases)  Spontaneous recovery: a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further conditioning.  Generalization: tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli.  Discrimination: the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimuli, preventing generalization. Ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response.   CH. 8   Memory: Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of info  Recall: a behavior that show that memory is working. Is analogous to “fill in the blanks”. You retrieve info previously learned and unconsciously stored.  Recognition: a behavior that shows that memory is working. Is a form of “multiple choice”. You identify which stimuli match your stored info.  Encoding: when info gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored.  Storage: info is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved.  Retrieval: reactivating and recalling the info, producing it in a form similar to what was encoded.  Atkinson-Schriffin three-stage information-processing model: models of memory formation 1- Stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory. 2- Some of this info is processed into short-term memory and encoded through rehearsal. 3- Info then moves into long-term memory where it can be retrieved later. st  Sensory memory: 1 phase of encoding and processing. The immediate, very brief recording of sensory info before it’s processed into short-term or long-term memory.  Short-term memory: is the working memory that holds info to rehearse it for storage and to process it.  Exsticit memory: include facts, stories, and meanings of words such as the 1 time riding a bike or facts about bikes.  Implicit memory: the way in which the brain stores reactions and skills. Include skills, procedures, and conditioned associations.  Echoic memory: a component of sensory memory that is specific to retaining auditory information. The sensory memory for sounds that people have just perceived.  Iconic memory: visual sensory memory register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information. Component of the visual memory system which also includes visual short-term and long- term memory.


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