Biopsychology study guide for exam 1
Biopsychology study guide for exam 1 PSYC465
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Halie Seyboth on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC465 at Towson University taught by Mr. McGinley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
2/1/16 BIOPSYCHOLOGY 1. BIOPSYCHOLOGY Using biology to study behavior A. Behavior i. More than what you can observe (ex. Internal thought) ii. Study: go behind the scenes to figure out how something happens iii. Find out what happens in the brain when people do something iv. We know more now than we did in the past (more advanced) v. Interaction between the brain and the body B. Relationship between mind and brain i. Disembodied cognition 1. Something that can be measured 2. All actions can be explained by biology ii. Mind is a product of the brain C. Monism – two things are made up of the same substance, they come from the same thing (no difference between mind/body) D. Dualism – mind influences behavior through the brain, body is material but mind is not (made of different substances) 2. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN BIOPSYCHOLOGY (OPEN TO SCIENTIFIC STUDY, NEURAL CONDUCTION IS BIOLOGICAL IN NATURE) A. Francis Crick – discovered DNA B. Descartes – “I think therefore I am” i. Pineal gland – unimportant overall but he said it would dictate activity in the body “seat of the soul” ii. Not accurate (hydraulic model) – hollow tubes, theory not supported iii. Advanced thought of behavior (nervous system) iv. His ideas led to further research (physiology) C. Galvani – electrical stimulation (frog) D. Fritsch and Hitzig – stimulated dog’s brain i. Electrical stimulation ii. Brain controls body E. Hemholtz i. Measured neural conduction speed (introduced physics) ii. Like knee test at doctor iii. 90ft/second F. Phineas Gage i. Brain hit with rod – showed behavioral change due to trauma ii. Localization – does a particular area have a specific function? G. Paul Broca – speech and production i. Brain damage (Broca/Gage) supports monism H. Franz Gall – 35 faculties of emotion/intellect i. Skull bumps ii. Phrenology – overuse of an area of the brain causes bump that shows personality 1. Took localization a step further I. Karl Lashley i. Equipotentiality – opposite of localization ii. Distribution of function is really important 2/3/16 HEREDITY VS. ENVIRONMENT (NATURE VS. NURTURE) 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS: J. What is behavior? i. Internal – physiological ii. External – overt things K. What did Descartes propose? i. Used a hydraulic model 2 ii. Animal spirits through the pineal gland L. Who was Helmholtz? i. Introduced physics – measured neural conduction speed (90ft/sec) M. What is phrenology? i. Learn about personality/emotion ii. Feel bumps on skull iii. Develops from overuse of a particular area 3. HEREDITY VS. ENVIRONMENT (NATURE VS. NURTURE) A. Controversial topics: i. Helicopter parents ii. Judicial system iii. Facial characteristics iv. Pre-existing conditions? B. Genetic code i. Gene – most basic biological unit 1. Directs cellular processes 2. Transmits inherited characteristics 3. Most located on chromosomes in a cell’s nucleus 4. Some located in mitochondria ii. 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) sex-23 iii. Genes transmit information through DNA iv. DNA – provides instruction for proteins v. Structural and chemical vi. DNA is relatively the same among people vii. Genes and chromosomes are both paired viii. Allele – pairs of genes ix. Dominant gene – gene that is expressed x. Recessive gene – unlikely to be expressed xi. Homozygous – 2 identical alleles xii. Heterozygous – 2 different alleles C. Expression of genes i. Genotype – combination of genes ii. Phenotype – expression of genes iii. Genotype codes for phenotype 3 iv. Most psychological disorders are polygenic – many genes determine it v. Rare for some traits to be determined by single pair of genes vi. Most genes are polygenic (ex. Height) vii. Genes don’t provide script for behavior viii. Genes control production of proteins D. Natural selection i. Survival of the fittest ii. A lot of variability E. 50% genes, 50% environment 2/5/16 NEURONS 1 NEURONS A About 100 billion neurons make up 10% of the brain B 70% located in cerebellum C 90% of brain made up of glial cells (structure/support) D Neurons: convey sensory info to brain i Involved in thought/feeling ii Transmit to muscles and organs 2 CELL A Cell body (cell soma) i Contains nucleus (DNA) B Organelles in cytoplasm i Many different functions C Dendrites i Make connections ii Receive information iii Branch out from cell body iv Simpler organisms have less – not as many connections D Axon 4 i Extends from cell body ii Takes signal and transmits it iii Carries info to other neurons and organs E Terminal boutons i Site that info is actually transmitted from ii Found at the end of axons iii Neuron transmits most information F Neurotransmitters i Chemical ii Primary communicators 3 3 MAJOR NEURON TYPES A Multipolar (complex) B Unipolar (simpler) C Bipolar (cell body breaks up axon/dendrites) 4 MOTOR NEURON A Transmit info from brain/spinal cord to muscles/organs B Multipolar neuron C More complicated D Axon/dendrites extend in several directions from cell body 5 SENSORY NEURONS A From body/external world to brain/spinal cord B Unipolar C Bipolar 6 INTERNEURON A Multipolar B Most prevalent C Found in central nervous system (brain/spinal cord) D Either short or non-existent axon 5 E Conducts info between neurons in same area 7 DENDRITES MOSTLY RECEIVE INFORMATION 8 CELL MEMBRANE A Holds cell together B Controls environment C Lipid molecules and proteins i Lipid heads (hydrophilic) ii Tails (hydrophobic) D Critical for communication E Membrane is semi-permeable i H 2, O 2 CO 2ass freely, but many can’t F Membrane is polarized (has a charge) i Inside is negative, outside is positive G Resting potential – difference in charge at rest (-70mV) H Unequal distribution of ions + - i Na and Cl outside ii K and a inside I 2 main forces determine the location of ions i diffusion – ions move from high to low concentration ii electrostatic pressure – ions repel/attract to each other 9 POLARIZED MEMBRANE A Anions too big + + B Na and K channels closed C Sodium/potassium pump (requires energy) D Resting potential around -70mV 2/8/16 ION CHANNELS 6 1 ION CHANNELS – PORES THAT CAN OPEN OR CLOSE A Ion-specified B Dictated by forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure C Opening is triggered by a depolarization – closer to zero 2 INFLOW OF SODIUM – MORE DEPOLARIZING 3 ACTION POTENTIAL – AN ABRUPT CHANGE IN POTENTIAL A Sodium rushes in B Polarity overshoots to +30mV C Na channels close at peak (prevents further depolarization) D Motor responses and sensory information + + E Near peak, K channels open (K usually inside) i Membrane back to resting potential ii About 1 millisecond for entire event F Localized part of neuron i Keeps moving down the axon G Graded potential – measurable H Action potential follows the all or none law i Always full strength ii Doesn’t decrease in size (always 100mV change) iii Ungraded iv Can’t communicate much detail about stimulus intensity 1 Rate + number of neurons firing does this 4 SUMMARY A Resting potential (-70mV) B A local potential depolarizes part of membrane C If depolarization reaches threshold, Na rushes in – initiating action potential D K channels open and K flows out E Na channels close – no more Na in, just K out 7 F Repolarization – recovering to its resting potential, K pouring out G Resting potential (-70mV) membrane voltage fluctuates 5 REFRACTORY PERIODS + A Absolute refractory periods – at peak of action potential, Na channels blocked i Can’t fire again until membrane reaches resting potential again ii Signals only go forward (not backward) B Relative refractory periods – K channels remain open (polarizes beyond resting potential) i Leads to a “dip” in the signal ii Stronger stimulus required to trigger action potential 6 UNGRADED = NO VARIATION. GRADED = VARIABILITY 2/10/16 GLIAL CELLS 1 GLIAL CELLS (GLIA=GLUE) “UNSUNG HEROES” A Produces myelin (insulation/support) – a fatty tissue that surrounds axons B Provides structure/metabolic support to neurons C Influence structure and function of synapse D Aid neural transmission E Take instructions from genes F Navigate neurons as you develop G Respond to injury and disease H Provide energy to neurons I When they exist, neurons make 7X more connections (more complex) 2 MYELIN SHEATH 8 A Survival dependent of rapid signal transduction B Increases axon conduction speed C CNS: oligodendrocytes D PNS: schwann cells E Reduces number of ion channels 3 NEURAL CONDUCTION ALONG THE AXON: A Action potential starts at axon hillock B Nodes on Ranvier – breaks in myelin i Action potential occurs only at nodes ii Appear at every 1mm iii Allows neuron to transmit signals a lot faster iv Saltatory conduction – action potential jumps from nodes v More myelin = faster conduction better regeneration 4 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS A Depletes myelin (slows conduction) 5 GLIAL CELLS A Astrocytes – recycle and provide synaptic terminals with renewable source of transmitters i 10,000 synapses ii Release own glio-transmitters iii Terminal bouton iv Involved in regulation of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity v Respond to low glucose levels in brain 1 Glucose = supply of energy for body 6 ASTROCYTES A Glial cells most involved with neural activity B Most numerous 9 7 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ACTION POTENTIAL GETS TO TERMINAL BOUTONS A Synapse – connection between presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron i Cleft – separates synapses B Lowei – chemical transmission i 2 frog hearts ii Stimulating vagus nerve to slow heart 1 Salt solution caused other heart to slow iii Stimulating accelerator nerve faster iv Each nerve releases 2 chemicals v Synaptic transmission by chemical neurotransmitters C Synaptic transmission i Vesicles – store transmitters (in axon terminal) ii Calcium channels D Postsynaptic cell i 2 major types of receptors (metaphor – drug dealing) 1 Ionotropic receptors (fast/efficient) fast communication 2 Metabotropic receptors (slower/safer) more complicated 2/12/16 SYNAPSE 1 POSTSYNAPTIC RECEPTORS ACTIVATED A 2 possible effects i Hypo-polarization – makes membrane depolarized + 1 Opens Na channels 2 Neuron more likely to fire 3 Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) ii Hyper-polarization – makes membrane more polarized 1 Inside more negative + - 2 Opens K channels, Cl channels, or both 3 Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) 4 Neuron less-likely to fire (less action potential) 5 Sometimes good to inhibit reactions (ex. Touch hot stove) iii IPSP and EPSP are graded 10 1 Don’t have to lead to action potential 2 Graded = slight change. Ungraded = all or nothing B Temporal summation – accumulate over time i Temporal = time C Spatial summation – inputs from different locations D Axon hillock – decides whether or not to start action potential i Adds up change in polarity E Information integrator – adds up information i Neuron is decision maker F Synaptic activity can be regulated by other neurons i Axodendritic ii Axosomatic iii Axoaxonix synapses 1 Presynaptic inhibition – decreases release 2 Presynaptic excitation – increases release iv Autoreceptors regulate own cleft G Some neurons release more than 1 transmitter H Different subtypes 2/17/16 CHAPTER 3 1 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM F. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord i. Tract – bundle of axons ii. Nucleus – group of cell bodies G. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – comprised of autonomic and somatic nervous systems i. Nerve – bundle of axons ii. Ganglion – group of cell bodies H. Tracts and nerves are multi-wire cables 11 4. FULLY DEVELOPED BRAIN INTO 3 MAJOR REGIONS/DIVISIONS A. Forebrain – largest, main part i. Thalamus – relay sensory messages ii. Hypothalamus – basic functions (eating/sex) iii. 2 cerebral hemispheres separated by longitudinal fissure B. Midbrain – in between forebrain and hindbrain, under forebrain C. Hindbrain – life-sustaining functions i. Medulla, pons, cerebellum 5. CORTEX – SURFACE AREA A. Made of gray matter (clusters of cell bodies) B. Organized into layers/columns C. Wrinkled, covers cerebral hemispheres D. Gyrus – ridges E. Sulcus – grooves (large sulcus are called fissures) F. Highest level of processing G. Association, sensory, motor 6. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES A. Dominate appearance of brain i. Larger than in other animals ii. Separated by longitudinal fissure B. Hemispheres often asymmetrical or lateralized in function 7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIZE AND INTELLIGENCE? A. Not different between males/females, but differs over species B. Intelligence: 2 key features i. Cortex has more convolutions (surface area) ii. Cerebral hemispheres larger in proportion to lower areas of brain C. Hierarchy of increasing complexity (reptilian paleo-mammalian neo-mammalian) 12 8. DIRECTION WORDS A. Coronal – separates front/back vertically B. Lateral – split down longitudinal fissure, 2 sides C. Horizontal – separates top/bottom horizontally D. Superior – above E. Inferior – below F. Anterior – front G. Posterior – back H. Dorsal – toward the back I. Ventral – toward the stomach J. Lateral – toward the side K. Medial – toward the middle 9. 4 LOBES OF THE BRAIN (ARBITRARY DIVISIONS) A. 1. Frontal lobe i. Anterior to central sulcus ii. Superior to lateral fissure B. Parietal lobe i. Posterior to central sulcus C. Occipital lobe i. Posterior part of the brain D. Temporal lobe i. Located on lateral parts of the brain 10. FRONTAL LOBE: A. Controls motor movement (reflexes) B. Movement and complex human capabilities C. Primary motor cortex D. Precentral gyrus (motor cortex) – controls all motion of the body E. Map of human body – homunculous – surface area F. Works with secondary motor cortex and with subcortical structures G. Broca’s area – important for speech and production 13 H. Prefrontal cortex – allows us to think/be human i. Organizing and planning ii. Some types of decision making iii. Impulse control iv. Adjusts behavior in response to rewards and punishments v. Prefrontal dysfunction 1. Impairs consequence learning 2. Decreases impulse control 3. Often found in depression and schizophrenia I. Frontal lobotomy i. Disconnects PFC from the rest of the brain ii. 40,000 patients in U.S. during 1940s and 50s 1. Mostly to calm agitated patients iii. Little benefit and high cost to patient iv. Been replaced by drug treatment and other psychosurgery v. Psychosurgery – surgery intended to change someone’s psychology vi. Occurred because of Phineas Gage 11. PARIETAL LOBE: A. Posterior to the frontal lobe B. Important for body sensations and spatial localization C. Primary somatosensory cortex – first places that body senses go in brain i. Postcentral gyrus ii. Info about skin senses, body position, and movement 1. Touch, warmth, cold, pain iii. Maps as sensory homunculous D. Somatosensory cortex is a primary projection area E. Parietal association areas i. Combine info from body senses and vision ii. Identify objects by touch iii. Determine the location of the limbs iv. Locate objects in space F. Damage to posterior parietal cortex causes neglect i. Of objects, people, and activity on opposite side ii. Ex. Forget to shave half of face 14 iii. Patient may deny limb paralysis 12. TEMPORAL LOBE: A. Separated from frontal and parietal lobes by lateral fissure B. Auditory cortex – receives info from ears C. Language, auditory, and visual association areas i. Wernicke’s area – language comprehension and production 1. Damage meaningless speech and poor comprehension D. Inferotemporal cortex – visual identification i. Recognizing objects and faces ii. Fusiform face area – on lowest gyrus 13. OCCIPITAL LOBE: A. Located in posterior part of the brain B. Primary visual cortex i. Map of visual space C. Secondary visual areas that process i. Color ii. Movement iii. Form 14. WHAT’S GOING ON UNDER THE CORTEX? A. Interior features B. Thalamus – located below lateral ventricles i. Receives info from all senses, except olfaction (smell) ii. Relays sensory info to cortex C. Hypothalamus – located beneath thalamus i. Secretes melatonin, a hormone that induces sleep ii. Controls seasonal cycles in non-human animals 1. Daily rhythms in humans 15
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