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Midterm Study Guide

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by: Amber Notetaker

Midterm Study Guide PSC 321

Amber Notetaker
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Includes notes on all class lectures, outside reading, and questions presented in class.
US National Security
Dr. Frazier
Study Guide
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"Please tell me you're going to be posting these awesome notes every week.."
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amber Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Notes:  Anarchy in the International System made up of: o Interactions o Decision making/roles o States as actors o Institutions (NATO, UN, World Bank)  Effects how states can behave  Good for strong nations  Basis of interactions is POWER  Current International System o Introduction of States as players  State: Sovereign Nation  Requires: o Population o Borders/Territory o Recognition o Form of Government o Resources  Effective due to: o Provide stability o Consolidate interests o Sense of loyalty/citizenship o Regulate exchange  Terrorism is an interesting case because the international system is so state centric, that historically non-state actors haven’t played a major role o Big Actors:  U.S., China, Russia, France, G.B, Germany Brazil  U.N, NATO, IMF  Power o Power for states was typically comprised as the ability to win a war  Required military capabilities and the ability to finance them  Power really means getting other actors to do want you want o Economic Power is the most important  Consistent with military expenditures (more money, bigger military)  U.S. spends more than other 9 largest combined o Partially due to more advanced technology that is very expensive o Converting capabilities into power  Function of achieving preferred outcomes  Commanding change o Relational Power o Carrot and Stick alter behavior of an actor  Sanctions  Controlling agenda o Structural Power o Frame the nature of interactions with another actor  China-U.S. interactions and Taiwan o Loss of face when it doesn’t work  Russia’s w/ Ukraine  Establishing preferences o Structural Power o Initial preferences and beliefs are influenced  Post-Cold War democratization **U.S. has lots of structural power o Soft Power o Ability to co-opt states through persuasion and positive attraction to obtain an outcome  Culture  Political Values  Foreign Policy  China has tried to create a story about China through creation of Confucius Institute  The role of Diplomacy can be o Government to Government o Citizen to Citizen o Smart Power o Utilizing power most effectively to achieve preferred outcomes  Limits of military power  Norms of Force  Changes in types of warfare  Domestic Constraints  $$  Appropriateness of Response o Economic Power o Military and economic power are interconnected  Longevity of strong military requires strong economic foundation  Butter vs. guns argument o Resources include  Size of economy  Natural resources  Technology  Trade/finance capabilities o Implications for Security  Creates interest in other States  Potentially creates conditions for seeking greater influence or intervention  Asymmetry creates security imbalance o Role of Politics o Institutional powers like WTO, IMF, Asian Development Bank, and World Bank solidify power for some states  Interdependence: shared gains through interaction  Leads to sensitivity and vulnerability  Change in State A=Change in State B  The China Concern o China can hurt U.S, but only at its own expense o States typically compartmentalize political/military issues from economic ones  USD has a lot of stability and being seen as a safe haven for global investment o Security dilemma in Asia-Pacific leading to military competition o Conflict of interest creating possible misperception o Rhetoric fuels dilemma o Problems for US include  China’s increase in military spending  Increased interactions  Unknown intentions  Taiwan problem  Natural Resources o Utilized to predict future power  Problematic due to issues of conversion o Economic use of Power  Negative  Trade embargo  Travel restriction  Asset freezing  Aid suspension  Positive  Tariff reductions  Market access  Power of attraction  The Security Dilemma o Results from a problem of cooperation  Stag Hunt Game  Both states can cooperate by de- arming/maintaining status quo o One country cannot solely guarantee safety  Preferences: o Mutual Cooperation through disarmament o Arm while the other disarms o Both arm o Disarm while the other country arms o Trying to Increase one’s own security threatens the security of others  U.K./ Germany  France/Germany  US/ USSR  US/China o Intensity depends on:  History of Hostilities  Level of Current Trust  Threat posed (real or imaginary) o Elimination of security dilemma:  Increase incentives  Reduce costs/increase gains  Decrease vulnerability  Second strike, collective security, unilateral actions, inspections  States tend to overestimate attainable security  Reduces belief that only military power can increase stability o Offense/Defense Balance Offensive Advantage Defensive Advantage Indistinguishable Extremely Dangerous Security Dilemma Posture Distinguishable No security dilemma; Most stable Posture possible aggression o Types of Security Dilemmas o I: unstable, mutual suspicion, status quo states, defensive o II: changes to status quo, action-reaction spiral, direct conflict of interests Geopolitics o The influence of geography on who controls what and how who controls what influences geography o Technology and globalization were thought to have made geography irrelevant o Negative Side: o Social Darwinist Aspects o Justification for war o Colonialism o Association with realism o Where you are matters  China vs. Brazil (SLOCs, climate, depth, centrality)  Africa (Short coastlines, poor harbors, less navigable, isolated inland, harsh environments) o Technological Diffusion o Ideal US location o Small States are more vulnerable o Too large makes it difficult to govern  Russia, Canada, China, US, Brazil, Australia, India, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Algeria o Geography and Tyranny o Slower development with less strong borders  Only way to quicker development is with strong military and government  Access to water is important o Spread of Islam  Rapid spread in areas without geographic hindrances  “Trading” religion o Heartland Thesis (Mackinder)  Middle East is unstable due to influence from all directions  Nazi Germany used it as justification for expansion o Rimland Thesis  Emphasis on Sea Power  Able to defend and connect  Containment policy after WWII o Readings: o Ferguson (“A World Without Power”): o History is a competition between rival powers o Considers absence of power vs. a world with a bipolarity balance of power o US is limited by dependence on foreign capital, troop levels, and attention deficit o China cannot take over because it is not compatible with the free market o Nye (Power): o See above notes o Kaplan (Geopolitics): o Mainland and Rimland Thesis o States are much more limited morally because they have to watch out for everyone in their boundaries o Realists value order above freedom o The map reminds us of the many ways in which men were born unequal o Britain became a great power because it was an island secure in its borders (versus Germany vulnerable from both sides) o Diffusion of technology works better across a common latitude o Poorest countries are where geography allow for high population density but no economic growth o Jervis ("Cooperation under the Security Dilemma"): o Although actors may want the same thing, they may not be able to reach is due to miscommunication and distrust o When a state increases its own security, it decreases the security of others o In the prisoner’s dilemma, there is no solution in the best interests of all participants—rational response is to defect o Best situation is when a state will not suffer greatly from the other defecting o Cost of CD is loss of sovereignty o When one state thinks the other is not likely to be against it, but is more likely to be an ally, state A will welcome the rise in strength of state B o War is avoided through domestic costs, realizing there will be a chain of events, and the advantages of cooperation o In a game of chicken, you opt for C because CD is better than DD o When defensive weapons can be used over offensive ones and distinguished it is possible to become more secure without making others less secure o Technology and geography determine whether the offense or defense has the advantage o Wendt ("Anarchy is what States Make of It"): o Structure (anarchy and distribution of power) vs. Process (interaction and learning) o Process changes behavior but not identities and interests o See Chart above o Finnemore ("Legitimacy, Hypocrisy and the Social Structure of Unipolarity"): o World Politics in social and material o Unipoles must legitimate power and diffuse it o Laws, rules and institutions important for institutionalization and legitimacy o Legitimacy can only be given by others both domestically and internationally o Foes can undercut legitimacy through credibility and integrity  Should not just be dismissed—rather diffuse power so as not to seem an international dictator o Institutionalization turns power into authority o Hypocrisy means states often don’t want to abide by international rules in order to have short-term gains and the cost of long-term goals o Three elements of hypocrisy:  Actions vs. values  Alternative actions are available  Trying to deceive others o Illustrated by Iraq sanctions and intervention in Kosovo o Acharya ("The Emerging Regional Architecture of World Politics"): o Increasingly regionalism—pockets of conflict and cooperation o Constructed more from within instead of without o Major regional power hierarchy is US, EU-Europe, Japan, China and Russia o Regional Security Complexes (RSCs)  11 grouped into three main categories  Centered (One great power)  Great Power Complex (More than one great power)  Standard (No great regional power) o Uses analytic eclecticism to look at understanding of regions o Two definitions of order are status quo vs. increasing tendency towards peace o US power may decrease through unifying Asia, minor states ability to align and resist, binding strategies, rival regional states leading to societal resistance o Frazier and Stewart-Ingersoll ("Regional Powers and Regional Security"): o Examines Regional Security Complexes through a Regional Powers and Security framework o Regional structure, regional power roles, and regional power orientations o Regional power roles defined by leadership, custodianship, and protection o Orientation defined by status quo, cooperation, and long- term design o Great powers can have little involvement, alter distribution of capabilities, or cause other states to encourage, deter, or reverse actions o Conflict formation, security regime, and security community o Constructivists see the possibility of a collective security designation for an RSC through which groups identify with each other o Neorealists see this approach evolving from more institutional development o Power restraining powers aim for suitable and stable distribution of power o Concert system involves most powerful states banding together for stability o Unstructured involves a non consistent means for security o Buzan and Waever argue the RSC defined by boundary, anarchic structure, polarity, and social construction o Material capabilities are important to become regional power o Realist theory contends that the behavior of states is based on power relations and differences o Constructivists focus on state identity as influencing foreign policy o Different roles include regional leader, regional protector, and regional custodian  Regional leader status comes from material power and legitimacy  Regional custodianship wants to maintain or stabilize order  Limited by presence of societal norms  Regional protector involves identification of threat and overall concern for defense  Protector role shifts focus from potential threat of power itself and allows more opportunity for influence o Orientation is the inclination or preferences of states vis-à- vis the security order  Unilateralism vs. multilateralism  Proactive or reactive  Proactive leads to stability  Supports or seeks to revise status quo o Questions to Consider: o What is the International System? o How did the current system arise? o Who are the most important actors and why? o Are states the best form of organization for security? o What is anarchy and is it the best description of the international system? o What does anarchy mean about sovereignty? o Should sovereignty ever be violated and who gets to decide? o What would most people say serves as the basis of interactions for states? o If anarchy exists, how can there be order? o Order or anarchy leads to certain outcomes. What are they? o What is the role of the US? o What happens if the US stops playing its role? o Are preventative policies good for the international system? o What is the international community and how does it deal with security problems? o How do non-state actors complicate ideas about sovereignty? o Are resources power? o How does a state attain soft power? o Is military power as useful today as it has been historically? o Does it makes sense for the US to divest resources away from military capabilities to something else that might be more effective in developing power? o How important will economic power be relative to other types in the future? o How do politics affect economics? o How to institutional powers solidify powers for some states? o How much does it cost to create a new interdependence when one fails? o What threats would cause the US to respond in ways that would intentionally harm its economy? o Does foreign aid help a state’s security goals? Why or why not? o What economic conditions could lead to militarized conflict between states? o Are economic conditions responsible for the rise of non-state actors that employ violence? o Do economic conditions drive all conflict? If so, what should be done about this? o What makes the US attractive? Are other states more attractive? o What things are likely to be important with respect to states and power in the future? o Does it makes sense for the US to divest resources away from military capabilities to something else that might be more effective in developing power? What? o How important will economic power be relative to other types in the future? o How important is soft power in the 21st century?


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