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UA / Political Science / PSC 321 / What is anarchy in the international system made up of?

What is anarchy in the international system made up of?

What is anarchy in the international system made up of?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Political Science
Course: US National Security
Professor: Frazier
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm Study Guide
Description: Includes notes on all class lectures, outside reading, and questions presented in class.
Uploaded: 01/28/2016
11 Pages 6 Views 6 Unlocks
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Notes: 


What is anarchy in the international system made up of?



∙ Anarchy in the International System made up of: o Interactions

o Decision making/roles

o States as actors

o Institutions (NATO, UN, World Bank)

 Effects how states can behave

 Good for strong nations

 Basis of interactions is POWER

∙ Current International System

o Introduction of States as players

 State: Sovereign Nation  

∙ Requires:

o Population

o Borders/Territory

o Recognition

o Form of Government

o Resources

∙ Effective due to:

o Provide stability


What does security dilemma mean?



o Consolidate interests

o Sense of loyalty/citizenship

o Regulate exchange

 Terrorism is an interesting case  

because the international system is

so state centric, that historically  

non-state actors haven’t played a  

major role

o Big Actors:

 U.S., China, Russia, France, G.B, Germany Brazil

 U.N, NATO, IMF

∙ Power

o Power for states was typically comprised as the ability to  win a war

 Required military capabilities and the ability to  

finance them

∙ Power really means getting other actors to do  

want you want


What is geopolitics ?



o Economic Power is the most important

 Consistent with military expenditures (more money,  bigger military)  

∙ U.S. spends more than other 9 largest  If you want to learn more check out contact between a phage and its bacterial host occurs by _____.

combined

o Partially due to more advanced  

technology that is very expensive

o Converting capabilities into power

 Function of achieving preferred outcomes

∙ Commanding change

o Relational Power

o Carrot and Stick alter behavior of an  

actor

 Sanctions

∙ Controlling agenda

o Structural Power

o Frame the nature of interactions with  

another actor

 China-U.S. interactions and Taiwan

o Loss of face when it doesn’t work If you want to learn more check out the need for is a psychological benefit of prejudice that can come from either authentic pride in accomplishments or from derogating other groups.

 Russia’s w/ Ukraine  

∙ Establishing preferences

o Structural Power

o Initial preferences and beliefs are  

influenced

 Post-Cold War democratization

**U.S. has lots of structural power

o Soft Power

o Ability to co-opt states through persuasion and  positive attraction to obtain an outcome

 Culture

 Political Values

 Foreign Policy  

∙ China has tried to create a story  

about China through creation of  

Confucius Institute  

∙ The role of Diplomacy can be

o Government to Government  

o Citizen to Citizen  

o Smart Power

o Utilizing power most effectively to achieve  

preferred outcomes  

 Limits of military power

∙ Norms of Force

∙ Changes in types of warfare Don't forget about the age old question of bulent paker

∙ Domestic Constraints

∙ $$

∙ Appropriateness of Response

o Economic Power

o Military and economic power are  

interconnected

 Longevity of strong military requires  

strong economic foundation

 Butter vs. guns argument

o Resources include

 Size of economy

 Natural resources

 Technology

 Trade/finance capabilities

o Implications for Security

 Creates interest in other States

 Potentially creates conditions for seeking  

greater influence or intervention

 Asymmetry creates security imbalance

o Role of Politics

o Institutional powers like WTO, IMF, Asian  

Development Bank, and World Bank solidify  

power for some states

 Interdependence: shared gains through  If you want to learn more check out Name the six core concepts of psychopathology?

interaction

 Leads to sensitivity and vulnerability

∙ Change in State A=Change in State

B

∙ The China Concern

o China can hurt U.S, but only at its own expense

o States typically compartmentalize political/military issues  from economic ones

 USD has a lot of stability and being seen as a safe  haven for global investment

o Security dilemma in Asia-Pacific leading to military  competition  

o Conflict of interest creating possible misperception o Rhetoric fuels dilemma

o Problems for US include

 China’s increase in military spending

 Increased interactions

 Unknown intentions

 Taiwan problem

∙ Natural Resources

o Utilized to predict future power

 Problematic due to issues of conversion

o Economic use of Power

 Negative

∙ Trade embargo

∙ Travel restriction

∙ Asset freezing

∙ Aid suspension

 Positive

∙ Tariff reductions

∙ Market access

∙ Power of attraction If you want to learn more check out reasoning and argumentation siue

∙ The Security Dilemma

o Results from a problem of cooperation

 Stag Hunt Game

∙ Both states can cooperate by de

arming/maintaining status quo

o One country cannot solely guarantee  

safety  

∙ Preferences:

o Mutual Cooperation through  

disarmament  

o Arm while the other disarms

o Both arm

o Disarm while the other country arms

o Trying to Increase one’s own security threatens the security of others

 U.K./ Germany

 France/Germany

 US/ USSR

 US/China

o Intensity depends on:

 History of Hostilities

 Level of Current Trust

 Threat posed (real or imaginary)  

o Elimination of security dilemma:

 Increase incentives We also discuss several other topics like chromatophilic substance

 Reduce costs/increase gains

 Decrease vulnerability

∙ Second strike, collective security, unilateral  

actions, inspections

∙ States tend to overestimate attainable security

∙ Reduces belief that only military power can  

increase stability

o Offense/Defense Balance

Offensive Advantage

Defensive Advantage

Indistinguishable  

Posture

Extremely Dangerous

Security Dilemma

Distinguishable  

Posture

No security dilemma;  possible aggression

Most stable

o Types of Security Dilemmas

o I: unstable, mutual suspicion, status quo states,  

defensive

o II: changes to status quo, action-reaction spiral,  

direct conflict of interests  

Geopolitics

o The influence of geography on who controls what and how who  controls what influences geography

o Technology and globalization were thought to have made  geography irrelevant  

o Negative Side:

o Social Darwinist Aspects

o Justification for war

o Colonialism

o Association with realism

o Where you are matters

 China vs. Brazil (SLOCs, climate, depth, centrality)

 Africa (Short coastlines, poor harbors, less navigable,

isolated inland, harsh environments)

o Technological Diffusion

o Ideal US location

o Small States are more vulnerable

o Too large makes it difficult to govern

 Russia, Canada, China, US, Brazil, Australia, India,  

Argentina, Kazakhstan, Algeria

o Geography and Tyranny

o Slower development with less strong borders

 Only way to quicker development is with strong  

military and government

 Access to water is important

o Spread of Islam

 Rapid spread in areas without geographic hindrances

∙ “Trading” religion

o Heartland Thesis (Mackinder)

 Middle East is unstable due to influence from all  

directions

∙ Nazi Germany used it as justification for  

expansion

o Rimland Thesis

 Emphasis on Sea Power

∙ Able to defend and connect

∙ Containment policy after WWII

o Readings: 

o Ferguson (“A World Without Power”):

o History is a competition between rival powers

o Considers absence of power vs. a world with a bipolarity  balance of power

o US is limited by dependence on foreign capital, troop  levels, and attention deficit

o China cannot take over because it is not compatible with  the free market

o Nye (Power):

o See above notes

o Kaplan (Geopolitics):

o Mainland and Rimland Thesis

o States are much more limited morally because they have  to watch out for everyone in their boundaries

o Realists value order above freedom

o The map reminds us of the many ways in which men were  born unequal

o Britain became a great power because it was an island  secure in its borders (versus Germany vulnerable from both sides)

o Diffusion of technology works better across a common  latitude

o Poorest countries are where geography allow for high  population density but no economic growth

o Jervis ("Cooperation under the Security Dilemma"): o Although actors may want the same thing, they may not be able to reach is due to miscommunication and distrust o When a state increases its own security, it decreases the  security of others

o In the prisoner’s dilemma, there is no solution in the best  interests of all participants—rational response is to defect o Best situation is when a state will not suffer greatly from  the other defecting

o Cost of CD is loss of sovereignty

o When one state thinks the other is not likely to be against  it, but is more likely to be an ally, state A will welcome the  rise in strength of state B

o War is avoided through domestic costs, realizing there will  be a chain of events, and the advantages of cooperation  o In a game of chicken, you opt for C because CD is better  than DD

o When defensive weapons can be used over offensive ones  and distinguished it is possible to become more secure  without making others less secure

o Technology and geography determine whether the offense  or defense has the advantage  

o Wendt ("Anarchy is what States Make of It"):

o Structure (anarchy and distribution of power) vs. Process  (interaction and learning)

o Process changes behavior but not identities and interests o See Chart above

o Finnemore ("Legitimacy, Hypocrisy and the Social Structure of  Unipolarity"):

o World Politics in social and material

o Unipoles must legitimate power and diffuse it

o Laws, rules and institutions important for  

institutionalization and legitimacy

o Legitimacy can only be given by others both domestically  and internationally

o Foes can undercut legitimacy through credibility and  integrity

 Should not just be dismissed—rather diffuse power  so as not to seem an international dictator

o Institutionalization turns power into authority

o Hypocrisy means states often don’t want to abide by  international rules in order to have short-term gains and  the cost of long-term goals

o Three elements of hypocrisy:

 Actions vs. values

 Alternative actions are available

 Trying to deceive others

o Illustrated by Iraq sanctions and intervention in Kosovo o Acharya ("The Emerging Regional Architecture of World Politics"): o Increasingly regionalism—pockets of conflict and  cooperation

o Constructed more from within instead of without o Major regional power hierarchy is US, EU-Europe, Japan,  China and Russia

o Regional Security Complexes (RSCs)

 11 grouped into three main categories

∙ Centered (One great power)

∙ Great Power Complex (More than one great  

power)

∙ Standard (No great regional power)

o Uses analytic eclecticism to look at understanding of  regions

o Two definitions of order are status quo vs. increasing  tendency towards peace

o US power may decrease through unifying Asia, minor  states ability to align and resist, binding strategies, rival  regional states leading to societal resistance

o Frazier and Stewart-Ingersoll ("Regional Powers and Regional  Security"):

o Examines Regional Security Complexes through a Regional  Powers and Security framework

o Regional structure, regional power roles, and regional  power orientations

o Regional power roles defined by leadership, custodianship,  and protection

o Orientation defined by status quo, cooperation, and long term design

o Great powers can have little involvement, alter distribution  of capabilities, or cause other states to encourage, deter,  or reverse actions

o Conflict formation, security regime, and security  community

o Constructivists see the possibility of a collective security  designation for an RSC through which groups identify with  each other

o Neorealists see this approach evolving from more  institutional development  

o Power restraining powers aim for suitable and stable  distribution of power

o Concert system involves most powerful states banding  together for stability

o Unstructured involves a non consistent means for security o Buzan and Waever argue the RSC defined by boundary,  anarchic structure, polarity, and social construction o Material capabilities are important to become regional  power

o Realist theory contends that the behavior of states is based on power relations and differences

o Constructivists focus on state identity as influencing  foreign policy

o Different roles include regional leader, regional protector,  and regional custodian

 Regional leader status comes from material power  and legitimacy

 Regional custodianship wants to maintain or stabilize order

∙ Limited by presence of societal norms

 Regional protector involves identification of threat  and overall concern for defense

∙ Protector role shifts focus from potential threat  of power itself and allows more opportunity for  influence

o Orientation is the inclination or preferences of states vis-à vis the security order

 Unilateralism vs. multilateralism

 Proactive or reactive

∙ Proactive leads to stability  

 Supports or seeks to revise status quo

o

Questions to Consider: 

o What is the International System?

o How did the current system arise?

o Who are the most important actors and why?

o Are states the best form of organization for security?

o What is anarchy and is it the best description of the international  system?

o What does anarchy mean about sovereignty?

o Should sovereignty ever be violated and who gets to decide? o What would most people say serves as the basis of interactions  for states?

o If anarchy exists, how can there be order?

o Order or anarchy leads to certain outcomes. What are they? o What is the role of the US?

o What happens if the US stops playing its role?

o Are preventative policies good for the international system? o What is the international community and how does it deal with  security problems?

o How do non-state actors complicate ideas about sovereignty? o Are resources power?

o How does a state attain soft power?

o Is military power as useful today as it has been historically? o Does it makes sense for the US to divest resources away from  military capabilities to something else that might be more  effective in developing power?  

o How important will economic power be relative to other types in  the future?

o How do politics affect economics?

o How to institutional powers solidify powers for some states?

o How much does it cost to create a new interdependence when  one fails?

o What threats would cause the US to respond in ways that would  intentionally harm its economy?

o Does foreign aid help a state’s security goals? Why or why not?  o What economic conditions could lead to militarized conflict  between states?  

o Are economic conditions responsible for the rise of non-state  actors that employ violence?  

o Do economic conditions drive all conflict? If so, what should be  done about this?

o What makes the US attractive? Are other states more attractive? o What things are likely to be important with respect to states and  power in the future?  

o Does it makes sense for the US to divest resources away from  military capabilities to something else that might be more  effective in developing power? What?  

o How important will economic power be relative to other types in  the future?  

o How important is soft power in the 21st century?

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