EXSC 292 - Section 1 (Winfrey-Kovell)
EXSC 292 - Section 1 (Winfrey-Kovell) EXSC 292
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Shively on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EXSC 292 at a university taught by Marry Winfry-Kovel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
EXSC292-1 SPRINGSEMESTER2016 INSTRUCTOR:WINFREY-KOVELL STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTERS 1, 2, AND 4 This is a study guide for Anatomy (EXSC 292 Section 1) Chapters 1, 2, and 4 for the exam that is open Friday January 29th @ 8:00am-Friday February 5th @ closing of lab. This study guide will touch brieﬂy on all of what we need to know for the exam over these chapters. Chapter 1: Overview of Anatomy ● Anatomy: study of the structure of human body ● Sub-disciplines (3): gross, microscopic, surface ● Structural levels (6): - chemical: atoms > molecules - cellular: molecules > cells - tissues: like cells > tissues - organ: tissues > organs - organ system: organs > functions - organism: functions = organism ● Systemic vs. Regional - Systemic is study of anatomy by system, Regional is study of anatomy by region. ● 11 Systems: - skeletal: protects and supports - muscular: produces heat and energy - cardiovascular: transport blood, oxygen/carbon dioxide - respiratory: lung gas exchange - nervous: controls body functions - endocrine: growth, reproduction, Nutrient use 1 - integumentary: synthesizes Vitamin D - lymphatic: cleans systems - digestive: long tube from mouth > anus - reproduction: system of sex organs > sexual reproduction; ﬂuids, hormones, and pheromones ● Scale: Length, Volume and Weight; system of measurement in anatomy Chapter 1 Continued: Gross Anatomy ● Anatomical position: feet and palms forward ● Regional terms: - Axial region: head, neck, trunk - Appendicular: appendages ● Superior and Inferior - Superior: up to - Inferior: down to ● Medial and Lateral - Medial: 50/50; down middle - Lateral: taken oﬀ center; towards outside ● Proximal and Distal - Proximal: limb > trunk; shoulder > elbow - Distal: farthest from trunk ● Ipsilateral and Contralateral - Ipsilateral: same side - Contralateral: opposite side ● Anterior and Posterior - Anterior: front; ventral - Posterior: back; dorsal ● Superﬁcial and Deep - Superﬁcial: closest to surface - Deep: away from body surface ● Body Planes -Frontal (coronal): lies vertically; anterior and posterior parts; ABduction, ADDuction 2 -Median (midsagittal): vertically midline; equal right and left half; ﬂexion, extension -Transverse: horizontal; superior and inferior parts; rotation ● Body Cavities and Membrane ● Dorsal: holds brain (cranial), holds spine (vertebral) ● Thoracic: Superior mediastinum, Pleural (lungs), Pericardial (within media.), Abdominal (digestive), Pelvic (bladder) ● Ventral: Thoracic and Abdomino-pelvic ● Serous cavity: slit like space lined by serous membrane ● Parietal serosa: attaches organ in cavity; outer layer ● Visceral serosa: covers the visceral organs; touches organ itself ● Serous ﬂuid: produced by both layers of serous membranes Chapter 2: Cells, The Living Units ● Myostatin: keeps muscles from growing exponentially; 50% larger than what they should be ● Cells: smallest living unit in body - 200 diﬀerent specialized cells ● Organelles: little organs ● Cell Membrane: 2 ply layer; lipid bilayer - fats: polar heads; heads love H20 - tails: non-polar; external ﬂuids; hydrophobic ● Gateways: integral proteins ● Peripheral: skeleton; provide internally ● Glyco > sugar coating - Glycolipid: attached to fat - Glycoprotein: attached to polypeptide side-chains - Glycocalyx: covering that surrounds cell membranes of some bacteria ● Simple diﬀusion: fat soluble; goes through phospholipid bilayer ● Osmosis: water through lipid bilayer ● Integral proteins (transport): - facilitated: protein spans membrane > provides channel = selective 3 - active: proteins use ATP as energy source > pump substances ● Endocytosis - Phagocytosis: white blood cells; tagged with antigen > pit > inside cell - Receptor-mediated: hormones and cholesterol; insulin > receptors > pit > pulls inside cell > sugar - Pinocytosis: small intestine; creates pit > closes in > goes inside ● Exocytosis: moves substances out of transport vesicle - protein > vesicle > cell membrane > mucus comes out ● Cytoplasm: “cell forming material”; lies internal to plasma membrane - cytosol: jelly-like ﬂuid, water, ions, enzymes ● Ribosomes: constructed of proteins and ribosomal RNA ● Rough ER: ﬂat sac = cisternae “ﬂuid ﬁlled”; half or more of cell in cytosol ● Creates proteins for: plasma membrane, exportation of hormones and mucus, digestive enzyme-lysosome ● Smooth ER: tubules in branching network; no ribosomes attached ~ no protein synthesis ● Functions: lipid metabolism, lipid steroids, detoxiﬁcation, calcium ion storage ● Golgi Apparatus: sorts, processes, packages proteins made by Rough ER ● Lysosomes: digestive enzymes; high number in white blood cells; membrane walled sacs ● Mitochondria: cell energy plant; abundant in muscle/liver cell; reproduce based on metabolic need; more active > more mitochondria needed ● Peroxisomes: liver and kidneys; detoxiﬁers; free radicals ~ neutralizes ● Cytoplasmic Organelles ● Cytoskeleton: “cell skeleton”; elaborate network of rods ● Centrosomes and centrioles: *mitosis cannot occur without both - Centrosomes: near nucleus - Centrioles: paired cylindrical bodies ● Nucleus: genetic material; “in charge” ● Nucleolus: “little nucleus” ● Chromatin and Chromosomes ● DNA double helix is composed of four subunits: Nucleotides ~ T, A, C, G ~ amino acids in chain 4 ● Extended Chromatin: active region of DNA; copied into RNA ● Condensed Chromatin: inactive ● Transcription: making copy b/c DNA is too big to leave nucleus > mRNA leaves ● t-RNA: transfer RNA; produced in nucleus ● Translation: m-RNA enters ribosome; t-RNA with amino acid enters ribosome; occurs outside ● Translation + Transcription = Gene expression ● Cell Diﬀerentiation - Chemical signals: speciﬁc to development - Gene expression: switch other cells on and oﬀ ● Connective tissue or cover organs - Fibroblast: secreted protein component of ﬁbers - Epithelial cell: max number of cells to pack together ● Muscle tissue - movement: skeleton and smooth cells; contract forcefully ● Cells that store nutrients: fat, stored energy ● Cells that ﬁght disease (white blood cells) - Macrophage (phagocytic cell) moves reach infection sites - Lysosomes within cell di-infectious microorganism ● Cells that gather information - Neuron: receiving and transmitting ● Cells of reproduction: sperm and egg ● Developmental Aspects of Cells (Aging) ● Free Radical Theory “FR”: damage from by products ● Mitochondrial Theory: due to FR damage ~ decrease in production of energy ● Genetic Theory: programmed by genes ● Telomeres: “end caps” on chromosomes; vital for survival ● Telomerase: prevents telomerase from degrading > adding more repeating DNA to ends of telomeres ● Telomeres: DNA replicates > 50-100 nucleotides are lost; gets shorts when reached minimum length... Chapter 4: Tissues 5 ● Tissue: a group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure ● Four basic tissue types and basic functions: - Epithelial tissue ~ covering - Connective tissue ~ support - Muscle tissue ~ movement - Nervous tissue ~ control ● Epithelial: protection, secretion, absorption, diﬀusion, ﬁltration, sensory reception - substances in/out all tissues crosses epithelial - Cellularity: extracellular material; very little ﬂuid between cells ● Specialized Contacts - Tight junctions: impermeable junctions prevent molecules from passing through intercellular space - Desmosomes: anchoring junctions adjacent cells together and help form internal tension-reducing network of ﬁbers - Gap junctions: communicating junctions allow ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to next for intercellular communication ● Classiﬁcations of Epithelia: number of cell layers and cell shape ● Simple Squamous: single layer of ﬂattened cells; disc-shaped ● Simple Cuboidal: single layer; cubelike cell ● Simple Columnar: single layer of tall cells; round to oval ● Pseudostratiﬁed Ciliated Columnar: single layer; cells of diﬀerent heights ● Stratiﬁed Squamous: abrasion; thick membrane; several cell layers ● Stratiﬁed Cuboidal: two layers; cubelike ● Stratiﬁed Columnar: several cell layers; superﬁcial cells ● Transitional: resembles stratiﬁed squamous and cuboidal; stretches readily ● Glands: comprised of epithelial cells - Endocrine: ductless; messenger molecules - Exocrine: ducts to epithelial surface ● Goblet cells: mucin + water > mucus; protect/lubricate ● Multicellular Exocrine Glands: walled-duct and secretory unit; structure 6 ● Cilium: lungs, trachea ~ structure > phases > traveling wave created by activity of many cilia acting - dynein arms: doublets; attached motor proteins - outer microtubule doublets and two central: held together by cross-linking - microvilli: knobs ~ intestines - Reticular ﬁbers: basal lamina and reticular ﬁbers = basement membrane ~ connective tissue Chapter 4 Continued: Tissues ● Classes of Connective Tissue: most diverse/abundant; store/carry nutrients/ﬁght infection ● Extracellular matrix: ground substance and ﬁbers ● Fibroblast: secrete ground substance; “ﬁber former”; gell like ● Collagen ﬁber: strong as steel ﬁber; large ● Elastic ﬁber: stretch within; 150% normal size ● Reticular ﬁber: mesh-like; support other tissues ● Macrophage: form of white blood cells ● Lymphocyte: “warrior cell” ● Fat cells: extra source of nutrients and cushion ● Mast cell: signal if damage to tissue ● Vascular: own bloody supply ● Areolar Connective Tissue: supports, binds, holds body ﬂuids, ﬁght infection; ● Adipose Tissue: sparse; closely packed adipocytes or fat cells ● Reticular Connective Tissue: soft internal skeleton (stroma); mesh ● Dense Connective Tissue: resist strong pulling forces; more collagen than areolar - irregular: irregularly arranged collagen and elastic ﬁbers; structure strength - regular: tendons and ligaments; primary parallel collagen ﬁbers - elastic: high proportion of elastic ﬁbers; recoil of tissue > stretching ● Myofascial Form: connected to muscle and epith. layer; sticky and thick ● Myofascial Bag; adhesion > restrictions > injury ● Cartilage: ﬁrm, ﬂexible tissue; 80% water; no blood vessels or nerves - Chondroblasts: immature cartilage cells 7 ● Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage - ﬁrm matrix; collagen ﬁbers > imperceptible network - similar to Hyaline; more elastic ﬁbers; maintain shape - less ﬁrm than Hyaline; thick collagen ﬁbers; tensile strength; compressive shock ● Bone: connects axial skeleton > appendicular ● Blood: transports respiratory gases and nutrients ● Nervous: transports communication from central nervous system > peripheral nervous system ● Coverings and Lining Membranes - Cutaneous membrane (skin): covers body surface - Mucous membrane: line body cavities open to exterior - Serous membrane: line body cavities closed to exterior ● Inﬂammatory response: nonspeciﬁc; local response; limits damage to injury site ● Immune response: develop longer; very speciﬁc; destroys particular microorganisms @ site of infection ● Inﬂammation - acute: heat, redness, swelling, pain - edema: accumulation of ﬂuid; dilute toxins secreted by bacteria; oxygen and nutrients from blood; antibodies from blood > ﬁght infection ● Regeneration: replacement of destroyed tissue with same type of tissue ● Fibrosis: proliferation of scar tissue ● Organization: clot is replaced by granulation tissue ● Adulthood: few tissues regenerate; many retain populations of stem cells ● Capacity for Regeneration - Good to excellent: ET bone, Areolar CT, dense irregular CT, blood forming CT - Moderate: smooth muscle, dense regular CT - Weak: skeletal MT, cartilage - None or almost none: cardiac MT, Nervous tissue ● With increasing age: - epithelia thin - collagen decreases - bones, muscles, nervous tissues begin to atrophy - poor nutrition and poor circulation > poor health of tissues 8 9
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