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Intro to Business Law 212

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by: Yael Benarroch

Intro to Business Law 212 BSL212

Marketplace > University of Miami > Business > BSL212 > Intro to Business Law 212
Yael Benarroch
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About this Document

Notes for the entire semester. These notes got me an A on the class, I did not need the book. Very complete notes with all the chapters covered. Good luck!
Business Law
Alexandros Platon Alexandrakis
Study Guide
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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Yael for help in class!"
Furman Quitzon

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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yael Benarroch on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSL212 at University of Miami taught by Alexandros Platon Alexandrakis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Business Law in Business at University of Miami.

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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Yael for help in class!

-Furman Quitzon


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Date Created: 01/28/16
BUSINESS  LAW  212     What  is  law?     -­‐ An  ordering  of  human  activities  and  relations  through  the  application  of  social   pressure,  rules  and  political  organized  society.     -­‐ The  judicial  process  (the  system)   -­‐ An  accumulation  of  legal  rules  including  the  judicial  body  (courts)     What  is  law’s  purpose?  Organize  society,  keep  social  control,  regulate  human  conduct,   keeps  us  safe.     How  is  this  purpose  carried  out?   -­‐ It  prohibits   -­‐ It  can  also  be  permissive  (you  can  get  married,  sell,  buy,  etc.  it  allows  you  to  do   certain  things)   -­‐ It  is  mandatory  (taxes,  driving  on  the  right  side  of  the  road)     LAW  VS  MORALS   When  you  see  a  man  falling  of  a  cliff  and  you  choose  not  to  help  him,  you  are  not  breaking   the  law;  however,  you  are  not  morally  correct.   Law  and  morals  are  different  an  overlap  exists;  for  instance  murder.  It  breaks  the  law  and   not  morally  correct     LAW  VS  JUSTICE     -­‐ Justice  refers  to  a  fair  impartial  treatment   -­‐ The  law  is  not  always  just  (segregation,  OJ  Simpson)     RIGHTS  VS  DUTIES   -­‐ A  right  is  something  you  are  entitled  to  with  the  aid  of  the  law.  With  aid  of  law  it’s   the  capacity  of  a  person  to  require  someone  else  to  perform  or  not  perform  an  act.   -­‐ A  duty  is  the  obligation  the  law  puts  upon  you  to  perform  or  not  perform  an  act.     Classification  of  Law     § Substantive  Law:  creates,  regulate  and  defines  rights  and  duties.   ü Private:  governs  individuals  and  corporations  (civil  law,….)   ü Public:  government  rights  and  powers  (constitutional  law,  criminal  law,…)   § Procedural  Law:  rules  for  enforcing  the  rights  and  duties     CIVIL  LAW:  violation  to  an  individual.  When  a  party  is  injured,  the  party  sues.  PLAINTIFF   (pi)  sues  DEFENDANT  (delta).  Pi  has  the  burden  of  proof,  in  a  civil  matter,  the  burden  of   proof  is  the  preponderance  of  the  evidence  meaning  that  the  plaintiff  has  to  have  just   enough  evidence  to  prove  that  more  likely  than  not  (not  very  hard  to  do)  they  are  in  the   right.  The  purpose  is  to  compensate  injured  party.       CRIMINAL  LAW:  violation  to  whole  community.  On  the  criminal  side,  you  have  the   PROSECUTION  (government)  vs.  DEFENDANT  (delta).  The  burden  of  proof  for  a  criminal   trial  is  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt  (hard  to  do),  there  cannot  be  another  reasonable   alternative  that  anything  else  happened  apart  from  the  defendant  broke  the  law.       US  LEGAL  SYSTEM     Sources  of  Law   ü US  Constitution   -­‐ Treaties:  agreements  between  nations  (handled  by  the  President,  he  needs  2/3   of  the  senate  for  approval).  When  a  President  enters  into  a  treaty,  all  the  states   have  to  abide  by  it.     -­‐ Federal  Statutes:  formal  written  enactment  by  a  legislative  authority.  A  state   law  cannot  go  against  a  federal  law.   -­‐ Federal  Administration  Law:  Laws  that  govern  federal  agencies  (CIA,  FDA,  etc.)   -­‐ Federal  Common  Law   -­‐ State  Constitution   -­‐ State  Common  Law   No  law,  federal  or  state  can  violate  the  constitution.  There  is  a  jerarquia         Separation  of  Powers:  3  branches   § Judicial:  Supreme  Court,  evaluates  the  law   § Legislative:  Congress,  creates  the  law   § Executive:  President,  carries  out  the  law     COMMON  LAW  VS  CIVIL  LAW     Civil  law:  follows  roman  laws  by  creating  codes.       Common  law:  relies  on  judicial  system,  it  is  beneficial  because  it  is  constantly  changing   along  with  all  the  advances  in  society.  It  is  based  on  precedence  (they  study  previous   decisions  to  get  to  a  verdict)  and  an  adversarial  system  (one  person  initiating  a  case   against  another).  More  efficient.     System  of  equity:   § Specific  performance:  a  condition  or  type  of  behavior  that  someone  or  a  company   is  required  to  take  or  abide  by.  If  a  fence  was  built  on  someone’s  property  without   permission,  a  specific  performance  would  be  that  he  takes  down  the  fence   § Injunction:  a  hold  on  something.  If  the  person  started  to  build  the  fence  illegally   and  an  injunction  was  granted,  the  person  needs  to  stop  building  that  fence  until   the  case  was  resolved.     § Reformation:  A  judge  will  create  a  reformation  to  a  contract  ONLY  if  a  mutual   mistake  was  made  and  there  is  an  agreement  in  both  parties.   § Recission:  occurs  when  a  judge  invalidates  a  contract.  (Ex.  contracts  with  minors)     Restatements  of  law:  not  quite  the  law,  but  statements  that  have  been  a  part  of  part  cases   that  sometimes  come  to  light  to  prove  a  point  or  make  a  decision     LEGISLATIVE  LAWS:  apply  to  everyone;  make  big  changes,  education,  bankruptcy,  etc.     COMMERCIAL  LAW  (governed  by  UCC)       MORAL  PHILOSOPHY:  principles  people  use  to  decide  right  versus  wrong,  they  are  person   specific  because  they  are  based  on  personal  principles  and  values     Moral  Philosophy  vs.  Business  Ethics:  business  ethics  are  based  on  group  decisions  as   opposed  to  personal  decisions.  The  moral  philosophy  of  a  business  will  depend  on  the   goals  and  endgame  of  the  business  because  that  will  shape  their  decisions.       Theories:   -­‐ Economic  value  orientation  theory:  the  value  is  quantified  by  money  (dollars).  If   something  a  business  is  doing  (chopping  trees,  kill  animals,  destroy  soil)  produces   money  then  it  is  ethical.     -­‐ Idealism:  the  value  is  placed  in  the  idea  and  ideals,  general  view  of  the  ideal   situation  and  how  to  create  it.  It  places  a  higher  value  compared  to  reality,  it  looks   at  what  the  world  should  be.  It  can  be  is  too  expensive  or  impossible  so  it  needs  to   be  on  a  spectrum  on  which  it  can  be  accomplished.  Example:  a  paper  company,  in   an  ideal  world  would  plant  3  trees  for  every  tree  chopped  (too  expensive).   -­‐ Realists:  opposed  to  idealism,  it  looks  at  the  bigger  picture  and  what  can  be  done   in  the  real  world.   -­‐ Teleology:  it  targets  the  end  or  the  purpose  not  the  means.  Their  moral  philosophy   is,  if  the  act  produces  the  desired  result,  then  it  is  morally  acceptable   o Goodness:  it  focuses  on  the  end  result,  that  one  pleasure  and  how  to  get   there.   § Monism:  one  thing  intrinsically  good.  The  believe  that  that  there  is   one  good  thing  in  their  life  and  that  is  their  whole  purpose,  it  is  why   they  are  here.  ALL  MONISM  ARE  NOT  HEDINISM,  because   hedonisms  is  all  about  pleasure  and  there  is  a  group  of  monism  that   believe  that  that  one  good  intrinsic  thing  is  POWER.     § Hedonism:  whatever  you  do  is  right  as  long  as  it  is  trying  to   accomplish  that  one  good  thing.  The  more  pleasure  you  get,  the   more  ethical  and  right  your  decisions  are.     § Pluralists  (non-­‐hedonist):    there  is  not  just  one  good  thing.  There   needs  to  be  a  mix  of  different  thing,  a  balance,  have  everything  in   moderation.  Theory  from  Plato.     o Egoists:  self  interest  (person/company)   § Enlightened  egoists:  they  do  help  others  only  to  make  themselves   feel  better.   o Utilitarianism:  they  seek  the  greater  good  for  the  greatest  amount  of   people.  They  basically  do  a  cost-­‐benefit  analysis  to  determine  their   decisions.     § Rule  Utilitarianism:  they  behave  based  on  rule.       -­‐ Deontology:  it  focuses  on  the  rights  of  an  individual.  Their  fundamental  belief  is   “equal  rights  to  all”.  There  is  no  sacrifice  or  the  bad  means  for  a  greater  good  for   them.  If  an  act  is  suitable  to  become  a  universal  principle  or  a  general  rule  then  it  is   ethical.  Ex.  The  act  of  borrowing  money  is  unethical  since  not  everyone  has  the   ability  to  borrow  money.     o Rule  deontology:  they  behave  based  on  rule.   o Act  deontology:  they  look  at  past  actions  to  take  into  consideration  when   judging  in  a  situation.     o Obligation  theory     Relativist  perspective:  use  themselves  or  others  around  to  create  ethical  standards  or   basis.  In  general,  when  trying  to  solve  a  problem,  they  look  at  the  group  and  determine   the  popular  ethical  consensus.   Ø Descriptive:  they  focus  on  cultures;  they  try  to  determine  the  ethical  basis  or   standards  within  that  culture.  It  does  not  compare  cultures.   Ø Metaethical:  they  that  there  should  be  no  preferences.  No  one  preferred  over  the   other   Ø Normative:  one  person’s  opinion  is  just  as  good  as  the  others.       Virtue  Ethics:  Plato  &  Aristotle:  They  believe  that  ethics  is  a  character  trait;  it  is  built  deep   down  into  every  person.  The  person  is  supposed  to  bring  their  character  into  business   decisions  (honesty,  empathy,  responsibility,  etc.).  Their  ultimate  purpose  is  to  serve   society.  It  overlaps  with  idealism  (everything  is  integrated  and  perfect).       Deductive  reasoning  (Deontology  and  Teleology):  based  on  facts.  I  saw  Brandon  stealing,   people  who  steal  are  bad;  therefore  Brandon  is  bad.     Ex   Ø Deontology:  if  everyone  has  the  right  to  live,  if  4  people  are  going  to  die  with   someone  knowing,  then  that  person  does  not  follow  deontology.   Ø Teleology:  if  my  endgame  is  to  make  money,  and  killing  someone  is  going  to  make   me  money  then  it  is  ok.       Inductive  reasoning  (Virtue  ethics):  based  on  observation  and  probability.  If  99%  of  all   cats  have  4  legs,  then  all  cats  have  4  legs.       JUSTICE:  evaluation  of  fairness  or  the  power  of  dealing  with  perceived  injustice.  In   business,  all  decisions  are  based  on  individuals  and  the  fairness  of  decisions  often  can  be   debatable  or  questioned.     ü Distributive  Justice:  you  evaluate  the  outcome,  what  are  the  results  of  the  business   relationship,  what  is  fair  and  what  is  not  and  you  look  at  how  work  is  distributed.   EX.  If  there  is  a  boss  and  5  employees  below  his  level,  and  he  does  nothing  to   contribute  to  the  company,  there  is  an  imbalance,  an  distributive  injustice.       ü Procedural  justice:  based  on  the  processes  that  produce  the  outcome.  EX.  If  an   employee  is  being  paid  double  compared  to  the  others  then  this  is  a  procedural   injustice  because  the  process  now  is  being  questioned  and  this  influences  the   workers  attitude.       ü Interactional  justice:  you  evaluate  communications,  the  relationships  between   people.  EX.  If  a  person  fakes  an  illness  every  Friday  to  get  off  work  then  that   creates  distrust  between  workers,  between  worker-­‐boss  and  others.  That  created   and  interactional  unfairness       Application  of  moral  philosophy:  business  in  general  has  different  goals  that  a  singular   individual,  money  and  corporate  culture  are  taking  into  account  when  making  most   decisions.  With  bigger  sized  companies,  it  becomes  more  difficult  to  impose  this  moral   philosophy  compass.  Very  often,  personal  moral  philosophies  conflict  with  the  company’s   moral  philosophy.       WHITE  COLLAR  CRIMES:  corporate  crimes,  it  is  a  non-­‐violent  crime  but  still  a  criminal  act.   It  creates  victims  by  establishing  a  trust  and  respectability.  The  victim  is  someone  who   believes  that  that  business  is  legit.  It  involves  deceit,  concealment  and  fraud.  Ex.  Credit   card  fraud,  insider  trading,  Ponzi  schemes,  bribe,  etc.   Requirements   1. Individual  or  a  group  (committing  the  crime).   2. Committing  an  illegal  act  in  relation  to  employment.   3. Highly  educated  (at  least  college  graduate).   4. Position  of  power,  trust,  responsibility  and  respectability.   5. Within  the  business  world.  Profit  or  not  profit  world.   6. Abused  the  trust  associated  with  that  position.     7. For  personal  or  group  gain.         Procedural  vs.  Substantive  Law     Substantive  Law:  rights  and  duties  of  individuals,  groups’  corporations     Procedural  Law:  how  the  rights  or  duties  are  asserted.  It  tries  to  have  a  just  process,  to  be   fair  and  efficient.       -­‐ COURTS:  impartial  and  neutral  tribunal  established  by  the  government  to  settle   disputes.  It  has  to  have  jurisdiction  over:  the  parties  (plaintiff  and  defendant)  and   the  matter.  Split  into   ü Federal  Courts:  disputes  over  tax,  marital  law,  some  environmental   issues,  bankruptcy,  social  security,  disputes  between  states.  Top  Court  is   called  the  Supreme  Court  and  the  bottom  called  US  district  court.   o Supreme  Court:  12  judges,  only  need  quorum  of  6  to  hear  a  case.   They  first  review  the  previous  decisions  and  then  decide  if  they   will  take  the  case  or  not.  Any  case  that  gets  to  the  SC  has  to  pass   through  the  DC  of  appeals.  It  gets  accepted  into  the  SC  by:   appeal  by  right  or  discretionary  writ  of  ceror  (they  vote  for  taking   case  or  not)   o District  Court  of  Appeals:  there  are  3  judges.  When  there  is  an   appeal  one  side  is  unsatisfied.  This  court  can:   • Reverse  the  decision   • Modify  the  decision   • Affirms  the  decision   • Remands  the  decision:  sends  the  case  back  to  the   district  court  (they  made  some  type  of  error,   usually  procedural  errors)     o US  District  Court:  the  general  trial  court  of  the  federal  system,   one  judge.  The  geographic  boundaries  of  district  courts  are  not   evenly  distributed  between  states  because  of  population   density.  Depends  on  the  amount  of  people  in  each  state,  each  is   divided  into  districts.  NY  has  4  districts.       ü State  Courts:  minor  crimes,  traffic  offenses,  etc.     o Appeal  Court   o Trial  Court:  They  keep  written  records   o Small/inferior  Claims:  their  decisions  are  not  written.  No  need   for  an  attorney.     In  Florida  it  is  different,  you  have:     o Supreme  Court   o District  Court  of  Appeals   o Circuit  Court  (equivalent  to  trial  court):  bigger  matters,  family  law,  felonies,  any   dispute  over  $15k,  juvenile  cases,  criminal  cases.  They  keep  written  records   o County  Court:  takes  any  small  claims  and  civil  matters  under  15k  dollars       WITH  ANY  APPEAL,  YOU  MOVE  UP  TO  A  BIGGER  COURT  IT  ONLY  GOES  BACK  DOWN   UNLESS  IT’S  REMANDED         ANALYZING  A  CASE:     1. State/look  at  the  facts  (story)   2. Indicating  the  issue:  start  with  the  word  “WHETHER”.  Ex.  Whether  Paul  violated   the  contract   3. Decision:  what  the  judge  decided     4. Reasoning/rationale:  why  the  judge  would  agree  to  the  plaintiff     The  judge  can  only  rule  on  the  issue  at  hand,  if  he/she  ramble  on,  goes  off  topic  it  is  called   dicta.  When  the  judge  is  making  a  decision  he  needs  to  follow  the  rule  of  law.       JURISDICTION:  power  or  authority  of  the  court  to  hear  a  case.  In  order  to  handle  a  case   there  needs  to  have  both  types  of  jurisdiction:   o Subject  matter  jurisdiction:  is  the  authority  to  judge  a  certain  controversy  or  issue.   There  are  federal  exclusive  subject  matters  and  concurrent  subject  matters  (can  be   shared  with  the  state  court,  it  can  apply  federal  laws  but  it  uses  state  procedures)   o Jurisdiction  over  the  parties  (both  plaintiff  and  defendant):  the  court  has   automatic  jurisdiction  over  the  plaintiff.    The  court  needs  to  obtain  1  of  these  types   of  jurisdiction  over  the  defendant   § In  personam/personal:  to  get  personal  jurisdiction  over  a  process   you  need  to  have  “serve  process”  over  the  party  within  the  state   that  the  case  has  been  filed.  If  you  are  able  to  summon  that  person,   serve  him  documents  that  show  a  complaint/requirement  then  the   court  has  personal  jurisdiction  on  the  case.  You  can  also  gain  it  by   reasonable  notification  through  a  long-­‐arm  statue:   o The  crime/wrong  doing  was  done  within  the  state  OR     o The  defendant  owns  property  within  the  state  and  the   property  is  subject  to  suit  OR   o They  entered  into  a  contract  within  the  state  OR   o They  transacted  biz  within  state  and  biz  is  subject  of  suit   § In  REM:  when  the  lawsuit  is  directed  towards  property.  The   property  can  be  real  (land)  or  personal  (car,  computer,  phone,  etc.   movable).     § Attachment  (quasi  in  REM):  it’s  a  personal  suit  in  which  you  go  after   personal  property.  Very  rare,  mainly  used  to  get  compensation     Venue:  where  the  lawsuit  is  being  brought  or  heard.  If  it’s  related  to  real  estate  its   where  the  real  property  is.       Diversity  jurisdiction:  case  that  has  greater  than  75k  dollars.  Both  parties  are  from   different  states  or  you  have  a  foreign  country  vs.  a  US  citizen.  Or  citizens  of  state  vs.   citizens  of  a  foreign  country.  The  federal  court  will  handle  the  case  because  it  is  too  big   for  a  state  court  but  the  federal  court  will  use  state  laws  and  procedures.     Ex.  Plaintiffs  from  FL  and  DC  vs.  Defendants  from  ND  and  FL.  This  does  not  meet  the   requirements,  you  have  a  plaintiff  and  a  defendant  from  the  same  state  the  case   would  go  to  FL  court.       Ex.  Accident  in  Georgia.  Where  is  this  suit  going  to  occur?   Pi:  FL     Delta:  NC   It  would  be  filed  in  NC  because  why  should  the  defendant  go  to  the  trouble  of  doing   everything  in  FL.  The  plaintiff  has  to  make  it  as  easy  as  possible  for  the  defendant  to   defend  himself  or  herself.  It  sues  in  NC  but  under  GA  law     Conflict  Laws:  not  all  states  have  the  same  laws       Stare  decisis:  precedent  (previous  decisions).  When  is  the  precedent  binding?   Ø When  the  Supreme  Court  makes  a  decision,  it  is  not  binding  on  the  Supreme  Court   itself  so  in  future  cases,  they  can  change  their  decisions  not  being  bound  to   previous  rulings.     Ø A  Supreme  Court  decision  made  on  a  Federal  question,    IS  binding  on  both  the  low   federal  courts  and  the  state  courts.   Ø A  Federal  Court  decision  on  a  Federal  issue  IS  NOT  binding  on  a  State  Court  but  it  is   PERSUASIVE  on  it  though  they  are  not  bound.     Ø A  Federal  Court  decision  is  not  binding  on  an  equal  or  lower  Federal  Court  UNLESS   IT  IS  ON  THE  SAME  DISTRICT.     Ø A  State  Court  decision  is  not  binding  for  Federal  Courts.  On  diversity  cases,  it  can   be  different.         CIVIL  PROCEDURE   1. Pleadings:  documents  that  are  interchanged  between  parties.  It  is  where  the   plaintiff  makes  his/her  claims  and  where  the  defense  can  make  their  claims  too.   The  issues  of  law  (legal  rules  that  apply  to  the  case,  who  is  technically  responsible.   Decided  by  the  judge)  and  issues  of  facts  (the  dispute  relating  to  the  facts  of  the   case,  what  happened.  The  jury  decides  the  issues  of  facts)  are  defined.     The  plaintiff  files  a  complaint  with  the  clerk  of  court.  The  complaint  has:   i. Statement  of  claim  including  facts   ii. Demand  for  relief  (hospital  bills,  money,  compensation,  etc.)   The  clerk  then  issues  a  summons:  a  document  that  serves  the  defendants  to  notice  them   of  the  lawsuit.  20  days  to  respond  (in  FL).  The  defendant  can:   Ø Abstain  from  responding  to  the  complaint:  then  the  plaintiff  gets  a  default   judgment  (practically  gives  the  plaintiff  the  right  to  be  in  the  right).   Ø Pre-­‐trial  motion:  example,  the  defendant  resides  on  a  different  county  or  it  should   be  on  a  different  court  so  you  file  a  motion.  Motion  for  extension  of  time     Ø Requesting  that  the  complaint  be  more  explicit  and  certain:  not  specific  enough   Ø Dismiss:  failure  to  state  claim   Ø File  an  answer:  the  defendant’s  response  to  complaint,  you  answer  to  every  point   of  the  complaint.  Admission,  denial,  affirmative  defense  or  counter  claim  (the   plaintiff  has  to  answer  in  the  case  of  a  counter  claim).     Judgment  on  pleadings:  judgment  if  there  are  enough  facts  on  pleadings  to  make  a  ruling.   Discovery:  most  important  phase  of  the  entire  case,  phase  where  you  gather  all  the   evidence,  all  the  witness  and  experts  and  everything  that  may  be  relevant  to  help  your   case.  No  surprises,  whatever  is  going  to  be  presented,  needs  to  be  given  to  the  other  party   as  well.    This  phase  helps  the  parties  move  towards  a  settlement.  90%  of  cases  are  settled   before  trial.     -­‐ Depositions:  sworn  questioning  (under  an  oath)  where  general  questions  and   details  of  the  case  are  asked  by  opposing  side.     -­‐ Production  documents:  any  documentation  and/or  objects.  Exams,  tests,  relevant   evidence,  etc.  Things  will  be  admitted.     Pre  trial  conference:  meeting  with  the  judge  and  both  attorneys,  purpose  is  to  simplify   issues  in  the  dispute.       At  this  point  right  before  trial  either  party  can  file  for  a  summary  judgment  saying  that   there  are  no  issues  of  fact,  no  way  to  fight  the  case.  If  this  doesn’t  happen,  trial  happens.   Every  person  in  the  US  has  the  right  to  have  a  jury  trial  (the  other  option  is  a  bench  trial,   just  the  judge)     Jury  selection  (Voire  Dire):  no  attorneys  allowed.  There  are  30  jurors  and  you  bring  the   number  down  to  8.  And  you  ask  questions  to  every  person  to  determine  if  they  are  fit  for   their  case.  Each  lawyer  has  an  unlimited  number  of  challenges  for  cause:  when  a  potential   juror  is  bias,  have  a  language  barrier,  etc.,  you  can  be  challenged  and  you  take  that  person   out.  Each  side  also  gets  a  limited  number  of  pre-­‐emptory  challenges,  no  cause  is  needed   but  it  cannot  be  based  on  race  or  gender     TRIAL   1. Opening  statements:  each  party  gives  their  roadmap  of  what  they  are  trying  to   prove.  Plaintiff  goes  first.   2. Plaintiff  brings  the  direct  examinations  (ask  questions).  You  can’t  ask  leading   questions.     a. Witness  1:  Cross-­‐examinations  by  defendant.  Can  ask  leading  questions       3. Plaintiff  rests.   4. Defense  files  for  directed  verdict:  after  everything  heard,  the  judge  rules.  If  it  rules   for  the  plaintiff  then  trial  continues   5. Defendant  does  direct  examinations   a. Plaintiff  does  cross-­‐examinations   6. Closing  statements:  plaintiff  goes  first  then  defendant  and  then  plaintiff  can  go   again.   7. The  judge  speaks  to  the  jury  directly  to  give  them  the  jury  instructions  (how  to   treat  evidence,  explains  burden  of  proof  depending  on  the  case)     8. The  jury  retires  to  a  room   9. They  decide  the  liability  (who  is  responsible)  and  the  amount  of  money.     10. Motions  challenging  the  verdict  (whoever  lost):  motion  for  a  new  trial   a. Judge  prejudicial  error   b. Against  weight  of  evidence   c. Excessive  damages   d. Unfair  trial     11. JNOV  (Judgment  Not  Withstanding  the  Verdict):  similar  to  a  directed  verdict  but  it   is  done  after  the  jury’s  decision.  The  judge  decided  that  the  evidence  is  so  clear   against  what  the  jury  decided  that  they  are  going  to  go  ahead  and  make  a  decision   against  the  jury’s  decision.  If  this  case  is  appealed  and  then  reversed  meaning  it  is   jury’s  decision  that  stands  and  it  is  automatically  entered.  Not  common       Appeal:  to  be  able  to  appeal  there  needs  to  be  an  error  of  law  made  by  the  judge.  The   person  that  appeals  is  called  the  “Appellant”  and  the  person  receiving  the  appeal  is  called   the  “Appellee”.  You  go  to  court,  no  new  evidence  allowed;  you  orally  argue  that  error  that   you  are  appealing.  Results:  modified,  affirmed,  reversed,  remanded.         Enforcement:  enforces  a  judgment   o If  you’re  not  getting  paid,  you  file  a  writ  of  execution,  which  demands  the   money   o If  they  still  don’t  pay,  post  a  bond  to  seize  the  person’s  personal  property   and  get  the  money  collected  from  selling  the  property   o Can  also  do  a  garnishment  of  wages:  pulling  a  portion  of  the  person’s   salary  and  send  it  to  the  winner   § Full  faith  and  credit:  can  go  after  someone’s  property  in  any  state   • Alternative  dispute  resolution   o Arbitration:  if  there’s  a  contract  dispute,  instead  of  a  trial,  the  two  parties  can   elect  to  have  a  neutral  third  person  (not  necessarily  a  judge)  who  will  make  the   decision   § Binding  –  can’t  appeal  it   § Less  formal   § Faster  than  trial   § Cheaper  than  trial   § Arbitrator  must  be  an  expert  à  leads  to  a  more  focused  ruling   § Private  matter   § Format  is  basically  the  same  as  trial   § Decision  can  be  reviewed  due  to:   • Impartial/corrupt  judge   • Award  was  given  because  of  corruption  (getting  a  kickback)   • Some  kind  of  misconduct  on  either  side  that  produced   prejudice   • Arbitrator  exceeding  their  power  (judgment  too  harsh)   o Mediation   § Non-­‐binding  decision   § Choose  a  mediator  to  try  and  strike  a  deal  rather  than  go  to  trial   § Required  in  Florida   § Even  cheaper   § Usually  ends  up  somewhere  in  the  middle     Contracts  (K):  Binding  agreement  between  two  or  more  parties  that  will  be  enforced  by   the  courts.  Promise  or  set  of  promises  for  which,  if  there  is  a  breach,  the  law  gives  a   remedy.  Doesn’t  have  to  be  written,  but  oral  contracts  can  lead  to  he  said  she  said     o Primarily  governed  by  state  common  law  (unless  it’s  under  UCC)   o If  you’re  dealing  with  a  federal  contract,  federal  law  (duh)   o Sale  of  goods  or  personal  property   § Governed  by  UCC:  Uniform  Commercial  Code   § Car,  bed,  TV,  ring   § Sale  of  goods:  passing  of  title/ownership  of  the  good  from  one   person  to  another  for  money   • Goods:  tangible  personal  property  (DOES  NOT  INCLUDE  REAL   PROPERTY)     Requirements  of  a  K   1. Mutual  assent:  manifest  by  word  or  conduct  that  the  parties  agree  to  enter   into  a  contract   § Usually  done  through  an  offer  and  an  acceptance   2. Consideration:  each  party  has  to  intentionally  exchange  a  legal  benefit  or   incur  a  legal  detriment  as  an  inducement  to  the  other  party  to  make  a  return   exchange   3. Legality:  contract  will  not  be  valid  if  it’s  for  an  illegal  exchange  or  purpose   4. Capacity   -­‐ Can’t  be  a  minor   -­‐ Can’t  be  shitfaced  or  anything  like  that     Classifications  of  K   § Implied:  for  the  money  I  am  giving  you,  I  am  getting  exactly  what  I’m  expected   § Express:  agreement  with  words  (mostly  written,  but  can  be  oral  if  you’re   feeling  detailed)   § Bilateral:  exchange  of  promises  (both  parties  are  promisors  and  promises)   § Unilateral:  exchange  for  an  action  or  non-­‐action.  Based  on  someone   performace,  not  complete  until  the  action  is  complete   § Valid:  when  you  meet  all  requirements  of  a  K   • If  so,  it’s  enforceable  and  binding   § Void:  doesn’t  meet  all  four  requirements  –  it’s  a  promise  without  a  legal  effect   (both  sides  are  relieved  of  their  duties)   § Voidable:  a  contract  in  which  one  party  can  avoid  your  legal  because  of  the   way  it  was  formed,  but  you  can  still  go  along  with  it   § Unenforceable:  K  is  of  lax  legality  (needs  to  be  in  writing  and  isn’t,  illegal   subject  matter)   • All  real  property  should  be  written  contract   § Executed:  K  has  been  fully  carried  out  by  all  parties  and  it’s  been  signed  by  at   least  one  of  the  necessary  signors   o Promissory  Estoppel   § Don’t  have  an  actual  written  contract,  but  the  court  will  enforce  the   non-­‐contractual  promises  to  avoid  injustice   § Enforceable  when:   • The  promise  is  made  under  circumstances  that  should  lead   the  promisor  to  expect  the  promisee  to  actually  do  what   they  asked  of  the  promisee  based  on  the  promise   § Can’t  necessarily  get  the  promise  to  come  through,  but  they  can  get   damages/compensation   o Quasi  contract   § Wasn’t  a  contract  and  the  court  will  essentially  create  a  contract   § Someone  is  getting  a  benefit  and  someone  is  getting  the  short  end   of  the  stick   § Point  of  this  is  to  avoid  injustice   § Requirements:   • Benefit  conferred  on  the  defendant  by  the  plaintiff  (the   defendant  benefitted  from  the  plaintiff)  that  was  known  by   the  defendant  and  accepted  by  the  benefit   • Sitting  at  home,  FedEx  delivers  brand  new  80  inch  curved  flat   screen  TV  from  Amazon  (you  didn’t  order  or  pay  for  this),  you   keep  it  –  Amazon  comes  around  and  tells  you  to  return  it  or   pay  for  it   • Mutual  assent:  need  an  offer  and  an  acceptance.  Can  be  formed  by  conduct  –   don’t  need  words  (phone  for  $50,  nodding).   o Courts  will  look  at  certain  cases  based  on   § Objective  standard:  how  it  would  be  perceived  by  a  reasonable   person  (court  uses  this).     § Subjective  standard:  how  it  would  be  perceived  by  the  individual   (usually  one  of  the  parties  in  the  case,  aka  the  person  suing)   § Not  concerned  with  what  may  have  been  perceived  or  meant  at  the   time  –  what  they  care  about  is  what  was  objectively  indicated  by   word  or  conduct       Offer:  a  proposal  made  by  one  person  indicating  a  willingness  to  enter  into  a  contract   v Offeror  and  offeree   v Once  the  offeree  receives  the  offer,  they  have  the  power  to  enter  into  a  contract   (accept).  Once  you  accept,  you  create  a  contract     Must  have:   1. Communicated  to  offeree:  offeree  needs  to  be  aware  of  the  offer   2. Manifest  intent  to  enter  into  contract:  distinguish  between  making  an  official  offer   or  a  vague  question.   3. Sufficiently  definite  and  certain.  The  terms  have  to  be  clear  and  detailed.   a. Advertisements:  invitation  for  an  offer,  not  communicated  specifically   to  an  offeree.     b. Breach  of  contract:  violation  of  contract.  The  court  needs  to  know  if  all   the  details  were  specified  in  the  contract  to  determine  if  there  was  a   breach.  If  there  was  a  breach,  a  remedy  is  issued   c. Material  terms:  things  to  be  defined.  Some  things  can  be  left  open  for   the  offeree  to  fill  in     o Parties   o Subject  matter   o Price   o Quantity   o Quality   o Time  of  performance   -­‐ If  it  is  a  commercial  contract,  you  use  commercial  reasonableness.  If  some  terms   are  left  open  or  blank,  you  use  a  reasonable  standard  for  that  business.     The  terms  can  be  more  vague  depending  on  the  nature  of  the  K  (based  on  good   faith):   -­‐ Output  contract:  ex.  Anything  produced  by  a  company  of  pencils,  a  teacher  gets  for   a  specific  period  of  time.  Price  and  quantity  may  not  be  specified  or  missing.   -­‐ Requirement  contract:  the  marker  company  will  send  as  many  pencils  as  required   by  the  teacher.  If  a  product  is  seasonal,  this  contract  is  common.     Duration  of  offers:  How  can  an  offer  terminate?   1. Lapse  of  time:  a  time  period  is  established.  If  no  lapse  of  time  is   established,  it  goes  to  a  reasonable  standard  in  a  case  by  case  bases  and   you  look  at  the  nature  of  the  contract.   2. Revocation:  the  offeror  revoke  the  offer,  it  is  valid  at  any  time  prior  to   acceptance.  There  are  exceptions:   i. Option  contract:  the  offer  has  to  be  kept  open  for  a  period  of   time  and  you  can’t  revoke  it.  The  offeror  needs  collateral,   some  sort  of  consideration  (usually  money)   ii. Firm  offer:  it’s  when  you  have  a  merchant,  they  have  to  keep   an  offer  open  for  a  period  of  time,  no  collateral  is  necessary.   The  max  amount  of  time  the  offer  can  be  kept  open  is  3   months  and  this  has  to  be  in  writing  and  signed.     3. Rejection   4. Counter  offer:  operates  as  a  rejection  +  new  offer.   5. Death  or  incompetency     6. Destruction  of  subject  matter:  ex.  Offer  for  a  car,  the  car  get’s   destroyed   7. Subsequent  illegality:  something  that  was  part  of  an  offer  became  illegal     Acceptance:   § Bilateral  K:  you  need  an  act  from  an  offeree  to  show  that  they  are  accepting  the   terms  of  the  K.  Bilateral  K:  exchange  of  promises  (both  parties  are  promisors  and   promises).  Everything  has  to  be  communicated  to  the  offeror   § Unilateral  K:  the  way  acceptance  is  giving  is  by  performance.  Unilateral:  exchange  for   an  action  or  non-­‐action.  It  is  not  required  that  you  notify  the  offeror  of  your   acceptance.     § Silence:  can  decline  or  accept  by  not  responding  anything  at  all.  If  you  hire  someone   to  teach  you  guitar  and  they  show  up  but  they  never  said  yes.  They  accepted   through  silence     -­‐ A  revocation,  a  rejection  and  a  counteroffer  are  only  valid  when   received   -­‐ Acceptance  is  effective  when  dispatched/sent.  Ex.  When  the  letter   was  put  into  the  mailbox.     -­‐ A  late  or  a  defective  acceptance  =  a  new  offer   -­‐ You  can  change  these  conditions  if  you  specify  it  in  your  offer.     CONDUCT  INVALIDATING  ASSENT:  making  the  acceptance  of  a  deal  not  valid  because  of   conduct.  Both  parties  need  to  freely  agree   Without  assent  you  are  either:  doing  something  unknowingly  and/or  involuntarily.   ü Duress:  wrongful  or  unlawful  act,  threat  that  overcomes  the  will  of  the  party.  Ex.  Gun   to  the  head   o Physical  compulsion:  makes  a  person  assent  to  the  contract  through   physical  force.  K  is  automatically  void   o Improper  threats:  social  or  economic  coercion  to  make  someone  assent  to  a   K.  Has  to  be  explicit  or  implied  via  conduct  or  words.  Left  without  a  reasonable   alternative  (too  scared).  It  is  voidable,  it  comes  to  the  person  threatened  to   accept  or  not.  You  look  at  it  from  a  subjective  standard   o You  can  threaten  to  sue  without  it  being  duress     ü Undue  influence:  unfair  persuasion  of  a  party  in  a  dominant  position  based  on  a   confidential  relationship  (ex.  Doctor-­‐patient).  Requirements   o The  victim  is  susceptible  to  overreaching  (taking  advantage  of):  mental,   physical,  psychological  illness   o Opportunity  for  dominant  person  to  exercise  undue  influence   o The  defendant  (person  in  dominant  position)  is  inclined  to  exercise  undue   influence:  has  a  motive     o Unnatural  or  suspicious  transaction     ü Fraud.  Types:   o Fraud  in  execution:  you  trick  someone  into  entering  into  a  contract  for   something  that  it  isn’t.  It  is  VERY  RARE;  it’s  in  the  nature  of  the  K.     o Fraud  in  the  inducement:  deceit  that  is  an  intentional  misrepresentation  of   material  fact  by  one  party  to  the  other  party  that  consents  to  enter  into  the  K.   There  was  a  reliance  on  the  material  fact.  You  need:   1. A  false  misrepresentation   2. Of  fact:  sales  talk   3. Material  (selling  you  a  Camaro  dressed  like  a  Ferrari).  Mistake   based  on  the  facts  on  the  contract   a. Likely  induce  reasonable  person  to  assent.     b. Knows  that  it  is  likely  to  induce  (if  you  didn’t  know  bad   tires  were  the  dealbreaker  for  a  car  and  you  said  they   were  good  when  they  are  bad)   4. Made  knowledge  of  falsity  (know  I’m  telling  a  lie)  and  intention   to  deceive  (SCIENTER)   5. Misrepresentation  is  relied  upon:  whoever  was  induced  had  to   actually  rely  on  this  misrepresentation.     Arm’s  length  transaction:  parties  that  are  unrelated  (not  really  a  requirement  but  fraud  in   the  inducement  would  not  hold  up  if  it  is  you  and  your  mom  for  example)     Silence:  can  be  fraud  if  you  don’t  disclose  something  and  you  know  that  if  you  DO  disclose   that  something,  the  other  party  would  not  enter  that  K  or  alter  somethi


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