Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psyc 3640
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
I-O Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide People Hofstede Uncovered the individualism-collectivism continuum Distributed questionnaires to IBM employees worldwide between 1968 and 1972, and more than 116,000 employees from 72 countries returned them Theory proposes five basic elements on which cultures can be distinguished James McKeen Cattell Studied qualities of people that would make them good in the military or other organizations Among the first to realize the importance of differences among individuals as a way of predicting their behavior Concepts What do I-O psychologists study I-O psychology: the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting How we think, feel, and behave in the work setting Personnel psychology Field of psychology that addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance, appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination describing, explaining, & controlling—from class notes often seen as part of human resources management assumes that people are consistently different in their attributes and work behaviors and that information about these differences can be used to predict, maintain, and increase work performance and satisfaction Human Factors psychology try to manipulate environment, not person also called “human engineering” the study of the capacities and limitations of humans with respect to a particular environment opposite of personnel approach; task is to develop an environment that is compatible with the characteristics of the worker integrates many different disciplines such as cognitive science, ergonomics, exercise physiology, and even anatomy SIOP Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology An association to which many I-O psychologists, both practitioners and researchers, belong Designated as Division 14 of the American Psychological Association Army Alpha/Army Beta Used in World War 1 Army alpha test: ability test for those who were literate Army beta test: ability test for those who were illiterate Hawthorne Studies Research done at the Hawthorne, IL plant of the Western Electric Company that began as attempts to increase productivity by manipulating lighting, rest breaks, and work hours. This research showed the important role that workers’ attitudes played in productivity What manipulations can we make to the environment to improve performance Example: Amount of light vs productivity Light increase = productivity went up Light decrease = productivity went up o Why? People became more aware Civil Rights Act of 1964 Each title addresses a specific area of possible discrimination, such as voting, education, or housing Law that protects people of color and women Groups named in 1964: race, color, gender, national origin, religion 2 additional protected groups added later: ADEA (age) 1967, ADA (disability) 1990 Those over 40 are protected by the age clause Title VII of Civil Rights Act Title VII specified demographic groups to be protected from employment discrimination Required employers to justify the use of tests for selection Time and Motion Studies Studies that broke every action down into its constituent parts, timed those movements with a stopwatch, and developed new and more efficient movements that would reduce fatigue and increase productivity Culture System of shared beliefs and shared sense-making We need to understand of the ways other cultures make sense of things Horizontal culture: a culture that minimizes distances between individuals Vertical culture: a culture that accepts and depends upon distances between individuals Hofstede’s 5 factors Power distance o Denmark & Israel seek to reduce inequalities in power, while India and the Philippines accept and maintain such power distances Uncertainty avoidance o The cultures of Singapore and Jamaica accept uncertainty and take one day at a time, but Greek and Portuguese cultures seek certainty Masculinity vs femininity o In masculine cultures such as the US, Japan, and Germany, performance, success, and accumulated wealth are important, but in feminine cultures such as Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands, people, relationships, and the environment are more important than wealth and accomplishment Individualism vs collectivism o In countries such as the US, the UK, and the Netherlands, individuals tend to show greater concern for themselves and their families than for the community; in Colombia, Pakistan, and Taiwan, greater concern is expressed for the community than for the individual Long vs short term orientation o Cultures with a short-term orientation, such as the US and Russia, focus on the past and present and honor tradition. Conversely, countries like Japan and China tend to have a long- term orientation and are not nearly as concerned with immediate benefit as they are with thrift and persistence Disinterestedness Characteristic of scientists who should be objective and uninfluenced by biases or prejudices when conducting research Research design types in I-O psychology Experimental o Random assignment of participants to conditions Allows you to say that all groups are essentially equal Correlation does equal causation in this case Advantage—Can outline a true causal relationship Independent variable causes dependent variable Disadvantage—takes a lot of time, resources, and energy o Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace o Involves alteration/manipulation Non-experimental o Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions o Disadvantage—correlation does not equal causation o Advantages—huge sample set very quickly and cheaply o 2 common designs: Observational design—observes and records behavior Survey/questionnaire—most common Quasi-experimental o Participants are assigned to different conditions, but random assignment to conditions is not possible o Example: an organization might institute a new pay plan at one plant location but not at another. Or the researcher would assess employee satisfaction with an existing plan, then the organization would change the pay plan, and the researcher would assess satisfaction again with the new plan. Independent variable a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another Observational design researcher observes employee behavior and systematically records data with no manipulation example: observer studies communication patterns and worker efficiency by recording the number of times a worker communicates with a supervisor in a given time period Introspection the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes early scientific method in which the participant was also the experimenter recording his or her experiences in completing an experimental task; considered very subjective by modern standards Triangulation approach in which researchers seek converging information from different sources (qualitative & quantitative research) makes theory more plausible Job analysis process that determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks typically involves the combination of data from many different sources in coming to a complete understanding, or theory, of the job in question Generalizability the degree to which the results of a study based on a sample can be said to represent the results that would be obtained from the entire population from which the sample was drawn Experimental control eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret often easier to establish in laboratory studies than in field studies Histogram a diagram consisting of rectangles whose area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval Measures of central tendency statistic that indicates where the center of a distribution is located examples are mean, median, and mode skew: the extent to which scores in a distribution are lopsided or tend to fall on the left or right side of the distribution positive skew: scores/observations are bunched at the bottom of the score range negative skew: scores/observations are bunched at the top of the score range Standard deviation a quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole variance of a distribution we can characterize a distribution by looking at the extent to which the scores deviate from the mean score Calculate mean of a set of data add up all values and divide by number of observations Example of inferential statistics Aid in testing hypotheses & making inferences from sample data to a larger sample/population Include t-test, F-test, chi-square test Correlation coefficient Slope of z scores Statistic or measure of association Reflects magnitude (numerical value) & direction (+ or –) of relationship between 2 variables Ranges from -1.00 to 1.00 = perfect positive relationship; same z score; perfect diagonal line (45 degrees) = scattered dots; horizontal line Positive correlation → As one variable increases, other variable also increases & vice versa Negative correlation → As one variable increases, other variable decreases & vice versa Strong positive correlation DOES NOT mean causation! Reliability Consistency or stability of a measure Generally speaking, we want our measures to produce the same value over a reasonable time period Test-retest reliability Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 High test-retest reliability—measurement 1 has close to the same values as measurement 2 Low test-retest reliability—measurement 1 and measurement 2 have scattered values1 Predictor/criterion Predictor o Test chosen or developed to assess identified abilities or other characteristics (KSAOs) Criterion o Outcome variable describing important performance domain o What we want to predict Predictive validity Time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test often administered to job applicants Enables you to predict what would have happened had you actually used the test scores to make the hiring decisions Administer a particular test to all applicants and then hire applicants without using scores from that particular test to make the hiring decision; then, go back and collect performance data Concurrent validity No time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test administered to current employees, performance measures collected at same time Disadvantage: No data about those not employed by the organization Construct validity Investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs Construct - concept or characteristic that a predictor is intended to measure; examples include intelligence, extraversion, and integrity
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