ANT2000 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANT2000 Exam 1 Study Guide BSC2010
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Scheffing on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC2010 at University of Florida taught by Oppenheimer, Miyamoto, Gillooly in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Biology 1 in Biology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
ANT2000 09/01/2015 ▯ Darwin= Theory of evolution (18091882) ▯ Charles Lyell= Planet is slowly changing….gradualism ▯ Cultural Relativism The perspective that each culture must be understood according to its own terms, ideas, and beliefs. o For us, marriage is a big deal but in Madagascar funerals are a big deal where you spend a lot of money ▯ Ethnocentrism Looking at a culture and comparing it to your own in a bad way Having a surprising reaction to things that they do Judging other cultures by the standard of your own culture; the opposite of cultural relativism ▯ Etic Research strategy emphasizing the ethnographer’s explanations and categories The etic (scientist oriented) approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. o The etic approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved I what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially ▯ Science A goal of science is to increase understanding by explaining things Explanations rely upon associations and theories Theory= a set of ideas formulated to explain something Hypothesis= suggested, but as yet unverified explanations ▯ Enculturation The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations Also, the process by which a child learns his or her culture ▯ Symbols Cultural learning also depends on symbols “A symbol is something verbal or nonverbal, within a particular language…..” ▯ Acculturation An exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact; the cultures of either group or both groups may change but each group remains distinct ▯ Diffusion Borrowing of cultural traits between societies o Ex. Clothing ▯ Adaptation “Adaptation refers to the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses” ▯ Human Rights “A realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, religions, and seen as inalienable” o Examples include the rights to free speech, exercise of religion, free from bodily harm and enslavement ▯ Cultural Rights Vested in groups, NOT individuals ▯ Capitalist World Economy The world system based on production for sale, with the goal of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs Capitalism has led to a gap between the rich and poor o The rich get richer, the poor get poorer ▯ Globalization The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system liked economically through mass media and modern transportation systems Globalization is noted for o Speed of global communication o Scale of global networks o Volume of international transactions Biological Anthropology The study of human biological variation across time and space Includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, primatology, and forensic anthropology Evolutionary Theory Change in living organisms over time Transformation of species Descent with modification ▯ Principles of Evolution No certainty towards “good” or “bad” traits, it depends on the environment Evolution does not proceed unopposed in one direction, biological traits can change in different directions Evolution does not occur in a vacuum, it is affected by changed in the environment and other species ▯ Adaptation Changes specific to a particular environment Not all adaptations are positive o Ex. Industrial melanism of the peppered moth ▯ Natural Selection Selection of favored forms through differential reproductive success A mechanism for evolutionary change favoring the survival and reproduction of some organisms over others because of their biological characteristics “The process by which the life forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so at a greater rate than others in the same population” ▯ DNA The molecule that provides the genetic code for biological structures and the means to translate the code DNA is held together and consists of chemical bonds between four bases o Adenine o Cytosine o Guanine o Thymine Protein= a chain of amino acids Chromosomes= paired lengths of DNA composed of multiple genes Gene= place or focus on a chromosome that determines a particular trait ▯ Allele A variant of a particular gene o Heterozygous= having dissimilar alleles of a given gene o Homozygous= having identical alleles of a given gene o Dominant= trait will show up in phenotype if gene is present o Recessive= trait will only appear if organism inherits 2 of them Fixation= complete replacement of varied traits ▯ Independent assortment Chromosomes inherited independently of one another ▯ Mitosis Ordinary cell division ▯ Meiosis Process by which sex cells are reproduced ▯ Sources of Variation Crossing over= before fertilization, early in meiosis, sites of homologous chromosomes exchange segments by breakage and recombination (exchange DNA) Mutation= an important source of variationa substitution of a base known as substitution mutation o The new organism carries the mutation o Chromosomal rearrangement – another form of mutation where pieces of chromosome break off, flip around, and reattach or migrate someplace else on that chromosome Random genetic drift= a change in allele frequency that results from chance Gene flow= the exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species o Tends to prevent speciation Natural selection= the process by which the life forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so at a greater rate than others in the same population o Only operates on phenotype that which is exposed o The best explanation for genetic evolution ▯ Balanced polymorphism Alleles maintain a constant frequency in a population over time Cline Gradual shift in gene (allele) frequency between neighboring ▯ Haplogroup Lineage or branch of a genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutations ▯ Punctuated equilibrium Evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change…followed by long periods of little change ▯ Polydactyl Having 6 or more fingers or toes ▯ Natural Selection Selection of favored forms through differential reproductive success Reduces variety through directional selection A mechanism for evolutionary change favoring the survival and reproduction of some organisms over others because of their biological characteristics Species and Speciation Species= a group of related organisms whose members can interbreed to produce offspring that can live and reproduce Speciation= the form of new species ▯ The Primates Primatology= the study of nonhuman primates fossil and living apes, monkeys and prosimians (primate suborder including lemurs) including behavioral and social life ▯ Taxonomy Classification scheme assigned to categories o Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species ▯ Primate tendencies Grasping o Fivedigited feet and hands o Opposable thumbs Emphasis on sight o Shift away from smell Hand sensitivity o Main tactile organ is the hand, especially fingertips Parental investment o Usually single births o Learned behaviors Sociality o Group living Brain complexity Monkeys Old world monkeys both terrestrial (living on land) and arboreal (living in trees) New world monkeys strictly arboreal Monkeys have smaller brains relative to body size than humans Monkeys are quadripedal Bonobos “Pygmy chimpanzee” Longer legs, higher center of gravity, narrower chest, higher forehead Knuckle walkers, but can walk upright more easily than other apes Some sexual dimorphism Sex play as a method of reducing tension Strong female roles in group Gibbons= Small, arboreal, Asiatic apes ▯ Anthropoids= Member of a primate group made up of apes ▯ Homologies= Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor ▯ Hominid and Hominin Hominid= taxonomic family that includes African apes, humans, and their immediate ancestors Hominin= the human line that split from ancestral chimpanzees (homininhuman) ▯ Characteristics of human evolution Bipedalism= a key differentiation between early hominids and apes o Upright, bipedal locomotion o Change in pelvis structure o Occurred long before changes to the brain Viewed as an adaptation mechanism to open grassland and savannah Suggested advantages to see over tall grass and shrubs Ability to use hands to carry objects Reduction in surface area directly exposed to solar radiation ▯ Brains, skulls, and childhood dependency Early hominids had very small brains compared to modern humans Brain size increased during hominin evolution large brains relative to body size Humans have a longer childhood when their brain and skull grow dramatically Skulls must pass through the birth canal, so skull size is limited by pelvis size and configuration Elaborate culture ▯ Dietary changes associated with habitat Chewing apparatus o Wide parabolic dental arcade o Thick enamel ▯ Teeth Evolution of teeth has gone in both directions Hominin teeth evolution included large back molars Large back teeth and thick enamel enabled hominins to chew gritty, tough, fibrous vegetation ▯ Early hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis (67 mya) “Touma” discovered by an undergraduate student o Indications of bipedalism o Location in Chad shows migration patterns away from the African Rift Valley Orrorin tugensis (6 mya) o Femur indicates upright bipedalism o Humerus indicates tree climbing skills Ardipithecus o Ardipithecus kadabba( 5.55.8 mya) Widely recognized as earliest hominin o Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya) “Ardi” discovered in 2009 in Ethiopia, dated to 4.4 mya Broad pelvis Australopiticus afarensis o 2.82.0 mya o Many specimens found in Laetoli, in northern Tanzania and Hadar in the Afar region ▯ Laetoli footprint trails Date of discovery 1978 Discovered by: Mary Leakey and Paul Abell About 3.6 million years old ▯ Tools Hominin stone tool use dated to 2.6 million years ago Bipedalism was key to stone tool use by freeing up the hands during locomotion ▯ Australopithicus garhi New species of hominin discovered in 1999 in Ethiopia May be a direct human ancestor Demonstrated that the thighbone elongated long before the forearm shortened Early stone technology Animal butchery using tools, signifying a dietary change In competition with Australopithicus africanus over the direct human ancestor ▯ Acheulean toolmaking Technique that involved chipping the core bilaterally and symmetrically Created teardrop shaped hand axes demonstrates advanced cognition Used for a variety of tasks gutting, skinning, and dismembering animals Cleavers used for heavy chopping and hacking Flakes used for tools Indicates trend in technology ▯ Taxonomic classification Genus and species level Australopithicus africanus o Australopiticus is the genus o Africanus is the species ▯ Homo Rudolfensis Discovered in 1972 in kenya Some debate over this classification Some consider it to be an Australopithicine Some consider the find to be Homo habilis ▯ Homo Habilis Bipedal Larger brain than Australopithicus africanus Smaller teeth than Australopithicines Still had long forearms Height: 3 ft 4 in to 4 ft 5 in Found stone tools, and dubbed the “handy man” Possibly as old as 2.33 mya from Eastern Africa First to make stone tools Oldowan toolset Plant eaters Large back teeth/large jaw ▯ Homo Erectus Overlapped in time with Homo habilis Upright walking human First species to migrate out of Africa First to use fire More intelligent and adaptive than HH Meat eaters Smaller jaw (no back teeth) More sophisticated tools (for digging, scraping, cutting Larger brain size Developed beginning of spoken language (named things) Prominent brow ridges Modern limb proportion Acheulian tool tradition “Turkana boy” is the most complete fossil found of this species o also lived in Asia and “Peking man” is this species ▯ Adaptive strategies of H. Erectus Capacity to live in a variety of environments Capacity to modify the environment Increased hunting efficiency Larger body allowed for long distance hunting Fire usehearths allowed for cooking, sterilization, and heat Suggested that there may have been a capacity for speech due to tool making and cooperative hunting The excavation in Zhoukoudian ▯ Archaic homo sapiens Earliest members of our species Only surviving hominid Homo sapiens lived in Africa for over 100,000 years before migrating to Europe around 45,000 B.P Brain size within the modern human range Rounding of the brain case associated with increased brain size ▯ H. Antecessor and H. Heidelbergensis H. antecessor o Found in Gran Dolina, Spain o 780,000 years old o Possible common ancestor of Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans o Could be an early stage of Neanderthal evolution H. heidelbergensis o Found near Heidelberg, Germany in 1907 o 500,000 years old The Neanderthals 130,000 28,000 B.P First discovered in Neander Valley, Germany in 1856 Large faces, large front teeth, large brow ridges, rugged skeleton Average Neanderthal cranial capacity is larger than anatomically modern humans Later in Neanderthal evolution the trend shows a reduction of robust features Stocky, with large trunks relative to limb length which conserves heat Coldadapted Mousterian tool technology, with 14 categories of tools ▯ Anatomically modern humans First reached Europe around 45,000 B.P One view is that anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa, then migrated out and replaced the Neanderthals Another view is that Neanderthals could breed with anatomically modern humans, which means they are the same species ▯ Homo Floresiensis The Hobbit 18,000 years old Found in Flores, Indonesia in 2003 Adult female, who died around the age of 30 Only a little over 1 m (3.5 ft tall) Her brain, estimated at 400 cubic centimeters, was as small as those of chimpanzees and the smallest australopithecines Described as a small version of Homo erectus o More sophisticated tools Control and use of fire Demonstrates that archaic humans survived much longer than thought Unusual evolutionary forces due to island isolation ▯ The origin and spread of modern humans African origin of anatomically modern humans Mitochondrial DNA analysis supports the conclusion that all humans today descend from one woman dubbed “Eve” who lived in subSaharan Africa about 200,000 years ago Humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe Neanderthals and humans existed together between 45,000 B.P and 28,000 B.P Denisovans named for a cave in Siberia Lived in Asia about 400,000 to 50,000 years ago Related to Neanderthals, but split 400,000 years ago Denisovans went east to Asia, and Neanderthals went west to Europe DNA analysis demonstrates that humans and Neanderthals descended from a common ancestor that lived in Africa 600,000 years ago 1/20 of Melanesian DNA is from Denisovans ▯ Behavioral modernity Symbolic thought and cultural creativity Elaborate cultural creativity What is the evidence? o Artwork Representational Abstract o Cave paintings o Body adornment o Burying their dead with ceremonies o Finely made tools The Settling of the Americas During the glacial period, the Bering land bridge connecting North America and Siberia was above sea level The original settlers of the Americas come from northeast Asia Believed that they migrated during different waves o Following prey such as wooly mammoth o By sea in fishing boats along the coast In North America, the earliest settlers are known as Paleoindians Evidence of PreClovis cultures o Bone projectile point found in a Mastadon rib, dated to 13,800 B.P o Oldest known site is in northern Patagonia settlement of Monte Verde, Chile dated to 14,800 B.P o 14,300 year old Paleofeces found in the Paisley caves of Oregon, USA o In Wisconsin, nonclovis tools and butchered mammoth remains found dated to 13,50012,500 B.P ▯ Homo Naledi 15 partial skeletons found in South African cave Both males and females of varying ages Unknown age, but perhaps 3 mya Situated between Homo habilis and Homo erectus ▯ Ardipithecus Earliest recognized hominin genus ▯ Petroglyphs Pyramid Lake, Nevada Radiocarbon dated to 14,800 BP ▯ Clovis culture Based on Clovis stone point technology 13,25012,800 BP Clovis technology originated in and spread throughout North America o Was the Clovis technology spread directly by migration of hunters? o Or was the clovis technology a diffusion of technology from group to group? Projectile point attached to hunting spear ▯ Florida paleoindians Hunted mammoths that lived in Florida during the Ice Age A spear point found made of mammoth ivory ▯ Hominoid Zoological superfamily that includes extinct and living apes and hominins ▯ Carving Found in Vero Beach One of the oldest pieces of art in the western hemisphere Found by an amateur, and did not notice the carving until he cleaned it 5 years after finding it Scientific analysis determined that the carving was around the date of the bone, about 13,000 BP ▯ The peopling of the pacific Traces of humans going back 30,000 years Humans reached Northern Australia around 50,000 years ago Until 3000 BP, the Solomon Islands formed the eastern edge of the inhabited pacific ▯ Evidence of human habitation Lapita pottery believed to be a cultural complex Found on Melanesian island of New Caledonia Also found on the island of Tongatapu, in the Polynesian kingdom of Tonga Tonga pottery dated between 2,950 and 2,850 years ago, and thus earliest known settlement in Polynesia ▯ Polynesian and Melanesian Polynesians originally come from Malaysia o Include Hawaiians and Tahitians o Melanesians lived near New Guinea and are darker skinned than Polynesians ▯ Forensic anthropology The application of the science of physical or biological anthropology A branch of biological anthropology Focused on the identification of human skeletal remains o Identification of associated skeletal trauma associated with manner of death o Often in law enforcement and legal context o Can work with mass disasters or victims of war Human remains are crucial biological evidence of a crime committed Forensic anthropologists attempt to recover remains using the least invasive means possible o Keeping the crime scene as pristine as possible Bone biology Skeletal biology Study of bone as a biological tissue which includes its genetics, cell reproduction, and patterns of movement ▯ Paleopathology The study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites PPA= paleopathology association (formed in 1973) ▯ Anthropometry The measurement of human body parts and dimensions This can be done on living people along with skeletal remains The body mass and composition provides measures of nutritional status ▯ Anthropological archaeology Reconstructs human behavior, social patterns, and cultural features ▯ Cro Magnon First fossil find of an AMH (1868) ▯ Bermann’s rule= Larger bodies are found in colder areas and vice versa ▯ Thomson’s nose rule= Average nose length increases in cold areas ▯ Allen’s rule= Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas ▯ Melanin Responsible for skin pigmentation ▯ Relative dating Determine age of fossil by looking and comparing its placement in the rock ▯ Absolute dating More accurate and precise **Oldest to most recent species 1. Ardipithicus 2. Australopithicus 3. Homo Habilis 4. Homo Erectus 5. Neanderthals 6. Homo Sapien Sapians ▯ **Oldest to most recent toolkits 1. Aldowan (Homo Habilis) 2. Acheulian (Homo Erectus) 3. Mousterian (Neanderthals) 4. Paleoindian (Homo Sapiens) ▯ ▯
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