BSC2010 Exam 1 Study Guide
BSC2010 Exam 1 Study Guide BSC2010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Scheffing on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC2010 at University of Florida taught by Oppenheimer, Miyamoto, Gillooly in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Biology 1 in Biology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
BSC2010 Exam 1 Review -Mass is concentrated in the nucleus -Electrons and protons equal= neutral -If they are not equal, you have an ion -Atomic mass=protons and neutrons -Atomic number=protons -Covalent: electrons are shared between atoms -H bonds: between 2 separate molecules (common in NH and OH) -Ionic: one atom gives electrons to another atom (transferred) -Van der Waals: ?? -Hydrophobic interactions:?? -Water: -Resistant to temp changes, high heat of vaporization, high cohesive forces (water molecules stick to each other), high adhesive forces (water molecules stick to other surfaces/not as strong as cohesive) -Polymers: -Linked by a condensation reaction, breaking them down releases energy, building them up requires energy -Carbs: -They are a polymer, monosaccharaides (simple sugars), KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RIBOSE AND DEOXYRIBOSE, disaccharides (2 sugars), oligosaccharides (few sugars), polysaccharides (many sugars) -Polysaccharides are connected through glycosidic linkages -Lipids: -Triglycerides: fats are solid because all bonds are saturated, oils are liquid because bonds are unsaturated -Melting temp= high for fats, low for oils -Phospholipids: make up cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer membrane), amphipathic, Van der waals forces dominate -Nucleic Acids: -polymers, nucleotide structure=phosphate+pentose sugar+base -bond between 2 nucleotides is called phosphodiester - bases can be ATCGU -pyrimidines= one ring structure (c,t,u) -purines= 2 ring structure (a, g) -DNA is doublestranded -RNA is single stranded -Transcription is DNA to RNA -Proteins: -polymer, linked through a PEPTIDE bond -know CYSTEINE, special because of SH group -Levels of protein structure: -Primary: amino acids, peptide bond -Secondary: H bonds involved -Tertiary: bond between R groups (side chains), any bond possible -Quaternary: interactions between strands of polypeptides, polypeptide=chain of amino acids, some proteins have 4 separate polypeptides -Enzymes: -catalysts made of proteins, do not get used up, lower activation energy, induces strain and can change orientation -NOT lock and key, maybe baseball glove and ball -point of saturation= all enzymes are used -Review the central dogma of biology -Controlling enzyme activity: -Amount: blocking the genes that code for the enzyme -Activity: irreversible inhibition because it is covalent, reversible inhibition (competitive and non competitive) -Allosteric regulation: -can be covalent or non covalent, causes shape change, can be good or bad for the substrate -Prokaryotes: -no membrane bound organelles, DNA in nucleoid (NOT nucleus) -cytoplasm= cytosol+ribosomes throughout, can have flagella (propeller like) -Eukaryotes: -membrane bound organelles (allow for chemical reactions) -ribosomes: make proteins, are in the cytoplasm, made up of 2 subunits and RNA and proteins -nucleus: site of DNA replication and transcription -contains nucleolus (where ribosomes are made) -2 membranes -Endoplasmic Reticulum: -Rough ER: ribosomes on surface, makes lots of proteins, tagging=attaching a carb to a protein (glycoprotein) -Smooth ER: no ribosomes on surface, makes lipids and steroids NOT proteins, breaks down glycogen into glucose -Golgi Apparatus: -receives proteins from the ER and chemically modifies them to add CARBS to PROTEINS -site of polysaccharide synthesis in plant cells, like a “post office” for the cell -cis side= side facing the nucleus -Lysosomes- originate in Golgi, enzyme filled vesicles -Mitochondria: double membrane with own DNA and ribosomes, site of electron transport chain, make energy->ATP (POWERHOUSE) -Chloroplast: double membrane with own DNA and ribosome, site of photosynthesis, PLANTS only -Peroxisomes: breaks down toxins -Glyoxysomes: plants only, turn lipids into carbs -Vacuoles: mostly plant cells, most important for cell structure -Cytoskeleton: -Microfilaments: made of actin, helps in movement and structure, dynamic instability -Intermediate filaments: made of many proteins, anchor structures in place -Microtubules: made of a and b TUBULIN monomers, helps in movement and structure, make up cilia and flagella -Cell Junctions: -Plant cells: Plasmodesmata (open channel which allows cytoplasm to flow through) -Animal cells: Tight junctions (2 membranes quilted together, nothing can come between them), Desmosomes (2 membranes that connect 2 cells together not as tightly), Gap junctions (open channel which allows cytoplasm to flow through) -Transport: -Passive: NO ENERGY -Simple diffusion: small hydrophobic molecules can go through membrane; osmosis (water flow) -isotonic=equal concentration with cell -hypertonic=higher concentration than cell (shrink) -hypotonic=lower concentration than cell (lyse) -Facilitated diffusion: -channel proteins: gated ion channels, aquaporins (own channel for water) -carrier proteins: transmembrane proteins, transport small molecules -Active: REQUIRES ENERGY -goes against concentration gradient, uses ATP -primary and secondary -Endocytosis: -Phagocytosis: cellular EATING -Pinocytosis: cellular DRINKING -Receptor mediated endocytosis: receptors on the plasma membrane recognize a stimulus then endocytosis can happen -Exocytosis: vesicle fuses with plasma membrane to dump out solid contents -Signal Transduction Pathways: SIGNAL TO RECEPTOR TO RESPONSE -autocrine: cell releases signal and it comes right back to same one -paracrine: release signal and cell next to it picks it up -juxtacrine: gives signal to another cell -endocrine: gives signal, travels to other part of the body (hormones) - Signal Transduction Pathways -ion channel receptor: ligand bind receptor, opens ion channel, ions flow through -protein kinase receptors: binds, receptor activates and changes shape through the other side, ATP gives PHOSPHATES, transfers to target protein -G Protein linked receptors: ligand binds, receptor is activated, GDP becomes GTP, G protein is activated, activates another target protein, cellulnd response -Signal Cascade: involves 2 messenger (cAMP) -same steps as previous, just add…activated target protein activates cAMP then cAMP actibates protein kinase A -ATP and Redox -ATP structure: lots of energy stored in ATP -Redox reactions: -Reduction: gaining a negative charge, oxidizing agent is reduced, more bonds to H -Oxidation: loss of electrons, more bonds to O, reducing agent is oxidized -NAD+->NADH: reduction of NAD+ is endergonic, oxidation of NADH is exergonic -Cellular respiration: what happens when we breathe -Photosynthesis: what plants do -Cellular Respiration: -Process: glycolysis (2 pyruvate molecules), pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain -Glycolysis: split glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules, use 2 ATP to make 4 ATP, makes 2 NADH, in the cytoplasm -Pyruvate oxidation: link between glycolysis and citric acid cycle, happening twice per glucose molecule, NAD+ is reduced, still in cytoplasm -Citric acid cycle: happens in the matrix of the mitochondria, happens twice per glucose molecule -Electron transport chain: all the NADH made so far is to give an electron to the ETC, electron moves and protein gets pushed out making a concentration gradient, concentration gradient now runs through ATP synthase, use gradient for chemiosmosis, ATP made by oxidative phosphorylation *Know NADH drops off electrons and oxygen picks them up -Anaerobic Respiration: used if no oxygen is available to accept that final electron in ETC -Lactic acid fermentation: glucose to pyruvate to lactic acid -Alcohol fermentation: glucose to pyruvate to acetaldehyde to ethanol *Aerobic: glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation to citric acid cycle to ETC *Anaerobic: glycolysis to fermentation -Photosynthesis: -light reactions: light energy + H2O to chemical energy (ATOP, NADPH), photosystem 2 and 1, in thylakoid membrane -dark/carbon fixation reactions: chemical energy (ATP, NADPH) + CO2 to glucose, calvin cycle, in stroma of chloroplast -Light reactions: where plants use light energy to make ATP and NADPH -Photosystem 2: light absorbed by chlorophyll, electron goes to high energy state, jumps to ETC in thylakoid membrane, water gives back electrons that jumped out of photosystem 2 -Photosystem 1: receives electron from ETC, absorbs more light energy, electron goes to high energy state, NADP accepts electron and becomes reduced -Cyclic photophosphorylation: absorbs light energy, electron goes to high energy state, leaves to ETC (ATP made), returns to same chlorophyll *Light reaction: ATP is made and will be used in dark reactions to make glucose -Carbon fixation reactions- Calvin cycle: -occurs in stroma of chloroplast -makes use of ATP AND NADPH just made from light reactions -rubisco=key enzyme -sugars can be: made into hexoses (like glucose), made into starch -cycle runs 6 times to make 1 glucose *Ways ATP can be made: substrate level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation
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