Biopsychology Exam 4
Biopsychology Exam 4 PSY 243
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Brown on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 243 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Melissa Masicampo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psy243 Study Guide Exam 4 Chapter 11 Emotion What are three components of emotions o Cognition 0 Action 0 Feeling Comparecontrast the JamesLange and the CanonBard theories of emotion Is there any biological evidence to support either of these theories JamesLange Theory 0 Suggests that autonomic arousal and skeletal action occurs before an emotion o The emotion is simply the label we give of those occurrences 0 Ex You feel afraid because you ran away Biological evidence 1 People with quotpure autonomic failurequot do not have a functioning autonomic nervous system and can39t control their own heart rateblood pressure Though these people report feeling emotion they say they feel them much less intensely They know what they are supposed to feel due to past experience but they don39t really feel the emotion as much 2 People with Botox injections who can39t smile or move face report weak emotional response to watching short videos because you might need to feel your mouth form a smile to feel happy 3 Panic attacks These are commonly associated with an increase in sympathetic activity heart rate breathing and when people feel the physiological panic attack coming on the panic attack will occur 4 People who were forced to smile by holding a pen in their teeth reported that comics were funnier than people who help them in their lips frown CannonBard Theory 0 Changes in bodily arousal accompany emotional feelings but are not critical for emotional feeling 0 Each emotion doesn39t have its own single arousal pattern and some may involve arousal of both parasympathetic and sympathetic 0 Ex I m trembling because I feel afraid Biological evidence 0 Patients with spinal cord injuries who are paralyzed we should expect them to feel no emotion but they do not differ from healthy patients in emotional response to pictures 0 People with Mobius syndrome cannot move their face muscles but report experiencing happiness and amusement Where is emotion quotlocatedquot in the brain Hint this might be a trick question 0 Emotion is not localized to one area in the brain but rather a single emotion can increase activity in various parts of the brain 0 Limbic system plays a big but not the only role o Disgust is the only emotion that can be localized to the insular cortex and is also the primary taste cortex How does overall activity in the frontal lobe affect personality 0 Prefrontal cortex damage impairs decision making leads to impulsive behavior 0 Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage leads to decreased guilt What brain region is associated with attackescape behaviors o The corticomedial area of the amygdala Is there any evidence for a genetic component to violent behavior Which hormones seem to be involved What about serotonin turnover Hormones 0 Male aggressive behavior is in uenced by testosterone Research shows that men that show more violent behavior have higher levels of testosterone o Cortisol has been found to inhibit aggression and therefore aggression depends on the ratio of testosterone to cortisol o Serotonin Low levels of serotonin linked to increased aggression Serotonin turnover 0 Refers to a neuron releasing serotonin reabsorbing it and synthesizing enough to replace what was reabsorbed 0 Researchers measure serotonin turnover by measuring amount of 5HIAA serotonin metabolite in cerebrospinal uid 0 Study showed that social isolation of mice lowered serotonin turnover and had most aggressive behavior 0 Study of 2yr old monkeys showed that those with lowest 5HIAA levels had lowest serotonin turnover were most aggressive Genetic component 0 Twins studies show that identical twins monozygotic resembled each other much more than fraternal twins suggesting strong genetic component 0 MAOA gene is responsible for regulating enzyme that breaks down serotonin to prevent it from accumulating 0 Those with a less active from of MAOA gene were linked to aggression but only in those who had a troubled childhood we would actually expect the opposite to be true When a person is already anxious how does that affect the startle re ex How does information get to the brain What regions dictate the startle response o If you are already tenseanxious your startle re ex is more vigorous Information pathway 0 Auditory info goes to cochlear nucleus in the medulla 0 Then travels to area of the pons that commands muscle tensing espneck o Amygdala is important for enhancing the startle re ex How does damage to the amygdala affect fear Provide an example 0 Damage to amygdala can cause an animal to no longer be afraid o For example toxoplasma gondii is a parasite found in raw meat that also lives in cat intestines because it is the only place it can reproduce Wild cats will poop outside in gardendirt and rats and mice will eat it and become infected with T6 Since mice are small such high amounts of TG will kill their amygdala cells and they no longer feel fear which makes it much easier for cat to catch it and eat it and T6 is back in the cat 0 Also monkeys with KulverBucy Syndrome 0 People with UrbachWiethe Disease 0 What is meant by the General Adaptation Syndrome 0 Any threat to the body will activate a general response to stress due mainly to activity of the adrenal glands 3 Stages 1 Alarm adrenal glands release epinephrine stimulating sympathetic nervous system 2 Resistance SNS response declines adrenal gland continues to secrete cortisol and other hormones which enables body to stay alert 3 Exhaustion after prolonged stress individual will be tired inactive and have heightened startle responses 0 How does the HPA axis respond to stressors The immune system 0 Hypothalamus will release corticotropin releasing factor CRF o CRF stimulates anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH o ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol This cortisol can feed back to hypothalamus or anterior pituitary 0 Low levels of stress actually enhances activity of immune system because it activates immune cells 0 Prolonged stress on other hand causes increased cortisol which can interfere with protein synthesis in immune system c What is PTSD What neurological abnormalities are seen in PTSD twin studies What are some potential treatments for PTSD see also the last Learning lecture o Posttraumatic stress disorder which occurs people after some terrifying event 0 Symptoms include frequent distressing recollections nightmares exaggerated arousal in response to noises 0 Those who have smaller hippocampi are more susceptible to PTSD 0 Potential treatments include those that increase GABA activity such as benzodiazepines Valium Xanax Chapter 12 Learning and Memory 0 How can we tell if learning is happening 0 We NEED an observable behavior that is a representation of the learning that theoretically occurred Associative learning classical vs operant vs nonassociative learning Associative Learning Classical Conditionno 0 Pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them 0 Example Pavlov39s dogs food saliva and bell Operant Conditionno 0 An individual39s response leads to a reinforcement or punishment 0 Learning through the generation of a favorable outcome following a stimulus 0 Example Edward Thorndike s Puzzle Box D cat is placed in a box in which the door is held closed by a latch If they press the latch they door will open and they get food After repeatedly placing them in the box they will perform the action more Law of Effect Eating a food and then getting food poisoning most likely that later on you will have a strong aversion to thatfood NonAssociative Learning Habituation decrease in response Sensitization Increase in responsebeha vior o Gill re ex in snails after being exposed to electrical shock they will retract their gills for a longer period of time than snails who haven39t been exposed to shock The search for the engram Pavlov s hypothesis What was right and what was wrong 0 Proposed that classical conditioning strengthened the connection between the CS center and a UCS center in the brain That strengthened connection lets excitation of the CS center ow to UCS center evoking the unconditioned response UCR o This hypothesis did NOT t all behavioral observations a rat does not respond to a signal the way it responds to a shock What did we learn from Karl Lashley39s experiments Be able to de ne equipotentiality and mass action 0 Eng ram physical representation of What has been learned 0 He proposed that if learning depends on new connections between two brain areas then a knife cut in the brain should abolish that learned response 0 Found that knife cuts on the cortex didn39t really impair learning but deep lesions impaired memory signi cantly depending on the size of the lesion 0 Basic conclusion was that learning and memory do not rely on single cortical area 0 Equipotentiality all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning and any part of the cortex can substitute for any other 0 Mass action the cortex works as a Whole and more cortex is better 0 What major contributions did patient HM make to neuroscience 0 We know that the hippocampus is not the location for shortterm memory longterm memory or the retrieval of long term memory but rather is necessary for converting short term memories into long term memories 0 Role of the hippocampus in different types of memory Is the hippocampus required for working memory Episodic Implicit Spatial 0 Working memory relies on prefrontal cortex not hippocampus O Hippocampus plays role in storage into long term memory 0 Hippocampus is largely required for declarative memory especially episodic as well as spatial memory 0 Probably is not important for implicit memory amnesia photo of nice nurse experiment 0 Hippocampus is important for contextual memory or coordinating memory from various locations of the cortex it reconstructs context What are place cells 0 Cells that re when you are in a physical place 0 Cells respond to different locations to help you generate a mental map Role of the amygdala in fear conditioning o In fear conditioning the CS amp US converge in the amygdala o The response is highly dependent on the lateral nucleus What was the original Bliss and Lomo study that identi ed long term potentiation What did they see that was surprising 0 They stimulated the perforant path in rabbits which is the pathway that connects different regions of the hippocampus 0 Weak stimulus evoked synaptic activity in the denate gyrus o A stronger stimulus to PP evoked greater response 0 Found that if they repeatedly administered weak stimulus it would provoke larger response Three properties of LTP Speci city associativity and cooperativity 0 Speci city only active synapses become strengthened o Associativity pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later response to a weak input 0 Cooperativity neary simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons results in LTP What events at the synapse MUST occur for LTP to happen To be maintained In order for it to occur glutamate must bind at AMPA and NMDA o Glutamate must excite the AMPA receptor in order to allow Sodium ions to enter postsynaptic cell 0 Sodium must depolarize the postsynaptic cell 0 Magnesium molecule can be removed from NMDA and glutamate can bind to NMDA to allow sodium AND calcium in In order for it to be maintainedCalcium 0 There must be an increase in AMPA receptors at the synapse 0 Calcium is a second messenger in most cells so it is required to activate certain proteins that facilitate learning What is the effect of recall on a memory 0 Every time you recall a memory you are subjecting it to new protein synthesis so when you put it back into long term it might change in some way What happens when protein synthesis is blocked during learning During recall of a memory Describe an experiment that would test this 0 When protein synthesis is blocked it blocks the consolidation of memories O O O In one experiment rats were taught that a certain stimulus was followed by a shock and they would freeze and were made to recall this They were then injected with anisomycin which blocks protein synthesis Those with high levels of anisomycin showed decrease fear response seemed to quotforgetquot A different group was not exposed to the tone stimulus but were still injected with anisomycin Next day rats still exhibited the freezing response This indicates that in order for anisomycin to disrupt a memory the memory must rst be active or recalled What does it meant to have a quotstrengthened synapsequot What does it mean when quotcells that re together wire togetherquot Be able to describe the relationship between the CS US and URCR both behaviorally and neurophysiologically O O Strengthened synapse D when neurons communicate frequently the connection between them becomes strengthened Cells that re together wire together l when we are learning something it triggers many neurons which form a network When you repeat an experience over and over the brain learns to trigger the same neurons each time Chapter 14 Mood disorders schizophrenia and addiction Is there a genetic contribution to major depression If so what are some potential affected genes How do we know Why must these data be taken with caution O O O 0 There is a moderate degree of heritability Polymorphism on the SERT gene serotonin transporter that packages serotonin into vesicles If you have one or two short forms of the disease you are more likely to be depressed Data must be taken with caution because the gene may not cause depression it may just make you have a stronger reaction to stressful events You could have the gene but if there is no stressful event you won39t get depressed Role of stress hormones in depression 0 O In depressed patients see an increased number of CRF releasing neurons in hypothalamus Stress causes change in the set point of the HPA and those with depression will continue to release cortisol Tricyclic SSRI SNRI MAOI pharmacodynamics how they act at the synapse o Tricyclic Block the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine o SSRI Blocks the serotonin transporter higher af nity for serotonin than epinephrine 0 SNRI Block reuptake of serotonin and norephinephrine 0 MAOI Block the enzyme monoamine oxidase a presynaptic enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines and serotonin into inactive forms Theories of Depression 0 Monoamine Hypothesis depression is a depletion in the levels of serotonin norepinephrine andor dopamine in the central nervous system 0 Catecholamine Hypothesis depressions are associated with an absolute or relative decrease in catecholamines particularly norepinephrine available at adrenergic receptor sites Treatments for bipolar o Lithium carbonate 0 Valproate increases levels of GABA o Carbamazepine blocks NE reuptake Positive vs negative symptoms of schizophrenia What is meant by the term quotcognitive symptomquot 0 Positive symptom Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized Speech 0 Negative symptoms Reduced speech Flat affect Social withdrawal Anhedonia inability to feel pleasure 0 Cognitive symptom memoryimpairments planningthinking impairments What is the evidence for and against a genetic link for schizophrenia O O O O Monozygotic twins show 48 concordance rates for SCZ Children of two parents with SCZ show concordance of 46 DISC1 gene mutations controls neuronal migration amp generation of new neurons SCZ may also be caused by environmental factors such as perinatal problems like oxygen deprivation malnourishment infection Describe the dopamine and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia and give evidence for each 0 Dopamine hypothesis SCZ is caused by excess activity at dopamine synapses in certain brain areas esp basal ganglia Evidence abuse of amphetamines causes substance induced psychotic disorder which shows positive symptoms of SCZ o Glutamate hypothesis SCZ caused by de cient activity at glutamate synapses in the prefrontal cortex 0 Evidence comes from effects of PCP quotangel dustquot a drug that inhibits NMDA glutamate receptors At large doses it produces both symptoms of SCZ Differences between rst and second generation antipsychotics What receptors are targeted 0 First generation blocks dopamine receptors 0 Second generation act less strongly on D2 and strongly antagonize serotonin receptors as well as increase release of glutamate Based on the dopamine and glutamate hypotheses why is schizophrenia so tricky to treat 0 Because other problems such as people who are taking a lot of amphetamines are drugs appear to behave exactly like someone with SCZ to the point where it is impossible to tell the different What is the difference between an agonist and antagonist o Agonist drugs that increase a NT39s effect 0 Antagonist drugs that block a NT39s effect Describe the brain reward circuitry include the VTA NAc and PFC in your answer 0 VTA contains dopaminergic cell bodies 0 VTA stimulates the nucleus acumbens which releases dopamine o VTA also stimulates prefrontal cortex to increase dopamine release What is the difference between tolerance and dependence 0 Tolerance more amounts of the drug needed to obtain the same outcomequothighquot 0 Dependence Dependence develops when the neurons adapt to the repeated drug exposure and only function normally in the presence of the drug When the drug is withdrawn several physiologic reactions occuc Ex D severe alcoholics who quit cold turkey instead of gradually lowering their intake of alcohol may experience seizures What is the mechanism of action of cocaine o It inhibits the dopamine transporter What are some methods of treating cocaine addiction 0 Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT o Communitybased recovery programs rehab centers What is the mechanism of action of alcohol 0 Enhances GABA receptors 0 Blocks NMDA glutamate receptors which play a role in learning and memory 0 Increases VTA ring and dopamine release in the NaC What are some methods of treating alcohol addiction 0 Detoxi cation o Psychosocial therapy AA 0 Pharmacotherapy Disulfram Acamprosate
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