Psych 361 Exam 1 study guide
Psych 361 Exam 1 study guide Psych 361
Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 361 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psych. 361 – Exam #1 Review Ch. 1: 3 domains of child development: Physical Cognitive Emotional and social Characteristics of lifespan development perspective: Development is: Life long Mulit dimensional (bio, psych, social) Multi directional (growth and decline; change and loss) Highly plastic Influenced by multiple interacting forces (age, life events) Continuous vs. discontinuous development Continuous – add more skills continually Discontinuous – go through stages / steps of growth Darwin’s theory and contribution to study of child development Theory of evolution (natural selection) Freud – 3 parts of personality Id: “I want it now!” Child part of personality Ego: “Let’s think about this” mature adult part of personality Superego: “You shouldn’t!” conscience, parent, or judge (moral compass – guilt, embarrassment, pride) Freud’s and Erikson’s theories (ages, stages, developmental issues) Freud – shift areas of pleasure / comfort as we develop Parents struggle with allowing too much vs too little gratification of child’s basic needs *Stages of Development Oral (01): Sucking, cooing, objects in mouth Anal (13): Toilet training, control of body Phallic (36): Focus on sex differences and genitals (aware of self) Latency (611): Focus on social skills, academic, sports – competency Genital (puberty – beyond): Focus on adult sexual relationships Erikson – consists of 8 distinct stages that each have its own crisis *Stages of Development Trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1): Sense of trust if adult meets needs in a timely manner / mistrust arises when handled harshly or must wait too long for comfort Autonomy vs. Shame / Doubt (13): Parents allow & encourage child’s independent choices using new skills / child shamed for being independent, or forced to explore only what parent’s wish Initiative vs. Guilt (36): Playing leads to ambition, purpose, and responsibility / too much self control, lack of makebelieve play leads to confusion and guilt Industry vs. Inferiority (611): Works with and cooperate with other can lead to self esteem and achievement / negative social, academic, family experiences lead to sense of inferiority and incompetence Identity vs. Confusion (teens): Choice of value, roles, work, who am I? / Can lead to confusion about future adult role Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adults): Establishing close relationship with others / can lead to being and feeling alone Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle age): Giving to next generation through child rearing, productive work, volunteering, helping others / can lead to feeling stuck or stagnant, without meaningful accomplishment Integrity vs. Despair (old age): Reflect on life and self worthwhile / dissatisfied with choices can lead to despair and fear Three main theories of learning (CC, OC, OL) Classical Conditioning – Behavior becomes a reflex response to an antecedent stimulus Operant Conditioning – Stimuli is followed by a consequence of the behavior through a reward (reinforcement) or punishment Social Learning – observation of behavior is followed by modeling Piaget’s stages of development (developmental theory) – Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and exploring their world / mental structures adapt to fit environment *Stages of Development Sensorimotor (birth – 2) Preoperational (2 – 7) Concrete Operational (7 – 11) Formal Operational (11 ) Brief description (main ideas) of Vygotsky’s theory (sociocultural theory) – Transmission of culture to a new generation (beliefs, customs, skills) Social interaction necessary to learn cultures and values Conversation, teaching, and shared experiences needed with more knowledge from members of society Brief description (main ideas) of evolutionary theory Ch. 3: Periods of prenatal development: Zygote: 1 2 weeks Embroyo: 38 weeks Fetus: 940 wks Trimesters of pregnancy st 1) 112 weeks (1 3 months) – includes periods of zygote, embryo, and beginning fetus, organs / body developmen 2) 1326 weeks – mother can feel movement (2226 weeks: age of viability) Teratogens and pregnancy Importance of prenatal care 3 stages of childbirth, plus average length of each stage 1) Begins from the onset of contractions and lasts until cervix completely dilates to 10 cm. (612 hrs) 2) Continues after the cervix is dilated to 10 cm until delivery of baby (20 min – 1hr) 3) Delivery of placenta (530 min) Apgar score – Very 1 test given to newborn designed to quickly evaluate a newborn’s physical condition and assess if there’s need to extra immediate medical attention Best predictor of survival for premature newborns – A score of 7 or better on a scale from 110 Smallfordate – Born on due date or close to it but weight is below the expected weight for pregnancy Premature baby – Born weeks before due date, may be appropriate weight for length of preg. Reflexes – Survival and developmental Palmers Grasp Swimming Rooting Babinsky foot crunch (nerve endings connected to brain) Infant states of arousal – categories Regular sleep (non rem) vs. Irregular sleep (rem:dream) Drowsiness Quite alertness Waking & Crying Ch.4: Period of human development after birth with the most rapid physical changes Cephalocaudal vs. proximodistal development Lateralization Programmed cell death Plasticity Sensitive periods of brain development: When? For what skills? Experienceexpectant vs. experiencedependent brain growth Overstimulation and possible negative effects on learning Imitation Habituation and recovery 4 factors at work in developing motor skills Reaching and grasping Ch. 6: Three areas of our lives affected by emotions Erikson’s trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame and doubt Effects of parental depression on children Social referencing Selfconscious emotions Emotional selfregulation and how parents can assist kids Thomas and Chess temperament types Goodnessoffit Theories of attachment, ages, stages, milestones: **Bowlby **Ainsworth Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Three aspects of selfdevelopment: selfawareness, selfcontrol, empathy Selfcontrol Ch. 8: pp. 217219 plus lecture on Baumrind’s parenting styles – Types, childrearing style, level of involvement, effects on kids
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