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CLEMSON / Landscape Architecture / LARC 1160 / What are the reasons for studying the history of landscape arch?

What are the reasons for studying the history of landscape arch?

What are the reasons for studying the history of landscape arch?


School: Clemson University
Department: Landscape Architecture
Course: History of Landscape Architecture
Professor: Nassar
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history, Landscape Architecture, Early History, Pre-Historic Ages, Stonehenge, Muslim Conquest, Ziggurat, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Assyrians, persepolis, Persian Empire, Paradise Garden, Sumer, mesopotamia, and hunter-gatherer
Cost: 25
Name: History of Landscape Architecture, Week One Notes
Description: Origins Western Asia to the Muslim Conquest These notes contain all material covered in class and include ID slides with ID slide material that will be on exams and quizes.
Uploaded: 01/28/2016
11 Pages 45 Views 5 Unlocks

Dr. Garrison Mohr (Rating: )

Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!

History of Landscape Architecture

What are the reasons for studying the history of landscape arch?

What is Landscape Architecture?  

-the art of the science of arranging land, together with the spaces and  objects upon it for safe, efficient, healthy, and pleasant human use

-integrates knowledge from different disciplines

-ex. Architecture, Horticulture, Civil engineering, etc.

-seeks to restore balance between the natural and built environments

Why do we study the History of Landscape Arch?

1. It is difficult to create new art without looking at past experiences and  occurrences

2. History constitutes a rich source of design vocabulary

3. To learn how different civilizations impacted and shaped the landscape

Chapter 1: Origins

Which arts illustrate how people lived in the paleolithic age?

Don't forget about the age old question of Does a seller have a seller's surplus?

-Creation of life

-the earth is about 4,700 million years old

-Pre-Historic Ages

1. Paleolithic………………..500,000 BC-8,000 BC

2. Neolithic…………………..8,000 BC- 4,000 BC

3. Bronze………………………4,000 BC- 2,000 BC

4. Post-Prehistoric……....2000 BC onwards

1. Paleolithic Age (Ice Age) [500,000 BC-8,000 BC]

-despite the glacial ages, humans multiplied

-humans developed hunting skills and protection against the  elements

-humans migrated in search of food and spread to the greater part  of the globe, populating Africa and Asia

-life of Paleolithic humans was recorded in cave art in France and  Spain

Who are the hazda people?

-due to limited technology, human shaping of the land was minimal -The Hadza People

-an African tribe in Tanzania that still lives today as hunter  gatherers

**the most important contribution of humans from this time was  their survival and multiplication


CAVE ART: Lascaux, France The Hazda People We also discuss several other topics like What people of different ages do when faced with task or problem?

2. Neolithic Age (Stone Age) [8,000 BC- 4,000 BC]

-evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture

-migration to settlement

-humans cleared forests and domesticated animals using flint  tools

-first settlements were at fertile rivers

-Neolithic farm culture started in Mesopotamia and spread to the  Mediterranean  

-Gosseck Hinge, Eastern Germany

-7000 year old hinge excavated in 2002

-solar observatory

-entrances aligned with winter and summer solstices


Gosseck Henge

Don't forget about the age old question of Why aren’t electrons flying away?

3. Bronze Age (Metal Age) [4,000 BC- 2,000 BC]

-Discovery of Metal enriched and encouraged the arts of war and  peace

-monuments that date to the Bronze age…

-Carnac in Brittany, France (2500 BC)

-multiple parallel lines of stones, believed to have  Don't forget about the age old question of Which functional groups are responsible for the processes of life?

religious significance but true purpose is unknown

-Stonehenge in England (2000 BC)

- Circle of large stones


Carnac, Britanny

Stonehenge, England

4. From 2000 BC Onward

-more human impact on the natural environment caused by  advancements in technology and growth of societies

-change from natural scenes to man made

-great civilizations developed

-Persia, Greece, Ancient China, Egypt, etc.

-The Uffington White Horse

-cut by the Celts in England, AD 100 We also discuss several other topics like What is provided by the doctrine of incorporation?

-figure is roughly 374 X 110 ft

-created by cutting away turf


Uffington White Horse

If you want to learn more check out How does erik erikson differ from sigmund freud when it comes to theories?

History of Landscape Architecture

Western Asia to the Muslim Conquest

-evolution from hunter/gathering to agriculture probably began in  Mesopotamia

-here started one of the world’s first civilizations, Sumer

-first literate civilization

-Hammurabi’s first published code of law governing water access and rights

Social History 

-social structure of Sumer arose from need to regulate irrigation -city states evolved, Babylon was established in 2250 BC

-the social structure was civil with a King at the top and a priesthood with  moderate power below

-in 1275 BC Babylon fell to the Assyrians

-in 606 BC, power was re-established under Nebuchadnezzar II

-Persia conquered the region in 538 BC and established Persepolis as its  capitol

-Persian Empire became the greatest in the world


-the Ziggurat was built by the Sumerians

-an early expression of humans determination to place their mark on the face of the earth

-it was believed to be a holy mountain, God lived at the summit -observatory for the stars

-Ziggurat of Ur is considered Sumer’s greatest surviving monument -terraces were planted with trees

-walls were of baked brick around a core of mud brick

-walls were painted, lower stages black, upper were red, and the shrine itself  was covered in blue lazed tiles and topped with a gilded dome

-the legendary Tower of Babel was a Ziggurat form

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon 

-Gardens that were placed on ziggurats and appeared to be floating when  seen from a distance

-first idea of terraced roof garden


Ziggrat of ur

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Assyrians 

-strong military power

-with the domestication of horses under the Assyrians came the first hunting  and fishing parks

-parks were geometrically laid out and stocked with exotic plants and wild  animals

-the artificial hill and temple of Khorsabad is considered one of the earliest  picturesque landscapes of the western world


The Assyrians

Palace at Khorsabad

King Asherbanipal in his Garden 

The City of Persepolis 

-capital of the Persian Empire

-site was chosen by Cyrus the Great but the actual construction began during the time of Darius the First

-very geometric design on a plateau projecting from a mountain -provided great defense

-it was a symbol of power and domination over the surroundingsID SLIDES



-paradise Garden evolved in Persia

-garden design was dictated by irrigation

-garden was square of rectangle and was laid geometrically within protected  walls

-it was crossed by intersecting water channels that were symbolic of the 4  rivers of heaven

-it contained theoretically all the fruits of the earth

-this means that it simply had everything that you desired

Garden Carpets 

-the Spring Carpet of Chosroes was a 100 square foot carpet depicting  ID SLIDES

Persian Garden Rug

garden with canals, flowers, and trees

-worked in silk, gold, and precious stones

- if you couldn’t go outside due to weather, the carpet created a garden like  atmosphere inside

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