Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior: EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior: EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 3110
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Callie O'Connor on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Weyerman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior – Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapter 1-4) CHAPTER 1: Building Blocks of Relationships o 7 ways that intimate relationships differ from casual relationships: 1. Knowledge – knowing personal and confidential information about each other 2. Interdependence – the extent to which partners need and influence each other; one’s behavior affects one’s partner 3. Caring – feeling more affection for one another than they do for others 4. Trust – expecting to be treated fairly and honorably 5. Responsiveness – recognize, understand and support each other’s needs mutually and are attentive to each other 6. Mutuality – recognize themselves as “we” not “me” and “him/her” 7. Commitment – expect their intimate relationship to continue indefinitely and invest continual time and effort into the relationship o The Need to Belong o Humans have a natural need to “belong” or maintain regular interaction with affectionate, intimate partners o This need is met by establishing relationships with those who care about us and know us o Our mental and physical health is affected by the QUALITY of our connection to others Marriage in the 60’s vs. Current Marriage o 94% got married 85% get married (fewer people marrying) o Avg. marriage age: 21 Avg. marriage age: 26 (women) and 29 (men) o Cohabitation: 5% Cohabitation: 67% o 5% babies born out of marriage 41% babies born out of marriage o 5% end in divorce 50% marriages end in divorce o 75% stay at home mom’s 40% stay at home mom’s o Cohabitation = Increased risk of divorce o Reasons for such drastic changes in relationships and marriage over the last 50 years: o Economic Changes: Increased money = Increased Independence o Technology Changes: Birth control, “Plan B” pills, dating websites and texting o Individualism: Focus has shifted to focusing on ourselves and our own happiness, leading to high and unrealistic expectations from our intimate relationships o Sex Ratio: Cultures with HIGH sex ratios (more men than women) have more traditional marriage roles… whereas cultures with LOW sex ratios (more women than men) contain more permissive behavior (aka SEX) o Influence of individual Differences on Intimate Relationships o Sex Differences: Males and females are a LOT more similar than different More variety WITHIN than BETWEEN Homosexual relationships are also VERY similar to heterosexual relationships Homosexual relationships are the happiest* o Gender Differences: Gender roles that are taught and/or expected in different cultures (Stereotypical) Men are expected to be: Dominant and Assertive Women are expected to be: Warm and Emotionally expressive Androgynous individuals possess both male and female qualities (less stereotypical) o Personality Differences: Openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness produce pleasant relationships Neuroticism damages relationships more than any other personality characteristic o Self-Esteem Differences: What we think of ourselves emerges from our interactions with others “Sociometer Theory”: If others regard us positively, self-esteem is high… But if others don’t associate with us or think of us negatively, self-esteem is low Those with a low self-esteem tend to destroy their intimate relationships with their underestimating of their partners love for them o Influence of Human Nature: Sexual selection shapes humans by sex differences in parental investment and paternity uncertainty Neglect, lack of attention, instability and inconsistency in childhood leads to insecurity and has lasting effects o Influence of Interaction: Relationships are influenced by each other’s histories and talents; Intimate relationships are a FLUID process rather than a fixed unit o Big 5 Personality Traits 1. Openness to Experience (Imaginative and artistic)(Least important) 2. Extraversion (Outgoing, sociable) 3. Conscientiousness (Orderly, dependable) 4. Agreeableness (Compassionate, trusting and cooperative) 5. Neuroticism (prone to anger and anxiety)(Most influential – But most destructive) CHAPTER 2: Research Methods o Relationship Science: The study of all types relationships in their natural settings o How do researchers study relationships? 1. Develop a Question 1. Questions emerge from personal experience, social problems and previous research (2 types): 1. Describing Events 2. Establishing Causal Connections 2. Different studies have different goals and purposes 3. Correlation does NOT establish causation* 2. Obtaining Participants 1. Obtain a CONVENIENCE SAMPLE (anyone who is readily willing and available to participate) 2. Obtain a REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE (a collective group of participants that reflect the population of interest) 2. Representative > Convenience 3. Most studies come from “WEIRD” cultures: Western, well-Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic 4. Convenience AND representative samples can face a VOLUNTEER BIAS (those who participate may differ characteristically from those who do not participate) 3. Choosing a Design 1. Correlational Design – Measures if one event causes a change in another through positive or negative correlation Studies naturally occurring behavior with NO influencing or controlling Disadvantage: 2 factors can be related for a variety of reasons; it is ambiguous 2. Experimental Design – Measures cause and effect under CONTROLLED settings to analyze causal connections Disadvantage: Informative but can be unethical to study certain events and relationships 4. Selecting a Setting (2 types) 1. Laboratory 2. Natural, everyday environment 2. “Role Play” prevents reactivity (changing behavior to what a researcher wants) Chapter 2 notes continued… o RESEARCH MEASURES 1. Self-Reports (questions, interviews etc) Advantage: Inexpensive and easy to obtain Disadvantage: Misinterpretation of interview questions, difficulty remembering and bias in reports 2. Observations (Event sampling: Short, recurring observations) Disadvantage: Expensive, and prone to reactivity (changing of behavior when watched) 3. Physiological Measures (Assessing heart rate, muscle tension and brain activity) Advantage: Allows researchers to explore the physical foundations of relationships (“relationship science”) Disadvantage: Expensive Determines how physical states are associated with social behavior 4. Archive Measures (Personal documents, government records, birth records etc. that give insight to relationships) Disadvantage: Participant may not have all of the materials that a researcher needs to carry out an experiment o ETHICS Relationship science has lots of potential ethical dilemmas due to the emotional stress of questionnaires, evaluations of abusive relationships leading to frustration, anxiety and emotion It is UNETHICAL to avoid the “emotional stress,” however, just to save someone’s feelings… Researchers need to invest in understanding these relationships in order to foster better relationships in the future of relationship science CHAPTER 3: Attraction We are attracted to those whose presence “rewards” us o 2 types of rewards: 1. Direct (Evident, praise, approval, attention, advice, money) 2. Indirect (Pursuing those with qualities that will lead to beneficial offspring… Attracted to those with similar characteristics) Influences on Attraction: o PROXIMITY (Liking those near us) Proximity = Familiarity Familiarity or “mere exposure” increases attraction Proximity isrewarding, distance is costly o PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS Physical attraction greatly influences first impressions “What is beautiful is good” or the assumption that attractive people have other desirable traits Ideal Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR): Women: 0.7 Men: 0.9 (but also need to be rich) o RECIPROCITY (Liking those who like us) “Balance Theory”: People desire consistency in their thoughts, feelings and relationships o SIMILARITY (attracted to those who are just like us; sharing the same interests, background and taste) 1. Demographic Similarity (age, sex, religion and social class) 2. Attitude and Values Similarity (the more agreement, the more liking) 3. Personality Similarity (agreeable, emotionally stable, easy and pleasant) Opposites DO NOT attract* 3. Key Components of Similarity: 1. We have a tendency to “overestimate” our similarities with someone in the initial meeting 2. Discovering dissimilarities can take time… Developing relationships are based on 3 types of information… “Stimulus-Value-Role Theory” Initial meetings based on STIMULUS (what is st seen) – 1 stage Similarities between attitudes and beliefs are exposed during the VALUE stage – 2 nd stage During the ROLE stage, agreements (or disagreements) are revealed in regards to life tasks, parenting and careers – 3 stage 4. “Fatal Attractions” are those who are attracted initially by a specific feature, but over time, that feature becomes the most irritating/obnoxious quality about them 5. Matching in Physical Attractiveness 1. People tend to pair off with others of similar levels of beauty 2. Matching is a BROAD process… Involving both physical attractiveness and other traits (Fame, wealth, talent and looks can all be used to attract others) 6. Interactive Costs and Benefits of Beauty 1. Physical attractiveness has a larger influence on MEN than it does on women 7. Barriers (Liking those we can’t have) 1. THEORY OF REACTANCE states that when people lose their freedom of action or choice, they strive to regain that freedom We want something more if we are threatened with losing it ROMEO AND JULIET EFFECT states that the more parents interfere with a romance, the more love partners feel for each other CLOSING TIME EFFECT states the tendency for potential partners to seem more attractive at bars during closing time o What do Men and Women Want? o For potential partners, men and women look for… 2. Warmth and Loyalty 3. Attractiveness and Vitality 4. Status and Resources o For lasting relationships, men and women look for… Men who are warm, kind and not poor Women who are warm, kind and not unattractive o EVERYONE ALIKE wants someone who is amiable (friendly), agreeable and loving * CHAPTER 4: Social Cognition Social Cognition: All of the processes of perception and thought with which we make sense of our world First Impressions (and beyond) o Primacy effects and stereotypes forces us to jump to conclusions during an initial meeting with someone o Confirmation biases then affect our selection of subsequent information that we learn Our preconceptions and judgments control our interpretations of any information that is later revealed o Overconfidence then leads us to hold “confident” judgments about someone that aren’t always right The Power of Perceptions o Perceptions about our partners can be very consequential… 1. Idealizing our partner Happy partners create positive illusions that emphasize their positive features and minimize their faults 2. Attributional Processes Attributions are the explanations that we generate for things that happen… Or why their partner did something or did not do something Happy people make relationship enhancing attributions (excusing undesirable behavior) Unhappy people make distress-maintaining attributions (blame partners for undesirable behavior) 3. Memories Reconstructive Memory or recreating memories helps couples remain optimistic about their futures 4. Relationship Beliefs Dysfunctional relationship beliefs are disadvantageous and destructive (unrealistic beliefs about a partner) Example: Destiny beliefs (assuming partners will live happily ever after without difficulty) Growth Beliefs are more realistic and profitable Good relationships develop gradually as partners overcome obstacles and challenges together Chapter 4 continued… o Impression Management: Trying to influence the impressions of us that others form (4 different strategies): 1. Ingratiation (Seek acceptance from others by giving compliments, describing ourselves in desirable ways and are charming) 2. Self-Promotion (Recounting our accomplishments or skills publicly); self- promotion makes a good impression; best when combined with ingratiation 3. Intimidation (people portray themselves as cruel, dangerous and intimidating so that others will do what they want) 4. Supplication (People present themselves as inept or useless to avoid obligations and get help/support from others) *Intimidation and supplication are used to show that one is angry or upset in order to get their way… o Impression Management in CLOSE Relationships reveals that partners work less hard to present favorable images to each other than to others o How well do we know our partners? Knowledge As a relationship grows, partners understand each other better Motivation The motivation that people have in figuring their partner out will determine how insightful and accurate the relationship will be Partner Legibility Some personality traits are more visible than others (example extroversion); the more visible a trait is, the more accurately it will be perceived Perceiver Ability Some people judge others better, and those who have good social skills are typically the best at judging others Those who are good at judging others have a high emotional intelligence, or a set of abilities that describe a person’s talents in managing their emotions Threatening Perceptions Perceiver Influence Perceptions that are initially inaccurate may become more correct as we induce our partners to become the people we want them to be o Right or wrong, our judgments matter*
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