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His 130-0001 Final Study Guide

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by: Amanda Merritt

His 130-0001 Final Study Guide History 130

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > History > History 130 > His 130 0001 Final Study Guide
Amanda Merritt
GPA 3.5

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Based off of the material that was said to be on the final exam.
History of the Sea
Ian Mather
Study Guide
history, Ocean, Sea, final, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Merritt on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 130 at University of Rhode Island taught by Ian Mather in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 427 views. For similar materials see History of the Sea in History at University of Rhode Island.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
History of the Sea Final Study Guide Central questions and themes in maritime history  Commerce  Culture  Conflict  Bridge vs. Barrier o Separated land masses  Religious freedom  Freedom in general o Connected land masses  Ships were part of a highway that connected land masses through  commerce, trade, and more  Friend vs. Foe o Foe  Storms  Navy  Taken from home (slaves)  Survival o Friend  New Freedom  Opportunity  Science  Diplomatic alliance  Money  Resources  Motivators for people to go to sea o 3 types of people  Living  Dead  People who go to sea o Different dynamic of people at sea o Motions of movement are very different  Takes longer  All over, a different way of life o MONEY o Tradition o An escape when you need one o Desperation  People who go to sea o Dirty o Busy o Masculine o Direct o Dreadful o Always waiting either for departure or arrival o Seamen are part of a religion in fishermen towns o Tight knit community/sometimes family o Many social problems  Drugs  Alcohol  Financial o More likely to out to sea 1000 miles than over to the next town o Hardworking o Stubborn o Will do anything for a little extra money o Big headed/mocho o Fishing seems to be a family trait o Families seem to always be broken/divorced o Either young & single, or old & divorced o Superstitious/ trust their gut o Recognizable by their language o Everything is in extremes Nature of human society’s relationship with the oceans  Working at sea  Getting resources  Fishing  Sea monsters o Real creatures o Fake o Hallucinations  Been out to sea too long  Drunk  Drugs  Want attention when they get back to port o Extinct  o Undiscovered  Could have not had the means to discover the creatures during that time o Mysteries  Example: Whale  Seen as an aggressive animal that should be feared  Really just defending itself/a highly intelligent animal  Sea serpents  Could be squid tentacles thrashing when squid is being eaten by  something, or attacking something itself   Missightings of squid attacking a whale  Whale could have been eating the squid and the tentacles o Aggression in general  Movies   Jaws  Literature  Moby Dick  Stories  Men telling people what they “saw” when they get back to land  Scientific knowledge of the ocean  Weather  Way we respond to disaster o Blaming o Explaining  Instinct to underwater artifacts o Gaining knowledge  All 3 ships discussed o Indianapolis o Lusitania o Titanic  Longitude & Latitude o How to calculate it o Plotting a course and getting home  Instinct to explore it (all aspects) o Finding new lands o Exchange of commerce o Exploiting/Enslaving people you come across o Desire to conquer  Essex o Not guaranteeing to get home o Leadership  Vessel  Crew  Whether or not an effective leader  Women’s roles o Opium o Business o Disguised as men at sea o Nurses Contribution of underwater archeology to the study of maritime history  Overall Topics 1 o Age of exploration enhanced European desire for gold and silver o Shipwrecks carrying billions (money? artifacts? facts in general?)  Stimulated extensive salvage efforts o Modern day treasure hunters continue tradition  Damages archeological sites and causes ecological damage o As a discipline, developed against this backdrop ^^^  Overall Topics 2 o Age of exploration produced connection and links that stimulated changes in  world history  good and bad o Ships were central to these connections o Ships were the most complicated machines produced by human society o Underwater archeology provides new and important information about:  Nautical technology  Ship board life  Navigation  Gunnery  Discipline  Specific Historical Question o The Spanish Armada 1588  Fleet of ships o Why did the Spanish ships fail to sink a single English race­built galleon?  Brittle ammunition  Found out by analyzing the archeological site  Types of Questions by Underwater Archaeologists o History  General   Specific o Anthropology  Culture  Behavior  Finding Shipwrecks (One of the specific sites discussed) o Visual survey o Acoustic survey o Magnetometry  Overall Question: What does underwater archeology relate to the  history of the sea, and our relationship with the sea? o Aftermath of death o Does it help or hurt the society as a whole o Human’s society’s desire to explore the oceans o Impulse to treasure hunt o Archeological sites provide a physical record of human society’s relationship with the oceans  Bermuda Field School is Typical (What underwater archeologists  need to know to do) o Mostly focused on shipwrecks o Changes in maritime technology over time  As represented in shipwrecks o Search and survey shipwrecks o Underwater excavation o Conservation of artifacts from the marine environment  Overall Topics 3 o Historical research and research design o Survey o Site identification and assessment o Site mapping o Excaution and site recording underwater o Artifact analysis o Interpretation o Conservation and curatorial o Publication o Management ethics and the law Motives and means for European exploration of the Atlantic  Breaking the barrier/motives for European exploration  o Boundaries  Geographic  Arctic, Saharan, Mountains, Atlantic (one of the wonders of the  world to explore)  Political  Vikings, Magyars, Muslims  Motives and facilitators  Motives  Economic  Religious  Facilitators  Political  Intellectual  Technological  Economic Motive:  Trade with Arab middleman   Muslims and Christians were traditional enemies  Christians feared that supplies of Asian goods might dry up in times of crisis  Middleman increased cost and decreased profit  Muslims also controlled the trade in Africa  In summary:  If European merchants could find a direct route to Asia, their  profits would be greater, goods would be cheaper, and the supplies  more reliable o SPECIFIC motives  Increased demand for luxury items following Black Death (1347­1351)  At least 33% of population killed  Death  lowered demand because there were fewer people to  purchase goods  lowered prices because demand had dropped  Concentration of property and wealth  In summary  Black death increased demand and consumption of luxury  items from Asia  Disruption of the Asian trade  Trade with Asia via the middle east was frequently disrupted by  political situations in Asia  Rise of the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan and his grandson  Kublai Khan (Pax Mongolia) facilitated commerce and travel  But­ the decline of the Mongol empire jeopardize trade routes  In summary  Direct maritime trade with Asia would avoid the  periodically unreliable overland trade routes  Religious  Missionary activists  Recapture the Holy Land  Find allies for an attack on Islam  Link up with Mythical Christian leader ­ Prester John  Link up with Mongols  In summary  A maritime route to Asia might help Europeans fulfill their  religious destiny to Christianize the world and defeat the  forces of Islam o Political facilitators  Kings became more powerful during the 13th century  Renaissance political thinkers like Nicolo Machiavelli argued in favor of  greater monarchical power  Monarchs had the financial, technology, military, political, and diplomatic resources to sponsor voyages of exploration  In summary  New and emerging monarchs and nation states facilitated the  voyages of exploration o Intellectual facilitators  Ancient works of literature, ethics, law, geography, science, medicine, and astronomy led to to “new” scientific discoveries  Sparked the elite’s interests to other countries  In summary  The new intellectual interests of the Renaissance encouraged  Europeans to seek out other people o Medieval technological changes and the voyages of  exploration  Technological changes  Ship design and construction *see typed note page given*  Sails  Steering mechanisms  Framing  Planking  Sails middle ages  Northern Europe square sail  Southern Europe lanteen (triangualar) sail Three early phases of European exploration of the Atlantic  Atlantic Islands o Canary Islands o Madeira o Azores  Exploration of the West African Coast and Indian Ocean  Exploration of the Western Atlantic o Caribbean o South America o North America  Advantages o Geographic o Connections between the Portuguese crown and the mercantile community  Motives o Sailing route to Asia o Exploration of Africa o Lure of African gold o Supplies for Moroccan grain o Access to west African fishing grounds  1st model of overseas expansion o Trading Post   Along African Coast, in India, and far East  Portuguese set up trading posts  Usually fortified  Designed to divert or tap into local trading networks  2nd model for overseas expansion o Conquest and settlement model  Overseas expansion in the Atlantic Islands (Canary, Madeira, Azores) and  the Americans involved in conquest and settlement  Colonization, agricultural production (sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo) or  mining, slave labor  Model also used by the Spaniards in the Americas/Mexico, Peru and more Rise and fall of Columbus (and arguments for and against celebrating Columbus Day)  Rise o Early experience as a mariner, growing up in Genoa o Skills as mariner and navigator o Connections and networks in Portugal  Perestrelo (Italian) and Moniz (Portugal) families  Married into  Noble families  Colonized madeira o Connections and networks in Spain  Marchena and Talavera  Talavera: personal teller of Queen (how Columbus got connection to  Queen) o Scholarly Theories  Toscanelli: mathematician  predicted about 20,000 miles in circumference of Earth  Made map: England to China is shorter than people really thought o Determination o Promised riches and success to others o Salesman  Fall o Failed to follow the Queen’s instructions  particularly regarding slavery o Poor administrator and colonial manager  inappropriate sites for colonies  conflict with Native Americans  Colonial rebellions  Ineffective underlinings o Exaggerated reports of wealth***  makes it sound like a biblical paradise o Failed to find much gold o Failed to find route to the far east  He believed he was still in China  Didn’t help his reputation o Found something beyond his control  Consequences of Columbus o General long term effects  Stimulated links and communication  Stimulated trade  Stimulated other voyages of exploration  Mixing of plants and animals  Introduction of new species o Specific effects on the New World  Conquest and migration  1519: Hernan Cortes: conquest of Aztec Empire in Mexico  1532­1533: Francisco Pizarro: conquest of Inca Empire in Peru  Millions of Europeans migrated to the new world during  subsequent centuries  Death and disease  Introduced influenza, smallpox, measles, malaria, bubonic plague  Smallpox was the biggest killer  Natives had no immunity  Deaths within century:  Espanola: 50,000 to 100­200 thousand  Not all due to disease: slavery  Peru: 9 million to 100,000­200,000  “God must have wanted it”  Slavery  Columbus and the conquistadors that followed enslaved the  Amerindians   Enslavement of Africans o Specific effects on the Old World  Disease  Increase in missionary spirit  Wealth for Spain  Encouraged further exploration and a race for empire  Inflation and money supply  Between 1500­1650:  about 181 tons of gold  about 16,000 tons of silver  Explorers: Summary and Concluding Thoughts o Background  Religious and Economic motives  Political and Intellectual Changes  Ship design and navigational techniques o Physical Layout of the Atlantic  Land and islands  Patterns of winds and currents o Exploration  1. The Atlantic Islands  2. Western African Coast and Indian Ocean  3. Western Atlantic   Explorers and their nationality o Explorers showed little nationality loyalty o Colonies and empires created national loyalties *** Women at sea during the age of sail  Disguised as men o Went to follow their lovers o Sense of adventure o Breaking society’s conventions  Prostitutes o Common on board warships, merchant ship, and privateers o Generally left once the vessel went to sea   Wives o Made up the vast majority of women at sea o On merchant ships ­ the captain’s wife o On warships ­ warrant officer’s wife and regular seamen’s wives  Adventure  Support their husbands  Navy Regulations and Traditions o Admiralty regulations specified that captains should not carry women on board o No official records o No musters o But...some women, particularly warrant officer’s wives were traditionally allowed on board warships  Women hired into navy o Nurses and Laundresses for hospital ships  Nurses first hired in 1696 o Conditions on board hospital ships were harsh o Contemporaries believed women remained constantly drunk o Women seemed to have nor longer hired after about 1760 o To attend on aristocratic women traveling abroad  Superstitions o Thought to bring bad luck  An attitude that goes back to middle ages  Health and Safety o Disease o Childbirth o Sexual harassment o Widows  Sale of husband’s possessions  Husband’s back pay  Insurance scheme  “widow’s men”  Conditions at sea o Boring o No pay o Shared food with husband  No provisions specially for them o No privacy for regular seaman’s wife o Little privacy for warrant’s wife o Women sometimes joined their off duty husbands on deck  Tasks and Roles o Possibly wash husband’s clothes o Assist the surgeon o Fetching powder o No official recognition of women’s service


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