Psych 361 Test #2 completed study guide
Psych 361 Test #2 completed study guide Psych 361
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Developmental psychology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 361 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psych. 361 – Exam #2 Review Ch. 5: Assimilation – using current schemes to interpret external world / “comfortable ideas” Accommodation – adjusting old schemes, or creating new ones to better fit environment / “we change when we are in pain” Piaget’s sensorimotor stage: ages and major accomplishments 1) Reflexes (birth – 1mo) Develop automatic responses to particular stimuli Ex. Pacifier near newborn mouth = automatically begin sucking Put something in newborn palm = fingers automatically close around it Infants will modify some reflexes to better accommodate environment 2) Circular Reactions (18mo): Building schemes by repeating chance events caused by baby’s own activity Chance activity becomes purposeful behavior Ex: accidentally banging hand on chair make noise adult attention more bang 3) Object Permanence (8mo on ): Ability to find hidden objects Demonstrates understanding that objects still exist when they are out of sight Improving control of body and mind imitation mental represent deferred imitation make believe play Main ideas of core knowledge perspective Evolutionary perspective – infants have innate, specialpurpose knowledge systems called core domains of thought Physical, numerical, linguistic, psychological, biological Core domains prepare us to rapidly develop key aspects of cognition Development is domain specific – each domain develops independently depending on experience Children as naïve theorists, constantly questioning, testing, trial and error, learn from experience Information processing (IP) –central executive, executive function, automatic processes Main Goals – uncovering mechanisms of change; how we detect, transform, store, access, modify info Studies internal / external influences Mind = complex symbol (manipulating system) Focus on what people of different ages do when faced with task or problem Attempts to record exact series of steps we go through when prob solving Central Executive: Conscious part of mind / controls attention Directs flow of info / selects and monitors problem solving strategies Coordinating incoming info with pre existing info Automatic Processes: Require no space in working memory Can be done while focusing on other info ex. Driving, brushing teeth Vygotsky: Complex mental activities develop through joint activities with more mature members of society Zone of proximal development tasks too difficult for child to do alone but possible with help Bayley Scales and other infant IQ tests: uses, what they measure Language Development: Chomsky (Nativist) – Language acquisition device (LAD) / contains universal grammar / infants biologically prepared to learn language Interactionist perspectives – Interact between inner capacities and envion influences Social interactionists – emphasizes social skills and language exper. Language milestones: Cooing – (2 mo.) / vowel sounds Babbling (6 mo.) / continues Joint attention – (11mo.) / child and adult attend to same object and adult labels object for child Underextension – (1218mo) / using a word for only one object (ex. Car only refers to hot wheel but not dad’s auto) Overextension – (1230mo) / using a word to describe many objects (Ex. Car= bus, fire engine) Telegraphic speech – (1.52.5yo) / 2 word combo that leaves out less important words (ex. Go car) Characteristics/examples of infantdirected speech baby talk It is usually delivered with a "cooing" pattern different from that of normal adult speech: high pitch Ch. 7: Piaget’s preoperational stage (Age 2 7) Gains in mental representation make believe play and deferred imitation Problem solving Social and coping skills Empathy Reasoning Creativity and imagination Piaget Development of makebelieve play Up to age 2: real life situations/objects centered on selfreplaying (ex. Using toy phone as real phone) Ages 24: objects used as symbols/ centered on others (ex. Child as doctor helping others) Ages 47: understand real vs. make believe play Egocentrism having little or no regard for interests, beliefs, or attitudes other thanone's own; Animistic thinking belief that inanimate objects possess human qualities (ex. feelings and emotions) Magical thinking belief that thinking or wishing something can cause it to occur. Vygotsky: Ideas about importance of makebelieve play Strengthens ability to think before acting = impulse control understand social norms and culture The more adults participate in mbelieve play, the more elaborate and varied play themes become Private speech Seen as foundation for all higher cognitive processes – helps with organization, planning “egocentric speech” Used for selfguidance in mb play, prob solving, thinking out loud / gradually leads to internal dialogue The more p.s the better the attention and performance / can indicate child’s level of self esteem Scaffolding Give hard tasks and let child complete what he/she can without adult help “zone of proximal dev.” Emphasis on role of social interaction as being crucial to cognitive development, so that learning first occurs at the social or individual level Metacognition: Awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes (ex. Encouraging Students to Examine Their Current Thinking: “What do I already know about this topic that could guide my learning?”) Emergent literacy child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words (ex. can see their child's growing appreciation and enjoyment of print as he or she begins to recognize words that rhyme, scribble with crayons, point out logos and street signs) Language development: fastmapping (vocabulary) – connecting new words with ideas after brief exposure, objects, verbs, adjectives over regularization (grammar) – learning to use correct grammar structure recasts – restricting inaccurate speech to correct form expansions – elaborating on children’s speech Ch. 8: Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt initiative: new sense of purposefulness eagerness to try new tasks; join activities play permits trying out new skills Strides in conscious development Guilt: overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt Less in mb play Related to parental: threats, criticism, punishment Selfconcept: set of attributes, abilities, and values that we believe Observable characteristic (appearance, possessions, behavior) Typical emotions and attitudes (“I like/Don’t like”) Ideal vs. real self (I’m great at baseball) Selfesteem: judgements we make about our own worth, along with associated feelings Emotional development: understanding emotion, selfregulation; Preschooolers correctly judge causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of emotions Sympathy – feeling concern or sorrow for another’s problem Empathy – feeling same or similar emotions as another Moral Development: Morality – conformity to rules of right conduct Evaluation of “good vs bad” Empathy for others Sharing, cooperating with others 1) Emotional – empathy 2) Cognitive – thought re: right vs wrong 3) Behavioral – actions Truly moral people have internalized ideals off good conduct = character **Psychoanalytic Theory– Freud; inductive discipline/parenting Moral dev. Based on emotional component Superego (conscious and guilt) Inductive discipline/parenting: teaching child how his/her behavior affects others **Social Learning Theory – Skinner and Bandura Moral dev based on behavioral component Operant conditioning – rewards, punishments Modeling: observing/imitating others, role models Punishment: limit setting and a way to make amends for poor behavior = life lesson **CognitiveDevelopmental Theory – Piaget and Kohlberg; moral imperatives, social conventions, and personal choice Moral dev. Based on cognitive component Kids actively think about social rules – moral Imperatives (absolutely necessary/command), social conventions (arbitrary rules and norms governing behaviors), personal choice (free and indep. Choice) Types of aggression and gender differences Proactive (instrumental) – helps child get something he/she wants Reactive (hostile) – meant to hurt someone/defensive response Gender typing – process by which a child becomes aware of his/her own gender Theories of gender identity: social learning – gendertyped behavior leads to gender identity cognitivedevelopmental – selfperceptions (gender constancy) precede gender typed behavior gender schema Gender constancy: child's emerging sense of the permanence of being a boy or a girl Child abuse: types, perpetrators, types of kids at risk for abuse Types: Emotional abuse, Neglect, Physical abuse, Family violence, Sexual abuse, Organized sexual abuse Perp: Perpetrators of neglect, perp of physical abuse, perp of sexual, Perpetrators of Munchausen syndrome by proxy Ch. 9: Childhood obesity – health risks and causes More likely to be overweight adults HBP, respiratory prob, heart disease, insulin resistance Causes: overweight parents, low socio economic status, parental feeding practices Piaget’s concrete operational stage: (711) Major turning point in cog dev., thought more adultlike: logical, flexible, organized Full understanding of conservation, classific.:collect things, separate into subclasses Seriation: arranging items by length, weight, size, physically and mentally Spatial reasoning: reading maps, draw places Gains in information processing: memory capacity, processing speed Info process speed: improved working memory function Attention: selective, adaptable, playful Flexible memory strategy Cognitive selfregulation: process of continuously monitoring progress towards a goal, checking customs, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts and Adults can assist by: pointing out important features and tasks suggesting effective learning strategies emphasizing self monitoring ADHD: population, symptoms about 6.4 million children (11%) typicially zone out impulsitivity excess motor activity Purpose of the Wechsler and StanfordBinet tests: Identifies high intelligence as well as learning problems Intelligence theories of Sternberg and Gardner Sternberg Triarchic Theory: Intelligence= IP skills, prior experience, culture Analytical – strategies, self regulation Creative – problem solving (experience) Practical – adaptation, application of skills Gardner Theory of multiple intelligences 8 independent intelligences (“frames of mind”) Lang, logic/math, musical, spatial, naturalist, bodily kinetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal Explains strong skills in some areas but not others Reducing cultural bias in testing Ethnic differences are largely environmental Combine test scores with assessment of adaptive behavior Culturally relevant testing procedures Dynamic assessment: teachers help students use test strategies Benefits of bilingual education Cignitive benefits: greater cognitive flexibility Cultural benefits Educational advancement
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