Psych 361 Final Exam Completed Study Guide
Psych 361 Final Exam Completed Study Guide Psych 361
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Developmental psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 361 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 492 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Ch. 15 Changes in: Vision: inability to adjust focus to varying distances - Pupils shrink, lens yellow - Poor vision in dim light - Decline in color discrimination Hearing: decline in sensitivity to high frequencies - Men show earlier, more rapid decline than women Skin: winkes – forehead 30’s, crowfeet 40s - Sagging – face, arms, legs - Age spots after 50 faster with sun exposer and for women Muscle/fat: middle age spread, fat gain in torso - Men: upper abdomen & back/ women: waist & upper arm - Very gradual muscle declines, can be avoided w/ low fat diet and good exercise Menopause – end of fertility, follows 10 yr. climacteric Symptoms: monthly cycles shorten - Complaints about sexual frustration - Decreased skin elasticity, loss of bone mass Reproduction changes in men – decrease: sperm volume/semen after 40, motility starts in 20s - Gradual decline in testosterone - Erection difficulties Hostility and health Type A pattern: angry, impatient, competitive Prone to heart disease and other health problems Expressed Hostility: angry outbursts, rudeness, criticism, contempt Predicts various cardiovascular problems Managing stress Problemcentered – changing or modifying cause of stress Emotioncentered coping – taking control over one’s emotion Information processing slowing – how quickly one can react to oncoming information - Neural network view – neurons die - Information loss view – info loss as it moves through cognitive system Memory changes Ch. 16 Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation Levinson’s Four Tasks of Middle Adulthood Possible selves – what one hopes to become or fears of becoming - Becomes fewer in #, more modest and concrete w/ age - Play protective role in self esteem Selfacceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery - Gains in expertise, practical problem solving - More complex, integrated self descript - Increase in: self acceptance, autonomy, environ mastery Big 5 Personality Traits and changes with age - Neuroticism – declines - Extroversion – stays same - Openness to experience – stays same - Agreeableness – Increase - Conscientious – increase - Basic, enduring individual deposit persist - Changes occur in overall original and integ of personality Relationships at midlife – launching children, feelings of liberation - Children provide more help to parents Caring for aging parents: the sandwich generation, stresses - Factors include finanaces, location, gender, culture - Highly stressful: time devoted to care, emotional stain, sharing household w/ ill parent Burnout – fatigue and frustration from prolonged stress Ch. 17 Functional age – actual competence and performance may not match chronological age Factors contributing to long life – Heredity, environ & lifestyle, healthy diet, exercise, social sup Quality of life - ADL ( Activities of daily living) - Basic selfcare tasks - Bathing, dressing, eating - IADLS (Instrumental activities of daily living) - Conduct business of daily life - Shop, food prep Physical changes - Cardiovascular/respiratory - Heartbeat less forceful, slower heart rate - Less oxygen delivered to tissues - Vital lung capacity reduced by half - Immune system – effectiveness declines, more infectious, autoimmune diseases - Stress related susceptibility - Appearance/mobility – skin thinner, bone strength drops, flexibility decreases Primary (Biological) – genetically influenced declines - Affects all members of species - Occurs even when health is good Secondary aging – declines due to heredity and environment - Effects individual, major contributor to frailty Alzheimer’s disease - Symptoms: forgetting, disorientation, personality change - Risk factors: genetic predisposition, high fat diet Deliberate – episodic memory lapses: slower cognitive processing, poor attention to context - Recall declines: harder to remember info, temporary memory suffers Automatic memory – recognition easier than recall, environment supports, implicit memory better than explicit Associative – Remembering based on links Remote – ability to remember things from years ago Prospective memory – involves remembering to perform planned action Factors related to cognitive change - Modest, genetic continues - Mentally active life - Health status, retirement Ch. 18 Erikson: Integrity – feels whole, complete, satisfied with achievements, view life in context w/ humanity Despair – feel many decisions were wrong; time is too short, bitter unaccepting of death Peck: Tasks of Ego Integrity - Ego differentiation: affirm self worth through family, friendship, community life - Body Transcendence: emphasize cognitive, emotional, social powers - Ego Transcendence: Face reality of death constructively Selfconcept and personality – selfacceptance, openness, acceptance of change, resilience,spirituality Factors in psychological wellbeing - Control vs. dependency - Physical health - Negative life changes, social support Depression and suicide – prevalence, related factors - Increased with older adults, highest in white men over 70 - Factors: losses – retirement, widowhood, social isolation - Reduced physical functioning or pain, social isolation, lack of personal control Social theories of aging - Disengagement theory: mutual withdrawal between older adults and society - Activity theory: social barriers cause declining rates of interaction - Continuity theory: effort to maintain consistency between past and anticipated future - Socioemotional selection theory: social networks become more selective w/ age, extending lifelong selection process, emotionalregulating function of social contact Widowhood – most stressful event for many, 1/3 older adults are widowed/reorganizing life harder for men, more likely than women to remarry Types of elder maltreatment and factors leading to maltreatment - Physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, financial abuse Retirement – decision to retire and adjustment afterward Ch. 19 Brain death – irreversible cessation of all activity in brain and brain stem Persistent vegetative state – cerebral cortex no longer registers electrical activity (brain stem active) Ideas regarding death with dignity – communication and care for dying person (support, compassionate care, esteem and respect info about end of life choices) KublerRoss’ stages of death and dying denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance Appropriate death – make sense in terms of person’s pattern of living values preserves or restores significant relationships / as free of suffering as possible Factors that influence thoughts about and coping with dying Factors involved in hospice care – patient & family as unit of care, comfort care
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